Useful Equations and Conversions

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1 REAGENT CHEMICALS Appendix pubs.acs.org/doi/book/ /acsreagents Useful Equations and Conversions Henderson Hasselbalch equation ph = pk a + log fraction neutralized fraction unneutralized ph = pk w pk b + log fraction unneutralized fraction neutralized Downloaded via on August 6, 2019 at 07:18:10 (UTC). See for options on how to legitimately share published articles. Beer s law Faraday s law w = Molarity Normality Assay % A = grams/milliliter (g/ml) A = εbc = log 1 %T/100 i t equiv wt F = 2 log %T M = moles of solute (mole) millimoles of solute (mmole) = liter (L) milliliter (ml) N = equivalents (eq) = milliequivalents (meq) liter (L) milliliter (ml) ml B F B reaction ratio formula wt of A (mg/mmole) 100 sample wt (mg) Parts per Billion Parts per Million Parts per Thousand Percent micrograms/milliliter (µg/ml) parts per million (ppm) parts per billion (ppb) 10,000 ppm % 1,000,000 ppb 1000 ppm 1 0.1% 100,000 ppb 100 ppm % 10,000 ppb 10 ppm % 1000 ppb 1 ppm % 100 ppb 0.1 ppm % 10 ppb 0.01 ppm % = milligrams/microliter (mg/µl) = nanograms/microliter (ng/µl) = micrograms/gram (µg/g) = micrograms/milliliter (µg/ml) = nanograms/milligram (ng/mg) = picograms/microgram (pg/µg) = 10 6 = nanograms/gram (ng/g) = nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml) = picograms/milligram (pg/mg) = American Chemical Society A ACS Reagent Chemicals ACS Reagent Chemicals; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, DOI: /acsreagents.6006 ACS Reagent Chemicals, Part 6

2 ACS Reagent Chemicals Appendix pubs.acs.org/doi/book/ /acsreagents Composition of Concentrated Reagent-Grade Acids and Ammonium, Potassium, and Sodium Hydroxide Solutions Quantity To Approximate Assay Prepare 1 L Formula Strength a Limits Molarity 1 M Solution b Normality Quantity To Prepare 1 L 1 N Solution b Concentrated Reagent Formula Weight (% w/w) (% w/w) (M) (ml) (N) (ml) Acetic acid CH 3 COOH Formic acid HCOOH Hydrochloric acid HCl Hydrofluoric acid HF Nitric acid HNO Perchloric acid HClO Phosphoric acid H 3 PO Sulfuric acid H 2 SO Ammonium hydroxide as NH Potassium hydroxide KOH > Sodium hydroxide NaOH > a Representative value. b Rounded to nearest 0.5 ml. Source: Reproduced courtesy of Mallinckrodt Baker, Inc American Chemical Society B ACS Reagent Chemicals ACS Reagent Chemicals; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, DOI: /acsreagents.6006 ACS Reagent Chemicals, Part 6

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