Vapor-Compression Refrigeration

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1 Vapor-Compression Refrigeration condenser D C expansion device compressor A B evaporator

2 Types of Heat Pumps water-source heat pumps water-to-water heat pump air-source heat pumps

3

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9 Cooling

10 Heating

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17 Water Source Heat pumps

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19 Heat Pump in Cooling Mode expansion device water loop refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger compressor reversing valve refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger

20 Heat Pump in Heating Mode expansion device water loop refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger compressor reversing valve refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger

21

22 Water-Source Heat Pump refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger fan expansion device compressor refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger reversing valve

23 Compressor rotary (rolling piston) scroll reciprocating

24 Refrigerant-to-Air Heat Exchanger refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger

25 Refrigerant-to-Water Heat Exchanger coaxial refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger

26 Expansion Device thermal expansion valve (TXV)

27 Reversing Valve refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger reversing valve

28 Unit-Level Controls Space temperature control Night setback Random start Anti-short-cycle timer heat pump thermostat

29 Water-Source Heat Pump Systems period two What Is a Water-Source Heat Pump System?

30 Water-Source Heat Pump System cooling tower air separator expansion tank pumps plate-and-frame heat exchanger boiler water distribution loop heat pumps

31 Summer Operation cooling tower on boiler off 90ºF [32ºC] heat pumps in cooling mode

32 Winter Operation cooling tower off boiler on 60ºF [16ºC] heat pumps in heating mode

33 Spring and Fall Operation cooling tower off boiler off heat pumps in cooling mode heat pumps in heating mode

34 Benefits of a WSHP System Heat recovery offers energy savings Individual space control Performs both cooling and heating Flexibility Individual tenant metering Small amount of floor space required Unit failure does not affect the rest of the system

35 Issues of a WSHP System Ventilation Acoustics Accessibility requires coordination

36 Water-Source Heat Pump Systems period three Components of a WSHP System

37 WSHP Configurations unit ventilator horizontal vertical stack vertical rooftop console

38 WSHP System Serving a Hotel vertical-stack WSHPs vertical WSHPs horizontal WSHPs rooftop WSHPs

39 Water Distribution Loop cooling tower pumps boiler heat pumps

40 Direct- Versus Reverse-Return direct-return reverse-return

41 Accessories air separator expansion tank strainer shutoff valves drain valve

42 Heat Rejecters Open cooling tower with heat exchanger Closed-circuit cooling tower Natural heat sink (ground, lake)

43 Open Tower with a Heat Exchanger fill propeller fan outdoor air sump pump plate-and-frame heat exchanger water distribution loop

44 Closed-Circuit Cooling Tower outdoor air water distribution loop fan tubes sump pump

45 Heat Adders Boiler (electric, gas-fired) Heat exchanger Natural heat source (ground)

46 Optional Storage Tank cooling tower pumps boiler hot water storage tank heat pumps

47 Electric Heat water loop fan compressor electric strip heater

48 Air Distribution System return duct horizontal heat pump return air grille diffuser supply duct

49 Dedicated Ventilation System air handler ventilation duct system horizontal heat pump

50 Dedicated Ventilation System air handler OA ducted directly to space OA ducted to heat pumps OA ducted to plenum near heat pumps

51 Exhaust-Air Heat Recovery Coil loops Fixed-plate heat exchangers Heat pipes Sensible- or totalenergy wheels exhaust air total-energy wheel outdoor air

52 System-Level Control heat pump system-level controller thermostat

53 Water-Loop Temperature Control cooling tower pumps boiler system-level controller heat pumps

54 Advanced System-Level Control Centralized scheduling Schedule override Morning warm-up and cool-down Alarms Trend logging Integration with other building systems

55 Water-Source Heat Pump Systems period four System Configurations

56 Cooling-Tower-and-Boiler System cooling tower heat pumps boiler water pumps

57 Ground-Source Heat Pump Systems ground heat exchanger

58 Ground-Coupled System heat pumps vertical-loop ground heat exchanger water pumps

59 Vertical Loop Advantages Requires least amount of land Least amount of total piping Can require least amount of pumping energy Disadvantages Drilling costs may be higher than trenching costs Backfilling requires special material and practices Potential for heat buildup

60 Horizontal Loop Advantages Trenching costs are lower than drilling costs May not build up as much heat over time Disadvantages Requires more land than vertical loops Greater ground-temperature variations More total piping than vertical loops Risk of pipe damage during backfilling of trenches

61 Spiral Loop Advantages Requires less land area and trenching than horizontal loops Lower installation cost compared to horizontal loops Disadvantages Requires more total piping than vertical and horizontal loops Still requires a large area of land

62 Surface-Water System heat pumps ground heat exchanger lake water pumps

63 Ground-Water System heat pumps water pumps well

64 Hybrid WSHP Systems cooling tower pumps boiler water chiller heat pumps air handler

65 Hybrid WSHP Systems cooling tower pumps boiler to interior spaces heat pumps self-contained VAV air conditioner

66 Water-Source Heat Pump Systems period five Maintenance Considerations

67 Water-Source Heat Pumps Inspect and replace filter Inspect and clean... Drain pan Refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger Internal surfaces in wet section Fan drain pan

68 Water Distribution Loop Recommended maintenance Clean strainers in open systems Check cleanliness of refrigerant-to-water heat exchangers Use a qualified water-treatment specialist for cooling tower maintenance Check loop water for proper amount of antifreeze, when necessary

69 Freeze Protection Closed-circuit cooling tower Locate indoors Use antifreeze solution Winterize the tower Open cooling tower Locate intermediate heat exchanger indoors Winterize the tower Ground-coupled systems Use antifreeze solution closed-circuit cooling tower

70 Water-Source Heat Pump Systems period six Application Considerations

71 Acoustic Considerations supply return horizontal WSHP space hallway console WSHP

72 Acoustic Considerations return duct horizontal heat pump return air grille diffuser supply duct

73 Acoustic Considerations supply air vertical WSHP closet return air duct return air

74 Space Humidity Control ASHRAE-recommended discomfort & health problems microbial growth relative humidity (%) source: Section 5.10 of ASHRAE Standard

75 Space Humidity Control expansion device reheat coil water loop compressor refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger reversing valve refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger reheat valve

76 Condensate Management refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger fan condensate drain pan

77 Condensate Management draw-through heat pump vent return air fan supply duct condensate drain line trap

78 Airside Economizer return air supply air vertical WSHP outdoor air

79 Waterside Economizer waterside economizer coil refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger horizontal heat pump three-way valve

80 Building Pressurization infiltration

81 Building Pressurization air handler central relief fan ventilation duct system horizontal heat pump

82 Equipment Rating Standards Purpose Establish definitions, testing, and rating requirements Scope Water-source heat pumps Cooling only, heating only, or both functions Water-source and groundsource system applications

83 Water-Source Heat Pump Systems period seven Review

84 Review Period One expansion device water loop refrigerant-to-air heat exchanger compressor reversing valve refrigerant-to-water heat exchanger

85 Review Period Two cooling tower off boiler off heat pumps in cooling mode heat pumps in heating mode

86 Review Period Three cooling tower air separator expansion tank pumps plate-and-frame heat exchanger boiler water distribution loop heat pumps

87 Review Period Four heat pumps ground heat exchanger water pumps

88 Review Period Five Maintenance considerations Heat pump components Water distribution loop and heat transfer surfaces Freeze protection

89 Review Period Six Application considerations Acoustics Space humidity control Condensate management Airside and waterside economizers Building pressurization Equipment rating standards

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