PROCEEDINGS. SPE/EPA Exploration & Production Environmental Conference March 1995 Houston, Texas

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1 PROCEEDINGS SPE/EPA Exploration & Production Environmental Conference March 1995 Houston, Texas Sponsored by the Society Of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), Inc. and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) UB/TIB Hannover

2 CONTENTS SPE Technical Basis for Establishing Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints in Contaminated Soils 9 D.V. Nakles, Remediation Technologies Inc., and D.G. Linz, Gas Research Inst. SPE Using Geostatistics to Evaluate Cleanup Goals 19 M.F. Marcon, Groundwater Technology, Inc., and L.P. Hopkins, Applied Earth Sciences Inc. SPE Multi-Temporal Environmental Analysis of Oil Field Activities in South Central Oklahoma Using Landsat Thematic Mapper, Aerial Photography, and GIS 31 J.S. Janks, G.S. Edwards, anda.e. Prelat, Texaco Inc. SPE In Situ-Segregated Production of Oil and Water A Production Method With Environmental Merit: Field Application 43 M.D. Swisher, Hunt Petroleum Corp., and A. Wojtanowicz, Louisiana State U. SPE Seafloor Monitoring for Synthetic-Based Mud Discharged in the Western Gulf of Mexico 51 J.E. Candler, S. Hoskin, M. Churan, C.W. Lai, andm. Freeman, M-IDrilling Fluids L.L.C. SPE Biological Treatment of Drilling Waste 71 F.H. Perie and J-L. Seris, Groupement de Recherches de Lacq/Elf Aquitaine, and A.P. Martignon, ElfAquitaine SPE Characterizing Costs and Benefits of Uncertain Future Regulatory Requirements on the U.S. Natural Gas Industry 79 M.L. Godec, G.E. Smith, and T. Fitzgibbon, ICFResources Inc.; D. Linz, Gas Reserach Inst.; and G. Pauling, U.S. DOE SPE Measurement and Enhanced Monitoring of BTEX and VOC Emissions From Glycol Dehydrators 93 CO. Rueter, D.L. Reif, and W.R. Menzies, Radian Corp., and J.M. Evans, Gas Research Inst. SPE Environmental Compliance Management System 109 A. Cason and L. Larrinaga, Dow Environmental Inc. SPE Environmental Mandate Reform 113 R.D. White, Vastar Resources Inc., and B. Russell, Independent Petroleum Assn. of America SPE A Fast Track to Effective Waste Minimization: Government and Industry Working Together 123 B.C. Sims and L.L. Savage, Railroad Commission of Texas SPE Business Approach to Waste Management 137 R.A. Bradford, Phillips Petroleum Co. SPE Tfye Hunter Creek Well: The Successful Drilling of an Exploratory Well in an Environmentally Sensitive Area 145 R.M. Smith, Chevron USA Production Co. SPE Proactive Participation in the Education Process 157 H.E. Ordway, Chevron USA Production Co. SPE We've Got the Laws What About the Communication? 163 G.N. Mollock, Devon Energy Corp. SPE Impacts of Environmental Regulations on Future Resource Development in Louisiana Wetlands 167 B.J. Harder and C.J. John, Louisiana State U., and A.P. Dupont, Young Harris College SPE Economic Impact of Potential NORM Regulations 181 G.E. Smith, T. Fitzgibbon, and S. Karp, ICF Resources Inc. SPE Geologic, Geochemical, and Geographic Controls on NORM in Produced Water From Texas Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Reservoirs 195 R.S. Fisher, U. of Texas SPE The Mitigation of NORM Scale in the Gulf Coast Regions of Texas and Louisiana: A Laboratory and Field Study 207 J.E. Oddo and X. Zhou, Water Research Inst. Inc.; D.G. Linz, Gas Research Inst.; and S. He and M. Tomson, Rice U. 4

3 SPE Diagnosis and Prevention of NORM at Eugene Island 341-A 219 P.J. Shuler, Chevron Petroleum Technology Co.; D.A. Baudoin, Chevron USA Production Co.; and D.J. Weintritt, Weintritt Consulting Services SPE Radiological Dose Assessment Related to Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials Generated by the Petroleum Industry 231 K.P. Smith, D.L. Blunt, and G.P. Williams, Argonne Natl. Laboratory, and C.L. Tebes, U. of Illinois SPE NORM Disposal in Class II Well 246 A. McArthur, Central Environmental Inc.; M. Major, Arco Alaska Inc.; and D.J. Lowe, BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. SPE In-Situ Radium Activity Measurements for NORM Assessment and Remediation C.R. Greer and M.R. Landress, Growth Energy Services Inc. SPE A Customized Area Waste Management Field Manual for Exploration and Production Operations 261 D.L. Gallaher, Texaco E&P Inc., and E.E. Stene, Technical Information Assocs. Inc. SPE Natural Gas Industry Waste Production and Management Practices 267 J.P. Fillo, ENSR Consulting & Engineering Inc., and J.M. Evans, Gas Research Inst. SPE A Three-Phase Centrifuge to Minimize Waste From Production Tank Bottom and Sludges: An Economic Analysis 283 C.E. Polston, Los Alamos Natl. Laboratory; R.E. Bretz, New Mexico Inst. of Mining & Technology; and W.J. Parkinson, A.L. Graham, and R.D. Steele, Los Alamos Natl. Laboratory SPE Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Wastes RCRA Exemptions and Non-Exempts 295 S. Dutta, U.S. EPA, and W. Alam, Tetrahedron Inc. SPE Gas Industry Related Exploration and Production Waste "Demographics" Utilizing GIS 305 D.J. Daly, R.S. Stoa, S.A. Bassingthwaite, J.A. Sorenson, and D.S. Charlton, U. of North Dakota; G.E. Mesing, ENSR Consulting & Engineering; and J.M. Evans, Gas Research Inst. SPE Removal and Treatment of Mercury Contamination at Gas Processing Facilities S.M. Wilhelm and A. McArthur, Central Environmental Inc. SPE Reducing Costs With a Corporate Waste Management Team 335 R.J. Redweik Jr., Shell Oil Co. SPE Delineation of Biological Impact and Recovery of Selected Produced Water Discharges in Inshore Louisiana 341 M.M. Mulino and M.F. Rayle, Steimle & Assocs. Inc., and J.C. Francis and M.A. Poirrier, U. of New Orleans SPE Evaluatiop of a Bacterial Bioluminescence Bioassay as a Predictive Surrogate for Mysid CHronic Estimator Tests with Produced Water 351 G.L. Korenaga and E.R. Stine, Chevron Research & Technology Co.; L.R. Henry andj.r. Grimsley, Chevron USA Production Co.; and D.L. Daniel, Environmental Enterprises USA Inc. SPE Health Risk Assessment for Radium Discharged Offshore in Produced Water 357 A.F. Meinhold, S. Holtzman, and L.D. Hamilton, Brookhaven Natl. Laboratory SPE A Regional Assessment of Produced Water Treatment and Disposal Practices and Research Needs 373 A.W. Lawrence, J.A. Miller, and D.L. Miller, Remediation Technologies Inc., and T.D. Hayes, Gas Research Inst. SPE Discrimination of Ion Toxicity in Six Produced Waters Using the Freshwater Salinity Toxicity Relationships and TIE Procedures 393 J.E. Tietge and J.R. Hockett, ENSR Consulting & Engineering, and J.M. Evans, Gas Reserach Inst. SPE EPA's Natural Gas STAR Program 403 R.A. Resch, U.S. EPA SPE Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Field Personnel Pollution Prevention Training Project 417 A.T. Megna, EnviroSource Training & Technology Inc.; C.J. Kinias, Natl. Environmental Training Assoc; and S. Souders, U.S. EPA 5

4 SPE Reuse of Spent Natural Gas Liquid Sweetening Solutions 421 W.J. Hahn, Vastar Resources, Inc.; L.S. Smith, Arco Western Energy; and M.N. McKim, Arco Chemical Co. SPE Biocide and Corrosion Inhibitor Use in the Oil and Gas Industry. Effectiveness and Potential Environmental Impacts 431 D.M. Brandon and J.P. Fillo, ENSR Consulting & Engineering Inc.; E.A. Morris, Bioindustrial Technologies Inc.; and J.M. Evans, Gas Research Inst. SPE Environmental Impact of a Flocculant Used to Enhance Solids Transport During Well Bore Clean-up Operations 445 M.N. Moho Yunus, Petronas Carigali Sdn. Bhd.; A.D. Procyk and C.A. Malbrel, Pall Corp.; and K.L.C. Ling, Antah Oiltools Services Sdn. Bhd. SPE Synthetic Drilling Muds: Environmental Gain Deserves Regulatory Confirmation. 457 C.J. Burke and J.A. Veil, Argonne Natl. Laboratory SPE Field and Laboratory Tests on Nitrate Treatment for Potential Use in Natural Gas Operations 469 E.A. Morris, R.M. Derr, T.M. Kenney, and D.H. Pope, Bioindustrial Technologies Inc. SPE Use of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Instrument for Air Toxic Compound Screening and Quantitation in the Natural Gas Industry 475 J.M. Evans and J. McCarthy, Gas Research Inst., and L.D. Ogle, G.S. Shareef, L. Campbell, K. Ferry, and J.P. LaCosse, Radian Corp. SPE Test Method for "Actual" True Vapor Pressure of Crude Oils 485 J.K. Henderson, The MITRE Corp. SPE Control of Engine Exhaust Emissions to Meet Present and Future Clean Air Regulations 505 W.R. Taber Jr., Houston Industrial Silencing SPE Field Testing Results for the R-BTEX Process for Controlling Glycol Dehydrator Emissions 511 J.P. Gamez, Gas Research Inst., and CO. Rueterand CM. Beitler, Radian Corp. SPE Natural Gas Production: Performance of Commercial Technology for Removing Small Amounts of Hydrogen Sulfide 523 D. Leppin, Gas Research Inst. SPE Developments in Regulation of Air Pollution From Oil and Gas Exploration and Production 535 J.D. Braddock, Kelly, Hart & Hallman SPE Estimating and Reducing Company Wide Property Abandonment Costs 551 J.E.\Johnstone, J.M. Neuser, and J.M. Fritts, Arco Western Energy SPE Emergency Preparedness for the Small Oilfield Contractor 563 H.C. Reavis, Production Operators Inc. SPE The EPA Risk Management Program Regulations and Their Applicability to Oil and Gas Operations 569 E.L. Freedman, U.S. EPA SPE Oilfield Pollution: Can There Be Settlement Without Remediation? 577 F.D. Spiegelberg, Boesche, McDermott & Eskridge SPE In-Situ Bioremediation of a Former Natural Gas Dehydrator Site Using Bioventing/Biosparging 587 B.D. Shamory, A.W. Lawrence, D.L. Miller, J.A. Miller, andr.l Weightman, Remediation Technologies Inc.; R.M. Raetz, Global Remediation Technologies Inc.; and T.D. Hayes, Gas Research Inst. SPE Pattern of Chemical Changes in Fugitive Hydrocarbon Fuels in the Enviroment I.R. Kaplan, M.H. Alimi, Y. Galperin, R.P. Lee, and S.T. Lu, Global Geochemistry Corp. SPE Case Study: Natural Attenuation of Dissolved Hydrocarbons at a Former Gas Plant 619 J.D. Admire, J.S. de Albuquerque, and J.A. Cruze, Phillips Petroleum Co., and K.R. Piontek and T.C. Sale, CH2M Hill

5 SPE A Cost-Effective Statistical Screening Method to Detect Oilfield Brine Contamination 631 N. Alyanak and J.T. Grace, Consultants, andm.d. Campbell, United Resources Int. SPE Reclamation of Soil Affected by Oilfield Salts: Investigation, Assessment, Planning, and Implementation 641 G.B. Evans Jr. and J.A. Barck, Remediation Technologies Inc. SPE Implementation and Operation of an Active Permeable Barrier Trench System for the Containment and Treatment of Groundwater Contamination 655 M.D. Ratliff, Halliburton Energy Services SPE A Cost Effective Bioremediation Strategy Using Low Technology Resources for Reclamation of Dry Land Hydrocarbon Contamination: A Case Study 661 A.J. Robb III and PR. Hoggatt, Mobil E&P U.S. Inc. SPE Aquifer Exemptions: Wise Use of Environmental Protection Resources 671 B. Freeman, Shell Oil Co., and J.D. Arthur, CH2M Hill Inc. SPE Enhancing Area of Review Capabilities: Implementing a Variance Program 683 F. De Leon, Railroad Commission of Texas SPE Application of an Area of Review Variance Methodology to the San Juan Basin, New Mexico 695 S. Dunn-Norman, D.L. Warner, L.F. Koederitz, andr.c. Laudon, U. of Missouri-Rolla SPE Brine Handling and Disposal by Reinjection 711 D.W. Knowles, Consultant, andr.g. Boytim, ENSR Consulting & Engineering SPE Government Agencies and Industry Working Together for a Safe and Economical U.I.C. Program 727. N.K. Barker, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and K.W. Sanborn, U.S. EPA SPE Preparation of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) for Hydraulic Fracturing Disposal: A Case Study 737 PA. Fletcher, Arco E&P Technology, and C.A. Cornette, D.R. Sustala, and TW. Dolence, Vastar Resources Inc. SPE Soil Gas Surveys: A Cost-Effective Site Assessment Technique 749 G.W. Barker, D.R. Brown, J.M. Corgan, J.B. Fisher, K.T. Raterman, and G.L. Trent, Amoco Production Co. SPE Effectiveness of Chemically Enhanced Mobilization of Hydrocarbons 757 A. T. Kan, M.A. Hunter, G. Fu, T.A. McRae, and M. Tomson, Rice U. SPE A Protocol for Assessing the Biotreatability of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Exploration and Production Site Soils 767 J. Tezak, J.A. Miller, A.W. Lawrence and R.E. Keffer, Remediation Technologies Inc.; T.D. Hayes, Gas Research Iiht.; and R.L. Weightman, Remediation Technologies Inc. SPE Soil Remediation by Surface Heating and Vacuum Extraction 781 G.L. Stegemeier, GLS Engineering Inc., and H.J. Vinegar, Shell Development Co.