An Active Islanding Detection Method for Small-Scale Distributed Generators

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "An Active Islanding Detection Method for Small-Scale Distributed Generators"

Transcription

1 Wen-Yea Can An Active Islandin Detection Metod for Small-Scale Distribted s WN-YAU CHANG Department of lectrical nineerin St. Jon s University No. 499, Sec. 4, Tam Kin Road, Tamsi, Taipei 251, Taiwan TAIWAN Abstract: - Tis paper proposes a new islandin detection metod for se in a small-scale, rid-interconnected distribted enerator system. Te proposed islandin detection metod is based on voltae flctation injection, wic can be obtained tro i-impedance load switcin on te rid periodically. Te correlation factor between te periodic switcin sinal and te pertrbed voltae is ten sed as an islandin detection index in te proposed islandin detection metod. xperimental reslts demonstrate te principles of te proposed tecniqe and sow te new proposed metod is reliable, economical, and easy to implement. Key-Words: - Islandin detection, Distribted enerator, oltae flctation injection, Correlation factor 1 Introdction Distribted enerator (DG) is defined as te enerator of power inside te distribtion system. DG is driven by prime movers sc as a wind trbine, water trbine, micro-trbine, etc. to enerate electricity. De to te tecnoloical innovations related to te enery conversion in te last decade, it is now possible to ave competitive electricity eneration wit DG nits. Many papers ave been presented in literatre reardin te sizin, placement, reliability, and expansion plannin of DG [1-3]. Te main merits of DG can be listed as follows: redction of power loss, voltae profile improvement, power qality improvement (in some cases), possibility to exploit CHP (Combined Heat and Power) eneration, less polltin emissions (wit respect to traditional plants) [4]. Since DG is inside te distribtion system, it canes te caracteristics of te distribtion system, casin an impact in te voltae relation and protection sceme [5-8]. An essential reqirement of te ridinterconnected DG system is te capability of islandin detection [9]. Islandin occrs wen a part of te distribtion system is electrically isolated from te main sorce of spply, yet contines to be enerized by DG. Te islandin operation of DG may case potential azards to line-maintenance personnel, and risk te DG in bein damaed by otof pase reconnection to te rid. Te majority of tilities reqire tat DG sold be disconnected from te rid as soon as te islandin occrs. I standard 1547 stiplates a maximm delay of 2 seconds for detection of an islandin [10]. Te islandin detection metods can be enerally cateorized into two rops, passive metods and active metods. Passive metods detect te islandin operation of DG by monitorin selected power system parameters, sc as voltae manitde, te cane rate of freqency, pase displacement, and power otpt. Te passive metods inclde te cane of voltae manitde relay [11], te rate of cane of freqency relay [12], te vector sre relay [13], te voltae nbalance and total armonic distortion of crrent relay [14], te cane of otpt power relay [15], te ratio of te freqency cane to te otpt power cane relay [16], te rate of cane of voltae and power factors relay [17], and te loical rle-based detection tecniqe [18]. Te principles of tese metods were developed based on te fact tat an islandin will case variations in system parameters. However, wen te amont of power mismatc between te DG and local load is not sinificant eno drin islandin, te metods mentioned above may fail to sinal te abnormality. Besides, anoter drawback to te passive metods is tat tey cannot effectively differentiate between te islandin and oter non-islandin transients, like voltae flicker or sa. Active metods detect te islandin by directly interactin wit te system nder consideration. Te tree main metods are te reactive error export detection (RD) [19], te positive feedback for power loop metod [20], and te voltae flctation ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

2 Wen-Yea Can correlated metod [21]. Te RD controls te excitation crrent of DG so tat it enerates a known vale of reactive crrent, wic cannot be spported nless te enerator is connected to te rid [19]. Te positive feedback for power loop metod will reslt in an nstable freqency or voltae, once te DG is islanded. ventally, te nstable freqency or voltae will trip te freqency or voltae relay to protect islandin [20]. Te small-scale DG as simple excitation, peraps sin permanent manets. Hence, islandin of small-scale DG cannot be detected effectively by controllin te reactive power export, as in RD or te positive feedback for power loop metod. Anoter metod is called te voltae flctation correlated metod [21]. Usin power transistor switcin i-impedance load periodically near te voltae zero crossin point, it measres te voltae flctation tro te tility-interconnected point, enablin evalation of system sorce impedance and detection of islandin. It provides a very effective means of detection, wit te disadvantae of introdcin a small voltae pertrbation at te zero crossin point. Active metods are more effective and robst tan te passive ones, bt most existin active scemes ave te disadvantaes of i cost and deradation of power qality to a certain extent. To overcome te disadvantaes of te existin islandin detection metods, te aim of tis paper is to propose a new correlation factor islandin detection metod for small-scale, typically less tan 1 kw, rid-interconnected DG. Te proposed metod is more effective and economical tan conventional active metods, and as very little impact on te power qality. 2 Basic Principle of te Proposed Metod Te proposed islandin detection metod is based on te featre tat te variation at te terminal voltae of DG as a stron correlation wit its voltae pertrbation sorce wen DG is operatin in islandin state. On te contrary, te variation at te terminal voltae of DG as a weak correlation wit its voltae pertrbation sorce wen DG is operatin in parallel wit te rid. Terefore, measrin te correlation between variation at terminal voltae and its voltae pertrbation sorce wold sow weter te DG is operatin in parallel wit te rid or fnctionin independently of te rid. In te proposed islandin detection applications, a periodically switcin i-impedance load is sed, so tat variation of load voltae is restricted to te level, wic wold not inflence te spply. Te eqivalent circit of a DG parallel wit te rid in normal operation is sown in Fi. 1, were and are te open circit voltaes of te tility and te DG; is te sorce impedance of te tility rid; is te internal impedance of DG; is te impedance of te local load; is te impedance of te i-impedance load; S is te periodical switc of. Te terminal voltae of rid-interconnected point wen S is trn-off can be expressed as: 1 ( ) (1) Since is sinificantly reater tan for distribtion system, even for te lon radial system or te weak rid system [21], term is sinificantly reater tan expressed as: term in (1). If te term is inored, 1 can be approximately 1 (2) Te terminal voltae of rid-interconnected point wen S is trn-on can be expressed as: ' 1 Utility Grid ( ) S1 1 ocal oad S Periodical Switc Hi Impedance oad Distribted Fi. 1 qivalent circits of a DG parallel wit te rid (3) ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

3 Wen-Yea Can If te approximately expressed as: ' 1 term is inored, 1 can be (4) Te variation at terminal voltae de to te S switcin can be approximately expressed as: ' (5) Te eqivalent circit of a DG sbject to islandin operation is sown in Fi. 2. Te terminal voltae of rid-interconnected point wen S is trnoff can be expressed as: 2 (6) Te terminal voltae of rid-interconnected point wen S is trn-on can be expressed as: ' 2 (7) Te variation at terminal voltae de to te S switcin can be approximately expressed as: ' (8) Since te internal impedance of DG ( ) is sinificantly reater tan te sorce impedance of tility ( ), comparin (8) wit (5), we ave 2 is larer tan 1. ariation at te terminal voltae de to te switcin of te i-impedance load drin islandin operation is ts larer tan tat in normal operation. Te experimental system was performed, and te reslts are sown in Fis. 3 to 4. Te DG employed in te tests consisted of a ridinterconnected, tree-pase, 220, 300W syncronos enerator and a 2000 i-impedance indctive load. As an example of te typical test for te DG in normal operation, Fi. 3 exibits tat te variation at te terminal voltae de to te switcin of te i-impedance load is very small. Te freqency in te terminal voltae is 60Hz, and te freqency of te switcin sinal is 10Hz. As an example of te typical test for te DG in islandin operation, Fi. 4 exibits tat te variation at te terminal voltae de to te switcin of te i-impedance load in islandin operation is larer tan tat in normal operation. In Fis. 3 to 4, Cannel 1 denotes te waveform of te terminal voltae (100/div), Cannel 2 indicates te waveform of te switcin sinal of te i- S1 Utility Grid S Periodical Switc Distribted 2 ocal oad Hi Impedance oad Fi. 2 qivalent circits of a DG drin islandin operation (1)CH1:100/div (2)CH2:10/div Time:50 ms/div Fi. 3 Waveform of terminal voltae and switcin sinal drin normal operation ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

4 Wen-Yea Can (1)CH1:100/div (2)CH2:10/div Time:50 ms/div Fi. 4 Waveform of terminal voltae and switcin sinal drin islandin operation impedance load (10/div). Measrin te periodical pertrbation of terminal voltae at te rid-interconnected point, de to switcin a known i-impedance load, allows one to estimate indirectly te DG operatin state. Wen te variation at te terminal voltae caned, te islandin operation can be easily detected accordinly. However, variations in te terminal voltae may reslt from some load switcin, oter tan te switcin of te i-impedance load. Conseqently, to avoid false alarms, te measred variation of terminal voltae sold be closely related wit te iven i-impedance load switcin sinal as in te islandin operation. Neverteless, in te case of some load canes occrrin coincidentally wit te intentional i-impedance load switcin, te measred voltae flctation may not represent te spply impedance cane. Distinction between intentional and coincidental load canes sold be made by observin a nmber of more switcin instances and terminal voltae canes [21]. To effectively distinis variations of te terminal voltae de to switcin of te iven iimpedance load from te oters sold ts be based on correlation of te measred terminal voltae canes wit te iven load switcin. 3 Te Proposed Detection System Te arcitectre of te proposed correlation factor detection system is illstrated in Fi. 5. Te inslated ate bipolar transistor based periodical electronic switcin circit performs te i-impedance load switcin. A voltae detectin interface measres te manitde of terminal voltae at te ridinterconnected point. Te diital sinal processor calclates te correlation factor between te periodical switcin sinal and te pertrbed voltae at te rid-interconnected point and decides weter te trip conditions are met. At te zero crossin point of te terminal voltae, te periodical electronic switcin circit trns on/off every tree cycles. Te voltae flctation de to te periodical switcin in an islandin operation wold be sinificantly reater tan tat in te normal operation. Since te periodical electronic switc trns on/off every tree cycles, te switcin sinal S(j) as a period of six cycles. S(j) as two vales, -1 for trn-on stats and 1 for trn-off stats. Te differential sinal ΔS(j) of S(j) wit 3-cycle time la is described as follows: S ( j) S ( j) S ( j 3) (9) Te correspondin time series of differential terminal voltae wit time la of 3 cycles is expressed as: ( j) ( j) ( j 3) (10) were te (j) is te averae terminal voltae vale at te jt cycle. Since te averae terminal voltae proressively increases drin te switc trn-off period and decreases proressively drin te switc trn-on period, a proportional fnction P(j) is sed to express tis featre. P(j) is experimentally set to be 1 for te first cycle after switcin, 2 for te second cycle, and 3 for te tird cycle for enancement of te voltae proressive varyin trends after Ternimal oltae Distribted oltae Detectin Circit ero Crossin Detectin Circit DG Connectin Switc S2 Hi Impedance oad Periodical Switcin Sinal Periodical Switc Correlation Factor Calclation Proram ocal oad Grid Tie Switc S1 Switcin Command Proram Islandin Decision Proram DSP Cip (TI TMS320F2407A) Utility Grid Trip Command Periodic Switcin Command Fi.5 System confiration of te correlation factor islandin detector ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

5 Wen-Yea Can switcin on and off. Te correlation factor between ΔS(j) and Δ (j) is expressed as follows: F k j 1 ( k) S( k) P ( k ) N k j N (11) were F k is te proposed correlation factor, as an islandin detection index, N is te nmber of cycles of te observin window, and N is set as 6 in tis paper. As described previosly, in normal operation te correlation between Δ (j) and ΔS(j) is weak and F k is mc lower tan a tresold vale. In contrast, as islandin occrs, Δ (j) and ΔS(j) ave a stron correlation and F k becomes sinificantly larer tan tat in normal operation [22]. Tro te proposed sceme, te correlation factor can be sed as an islandin detection index and serves as a sefl reference to activate te protective relays. Fi. 6 depicts te procedre of te correlation Start ero Crossin Detectin Periodical Switcin Command Otpt factor metod. It consists of zero crossin detection, periodical switcin command eneration, terminal voltae detection, correlation factor calclation, and decision process. Te DSP measres te vale of terminal voltae over 6 cycles, so tat it avoids te impacts of varios load variations and real power or reactive power distrbances. As sown in Fi. 6, a tresold for te islandin detection correlation factor is defined; te tresold is set to be 36 in tis paper. Compter simlations were performed, and te simlation reslts of te variation of te correlation factor F k before and after te islandin operation are sown in Fi. 7. As sown in Fi.7, if te islandin falt is occrrin at te 6 t cycle, ten te correlation factor F k increases drin te next 6 cycles. At te 12 t cycle te correlation factor F k larer tan te tresold Top F k, and te islandin as been detected. 4 xperimental Reslts To verify te proposed metod, experiments were condcted to demonstrate its effectiveness of te islandin detection approac. Te experimental tests were carried ot on two kinds of enerators: syncronos enerator and indction enerator. Te procedres of te tests are to verify tat te DG systems cease to enerize te tility rid as specified in I Standard 1547 wen an nintentional island condition is present. Terminal oltae Detectin (a),rms (j) (1) (4) (10) (16) (22) (7) (13) (19) Correlation Factor Calclatin (b) Δ,rms (j) Δ(1) Δ(4) Δ(7) Δ(10) Δ(13) Δ(16) Δ(19) Δ(22) t t S(4) S(10) S(16) S(22) No Fk>Tresold? (c) S(j) S(1) S(7) S(13) S(19) t Yes Trip Command Otpt (d) ΔS(j) ΔS(1) ΔS(4) ΔS(7) ΔS(10) ΔS(16) ΔS(22) ΔS(13) ΔS(19) FK(12) FK(13) FK(16) FK(19) FK(22) t (e) Top Fk FK(10) nd F k FK(1) FK(4) FK(7) F k(12) >Top Fk t Fi. 6 Procedre of te correlation factor metod Fi.7 Te simlation of te variation of F k before and after te islandin operation ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

6 Wen-Yea Can 4.1 Islandin test for syncronos enerators Te eneration system employed in te islandin tests for syncronos enerator consisted of a ridinterconnected, tree-pase, 220, 300W syncronos enerator driven by a DC motor wit 4 types of loads, incldin (a) maximm real load at nity power factor, (b) maximm real load at rated power factor lain, (c) maximm real load at rated power factor leadin, and (d) minimm load at nity power factor. Te test circit, specified in I Standard 1547, is confired as sown in Fi. 8. Te DG was started, syncronized to te tility rid, and ten te tie-switc S 2 was closed to interconnect te DG to te rid. Open switc S 1 and record te time between te openin of switc S 1 and wen te DG ceases to enerize te load. Repeat test to 4 types of loads for a total of 5 times. Te test is sccessfl wen te DG ceases to enerize te test load witin te timin reqirements of I Standard 1547 after switc S 1 is opened. Te effectiveness of te correlation factor metod for syncronos enerator as been validated in te experiments. Te test reslts for 4 types of loads are sown in Table 1. Te testin reslts sow tat te correlation factor, sed as an index of islandin detection, can detect te islandin operation easily and accrately. Te verification reslts also reveal tat te proposed correlation factor metod detected te islandin event wit a maximm delay time of 0.19 seconds in te 20 tests for 4 types of loads. Te averae detection time of te 20 tests is seconds. Te detection time needed is mc less tan te maximal 2 seconds as specified by I standard In te typical test for te type (a) load, as sown in Fi. 9 of te typical test for te resistive load as an instance, te detection sinal for islandin was issed in seconds (totally 9.5 cycles for estimatin te differential voltae manitdes were needed) after te islandin operation started. In te typical test for te type (b) load, as sown in Fi. 10, te detection sinal for islandin was iven in 0.15 seconds (totally 9 cycles needed) after te islandin operation started. Utility Grid S1 oad S2 Distribted Syncronos Fi.8 Te islandin test confiration for syncronos enerators Fi.9 Te reslts of te experiment for syncronos enerator sin type (a) load Table 1 Islandin test reslts of syncronos enerator oad combinations Averae Maximm Minimm Sccess times (a) (b) (c) (d) Fi.10 Te reslts of te experiment for syncronos enerator sin type (b) load ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

7 Wen-Yea Can In te typical test for te type (c) load, as sown in Fi. 11, te detection sinal for islandin was likewise annonced sccessflly in seconds (totally 11 cycles needed) after te islandin operation started. In te typical test for te type (d) load, as sown in Fi. 12, te detection sinal for islandin was likewise annonced sccessflly in seconds (totally 9.5 cycles needed) after te islandin operation started. In Fis. 9 to 12, Cannel 1 denotes te waveform of rid voltae (400/div), Cannel 2 indicates te waveform of local load terminal voltae (400/div), Cannel 3 depicts te switcin sinal of periodical electronic switc (5/div) and Cannel 4 sows te trippin sinal (5/div). Te capability of te proposed system to avoid false alarms was verified tro te experiments of randomly switcin te loads. Te random load switcin tests were taken 200 times for eac type of load; reslts depict tat no false alarm occrred ot of te 800 switcin tests. As an example of te typical test for te load at nity power factor, Fi. 13 exibits tat te detection system does not ave false alarms de to te load switcin. In Fi. 13, Cannel 1 denotes te waveform of rid voltae (400/div), Cannel 2 indicates te waveform of load crrent (1A/div), Cannel 3 depicts te switcin sinal of periodical electronic switc (5/div) and Cannel 4 sows te trippin sinal (5/div). To frter evalate te impact on te power qality de to te periodical voltae flctation injection by sin te correlation factor metod, tree power qality indices were measred tro a power qality analyzer. Te tree power qality indices evalated were total armonic distortion (THD), voltae flctation (P ST ) and tree pase nbalance. Comparison reslts between wit and witot te voltae flctation injection are iven in Table 2. Te table sows tat in normal operation of Table 2 Impact on te power qality by voltae flctation injection (syncronos enerator) Condition Wit voltae flctation injection Witot voltae flctation injection Power qality Pase index A B C THD 0.8% 0.6% 0.6% PST nbalance 0.4% THD 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% PST nbalance 0.5% Fi.11 Te reslts of te experiment for syncronos enerator sin type (c) load Fi.12 Te reslts of te experiment for syncronos enerator sin type (d) load Ti m e :2 0 ms/div Fi.13 Te reslts of te experiment for random switcin of te load ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

8 Wen-Yea Can syncronos enerator interconnected wit te tility rids, to te i-impedance load switcin occrred at te rid-interconnected point, te terminal voltae almost was not inflenced. Te differences between wit and witot te voltae flctation injection as sown in Table 2 are spposed to reslt from errors or noise from te measrement instrment. 4.2 Islandin test for indction enerators Te eneration system employed in te islandin tests for indction enerator consisted of a ridinterconnected, tree-pase, 220, 300W indction enerator driven by a DC motor wit 3 types of loads, incldin (a) 33% rated load at nity power factor, (b) 100% rated load at nity power factor, (c) 120% rated load at nity power factor. Te test circit, specified in I Standard 1547, is confired as sown in Fi. 14. Te DG was started, syncronized to te tility rid, and ten te tie-switc S 2 was closed to interconnect te DG to te tility rid. Adjst te islandin RC load circit in Fi. 14 to provide a qality factor of 1.0 ± Te reactive load is balanced so tat te resonant freqency of te island circit is witin te nder-freqency (59.5Hz) and over-freqency (60.5Hz) trip settins of te DG and as close to nominal freqency (60Hz) as possible. Open switc S 1 and record te time between te openin of switc S 1 and wen te DG ceases to enerize te load. Repeat test for 3 types of loads for a total of 5 times. Te test is sccessfl wen te DG ceases to enerize te test load witin te timin reqirements of I Standard 1547 after switc S 1 is opened. Te effectiveness of te correlation factor metod for indction enerator as been validated in te experiments. Te test reslts for 3 types of loads are sown in Table 3. Te testin reslts sow tat te correlation factor, sed as an index of islandin detection, can detect te islandin operation easily and accrately. Te verification reslts also reveal tat te proposed correlation factor metod detected te islandin event wit a maximm delay time of seconds in te 15 tests for 3 types of load combinations. Te averae detection time of te 15 tests is 0.11 seconds. Te detection time needed is mc less tan te maximal 2 seconds as specified by I standard In te typical test for te type (a) load, as sown in Fi. 15, te detection sinal for islandin was issed in seconds (totally 7 cycles for estimatin te differential voltae manitdes were needed) after te islandin operation started. In te typical test for te type (b) load, as sown in Fi. 16, te detection sinal for islandin was likewise annonced sccessflly in seconds (totally 8.5 cycles needed) after te islandin operation started. In te typical test for te type (c) load, as sown in Fi. 17, te detection sinal for islandin was likewise annonced sccessflly in 0.15 seconds (totally 9 cycles needed) after te islandin operation started. In Fis. 15 to 17, Cannel 1 denotes te waveform of rid voltae (400/div), Cannel 2 indicates te waveform of local load terminal voltae (400/div), Cannel 3 depicts te switcin sinal of periodical electronic switc (5/div) and Cannel 4 sows te trippin sinal (5/div). To frter evalate te impact on te power Utility Grid S1 S3 S2 RC oad Distribted Indction Fi.14 Te islandin test confiration for indction enerators CH1 :4 0 0 /div, CH2 :4 0 0 /div, CH3 :5 /div, CH4 :5 /div, Fi.15 Te reslts of te experiment for indction enerator sin type (a) load Table 3 Islandin test reslts of indction enerator oad Type Averae Maximm Minimm Sccess times (a) (b) (c) ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

9 Wen-Yea Can qality de to te periodical voltae flctation injection by sin te correlation factor metod, tree power qality indices were measred tro a power qality analyzer. Comparison reslts between wit and witot te voltae flctation injection are iven in Table 4. Te table sows tat in normal operation of indction enerator interconnected wit te tility rids, to te i-impedance load switcin occrred at te rid-interconnected point, te terminal voltae almost was not inflenced. Te differences between wit and witot te voltae flctation injection as sown in Table 4 are spposed to reslt from errors or noises of te measrement instrment. parameters will be investiated in te passive islandin detection metod. 5 Conclsions Based on a correlated voltae flctation sceme, tis paper as proposed a new metod to qickly and reliably detect islandin operation of a DG system. Te voltae flctation is injected on to te ridinterconnected point by switcin a i-impedance load periodically. Observin te correlation factor of te proposed sceme tro a diital sinal processor, discrimination between islandin and oter non-islandin distrbances can ts be made accrately. To verify te effectiveness of te proposed tecniqe, reslts obtained from experiments were sed in tis paper. Te experimental reslts sow tat te proposed index of te islandin detection correlation factor can detect te islandin operation satisfactorily for different types of loads witin seconds. Te detection performance is sown to be less dependent on load qality factor and power level. Besides, te test reslts also reveal tat te new proposed metod is easier and more economical for implementation as compared to te existin active detection approaces. Te directions for ftre researc of te islandin detection metod can be described as follow: To frter improve te detection performance of te proposed active islandin detection metod, te passive islandin detection metods tat detect te islandin operation of DG by monitorin te selected power system parameters will be investiated and interated in te proposed active metod. Besides, for te passive islandin detection metods, tere are many power system parameters to be monitored, sc as voltae manitde, te cane rate of freqency, pase displacement, and power otpt. Te sin of optimization searc metods, sc as enetic aloritm or neral networks, for te best combination selection of te selected power system Fi.16 Te reslts of te experiment for indction enerator sin type (b) load Fi.17 Te reslts of te experiment for indction enerator sin type (c) load Table 4 Impact on te power qality by voltae flctation injection (indction enerator) Condition Wit voltae flctation injection Witot voltae flctation injection Power qality index Pase A B C THD 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% P ST nbalance 0.4% THD 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% P ST nbalance 0.5% ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

10 Wen-Yea Can Acknowledements Te ator wold like to express is acknowledements to te National Science Concil of ROC for te financial spport nder Grant No. NSC References: [1].. Santos, A.G. Martins, and C.H. Antnes, A Mlti-Objective Model for Sizin and Placement of Distribted Generation, WSAS Transactions on Power Systems, olme 1, Isse 7, 2006, pp [2] Y.G. Heazy and M.A. Mostafa, Reliability Indices of lectrical Distribted Generation Systems, WSAS Transactions on Systems, olme 4, Isse 10, 2005, pp [3] A.H. Mantawy and M. Al-Maini, A New Particle-Swarm-Based Aloritm for Distribtion System xpansion Plannin Incldin Distribted Generation, Proceedins of te 2nd IASM/WSAS International Conference on nery & nvironment, ('07), Portoroz, Slovenia, 2007, pp [4] M.H. Aliabadi, M. Mardane, and B. Bebaani, Sitin and Sizin of Distribted Generation Unit Usin GA and OPF, Proceedins of te 2nd WSAS International Conference on Circits, Systems, Sinal and Telecommnications, (CISST'08), Acaplco, Mexico, 2008, pp [5] T.H. Cen, M.S. Wan, and N.C. Yan, Impact of Distribted Generation on oltae Relation by UTC Transformer sin arios xistin Metods, Proceedins of te 7t WSAS International Conference on Power Systems, Beijin, Cina, 2007, pp [6] A.S. Bretas and R.H. Salim, A New Falt ocation Tecniqe for Distribtion Feeders wit Distribted Generation, WSAS Transactions on Power Systems, olme 1, Isse 5, 2006, pp [7] K. Maki, S. Repo, and P. Jarventasta, Protection Coordination to Meet te Reqirements of Blindin Problems Cased by Distribted Generation, WSAS Transactions on Circits and Systems, olme 4, Isse 7, 2005, pp [8] D. Ardito, S. Conti, N. Messina, and S. Nicotra, Operatin Conflicts in Distribtion Networks Protection wit Distribted Generation, WSAS Transactions on Circits and Systems, olme 4, Isse 9, 2005, pp [9] G. Dalke, et al., Application of Islandin Protection for Indstrial and Commercial s an I Indstrial Application Society Workin Grop Report, Proceedins of te 59t Annal Conf. Protective Relay nineers, Texas, USA, 2006, pp [10] I Std. 1547, Standard for Interconnectin Distribted Resorces wit lectric Power Systems, [11] J.C.M. ieira, D.S. Correa, W. Freitas, and W. X, Performance Crves of oltae Relays for Islandin Detection of Distribted s, I Transactions on Power Systems, ol. 20, No. 3, 2005, pp [12] C.M. Affonso, W. Freitas, W. X,.C.P. da Silva, Performance of ROCOF Relays for mbedded Generation Applications, I Proceedins Generation Transmission Distribtion, ol. 152, No. 1, 2005, pp [13] W. Freitas,. Han, W. X, A Practical Metod for Assessin te ffectiveness of ector Sre Relays for Distribted Generation Applications, I Transactions on Power Delivery, ol. 20, No. 1, 2005, pp [14] S.I. Jan, K.H. Kim, An Islandin Detection Metod for Distribted Generations Usin oltae Unbalance and Total Harmonic Distortion of Crrent, I Transactions on Power Delivery, ol. 19, No. 2, 2004, pp [15] M.A. Redfern, O. Usta, G. Fieldin, Protection Aainst oss of Utility Grid Spply for a Dispersed Storae and Generation Unit, I Transactions on Power Delivery, ol.8, No.3, 1993, pp [16] F.S Pai, S.J. Han, A Detection Aloritm for Islandin-Prevention of Dispersed Consmer- Owned Storae and Generatin Units, I Transactions on nery Conversion, ol. 16, No. 4, 2001, pp [17] S.K. Salman, D.J. Kin, G. Weller, New oss of Mains Detection Aloritm for mbedded Generation Usin Rate of Cane of oltae and Canes in Power Factors, Proceedins of te 7t I International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection, Amsterdam, Neterlands, 2001, pp [18] S.I. Jan, K.H. Kim, Development of a oical Rle-Based Islandin Detection Metod for Distribted Resorces, Proceedins of te 2002 I Power nineerin Society Winter Meetin, New York, USA, 2002, pp [19] J.W. Warin, oss of Mains Protection, Proceedins of te RA Conference on Circit Protection for Indstrial and Commercial ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

11 Wen-Yea Can Installations, andon, UK, 1990, pp. 4/3/1 12. [20] P. D, J.K. Nelson,. Ye, Active Anti- Islandin Scemes for Syncronos-Macine- Based Distribted s, I Proceedins Generation Transmission Distribtion, ol.152, No.5, 2005, pp [21] P.D. Hopewell, N. Jenkins, A.D. Cross, ossof-mains Detection for Small s, I Proceedins lectrical Power Application, ol. 143, No. 3, 1996, pp [22] W.Y. Can, H.T. Yan, An Active Islandin Protection Metod for Distribted Syncronos s, Proceedins of te 7t IT International Conference on Advances Power System Control, Operation and Manaement, Hon Kon, Cina, 2006, Paper No. APSCOM ISSN: Isse 6, olme 7, Jne 2008

FAP-420/FAH-420 Automatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version

FAP-420/FAH-420 Automatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version Fire Alarm Systems FAP-420/FAH-420 Atomatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version FAP-420/FAH-420 Atomatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version www.boschsecrity.com Combination of optical, thermal and chemical

More information

WARNING Important Safety Information

WARNING Important Safety Information 2 Installation Premier Series Non-Programmable Thermostats MODEL 3300 Mlti-Stage 3 Heat / 2 Cool Ato Changeover Conventional and Heat Pmp Before Installing or Operating, PLEASE READ ALL INSTRUCTIONS 1

More information

FAP-420/FAH-420 Automatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version

FAP-420/FAH-420 Automatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version Fire Alarm Systems FAP-420/FAH-420 Atomatic Fire s LSN improved version FAP-420/FAH-420 Atomatic Fire s LSN improved version www.boschsecrity.com Combination of optical, thermal and chemical sensors with

More information

FAP 520 Automatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version

FAP 520 Automatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version Fire Alarm Systems FAP 520 Atomatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version FAP 520 Atomatic Fire Detectors LSN improved version www.boschsecrity.com Modern, ltra-flat design Smooth, easily-cleaned detector

More information

6 Advanced Programming

6 Advanced Programming 6 Advanced Programming 6.1 Program Codes This chapter provides the Program Codes table which smmarizes the wide variety of available programming operations, along with a description and comments. Additional

More information

LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller

LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller Commnications Systems LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller www.boschsecrity.com Heart of the Plena Voice Alarm System EN 54 16 certified and EN 60849 compliant

More information

LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller

LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller Commnications Systems LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller LBB 1990/00 Plena Voice Alarm Controller www.boschsecrity.com Heart of the Plena Voice Alarm System EN 54 16 certified and EN 60849 compliant

More information

Professional Series LSN TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Anti mask

Professional Series LSN TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Anti mask Intrsion Alarm Systems Professional Series LSN TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Professional Series LSN TriTech+ Motion Detectors with www.boschsecrity.com 8 m x 5 m (60 ft x 80 ft) standard coverage; 8

More information

TETRA Secury System funkwerk TSS: The future of professional mobile communication.

TETRA Secury System funkwerk TSS: The future of professional mobile communication. TETRA Secry System fnkwerk TSS: The ftre of professional mobile commnication. The TETRA-based radio alarm system with telephony integration and precise localisation Fnkwerk Secrity Commnications Secrity.

More information

Loudspeakers Line Isolator System

Loudspeakers Line Isolator System Commnications Systems Lodspeakers Line Isolator System Lodspeakers Line Isolator System www.boschsecrity.com Provides redndant lodspeaker loops for pblic address and voice alarm systems Dramatically redces

More information

MODEL FTGF2P (240 VAC)

MODEL FTGF2P (240 VAC) SUMMARY MODEL FTGF2P (240 VAC) OPTIONS SELECTION At the back of the thermostat, there are two selection switches to set yor preference. 1 2 Temperatre in C or F. Time in 12 or 24 hors. TO SET TIME AND

More information

LBC 3210/00 Line Array Indoor/Outdoor Loudspeaker

LBC 3210/00 Line Array Indoor/Outdoor Loudspeaker Commnications Systems LBC 3210/00 Line Array Indoor/Otdoor Lodspeaker LBC 3210/00 Line Array Indoor/Otdoor Lodspeaker www.boschsecrity.com Extended listening area Excellent intelligibility of speech and

More information

Awarded with the "German Fire-Protection Award".

Awarded with the German Fire-Protection Award. FIRE-PROTECTION Roller doors Awarded with the "German Fire-Protection Award". Low maintenance efford and costs. No additional barrel cover reqired. Filling according to latest enviromental standards. Uniqe:

More information

Buderus Oil Boilers. Buderus G115 & G215.

Buderus Oil Boilers. Buderus G115 & G215. Bders Oil Boilers Bders G115 & G215 Bders residential oil boilers are designed to extract and deliver more heat from every fel dollar, and are available in higher otpts at less cost per BTU. www.boschheatingandcooling.com

More information

B9512G Control Panels

B9512G Control Panels Intrsion Alarm Systems B9512G Control Panels B9512G Control Panels www.boschsecrity.com Flly integrated intrsion, fire, and access control allows sers to interface with one system instead of three Spports

More information

ISC PPR1 WA16x Professional Series PIR Detectors with Anti mask

ISC PPR1 WA16x Professional Series PIR Detectors with Anti mask Intrsion Alarm Systems ISC PPR WA6x Professional Series PIR Detectors with Anti mask ISC PPR WA6x Professional Series PIR Detectors with Anti mask www.boschsecrity.com 6 m x m (5 x 7) standard coverage;

More information

Visualization of Magnetic Field

Visualization of Magnetic Field Visalization of Magnetic Field Neda Pekaric Nad University of Novi Sad, Faclty of technical sciences, Department of Power, electronics and telecommnications, Novi Sad Friday, September 15, 2017, ASB 10901

More information

Professional Series Intrusion Detector Knows when to alarm. Knows when not to. Back. Now Featuring Multi-Point Anti-Mask with Spray Detect

Professional Series Intrusion Detector Knows when to alarm. Knows when not to. Back. Now Featuring Multi-Point Anti-Mask with Spray Detect Professional Series Intrsion Detector Knows when to alarm. Knows when not to. Back Now Featring Mlti-Point Anti-Mask with Spray Detect Intelligent motion detection with nmatched versatility If yo cold

More information

Professional Series TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Anti mask

Professional Series TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Anti mask Intrsion Alarm Systems Professional Series TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Anti mask Professional Series TriTech+ Motion Detectors with Anti mask www.boschsecrity.com 8 m x 5 m (60 ft x 80 ft) standard

More information

LBC 3201/00 Line Array Indoor Loudspeaker

LBC 3201/00 Line Array Indoor Loudspeaker Commnications Systems LBC 3201/00 Line Array Indoor Lodspeaker LBC 3201/00 Line Array Indoor Lodspeaker www.boschsecrity.com Extended listening area Excellent intelligibility of speech and msic Uniform

More information

AMAX panel Intrusion Alarm Systems AMAX panel hardwired zones / 2 areas / 64 user codes

AMAX panel Intrusion Alarm Systems AMAX panel hardwired zones / 2 areas / 64 user codes Intrsion Alarm Systems AMAX panel 2100 AMAX panel 2100 www.boschsecrity.com 8 hardwired zones / 2 areas / 64 ser codes 3 x 256 events log stamped with date and time On-board voice dialer Macro fnctionality

More information

GEC Low-frequency Horn Strobes

GEC Low-frequency Horn Strobes Fire Alarm Systems GEC Low-freqency Horn Strobes GEC Low-freqency Horn Strobes Silence the horn while strobes flash Evacation tone Use the SperSlide featre for easy testing Wide voltage range; 16 to 33

More information

LH1 UC30E Music Horn Loudspeaker

LH1 UC30E Music Horn Loudspeaker Commnications Systems LH1 UC3E Msic Horn Lodspeaker LH1 UC3E Msic Horn Lodspeaker www.boschsecrity.com Excellent speech and msic reprodction Two way system Attractive ABS hosing Provisions for internal

More information

D2212BE Control Panel

D2212BE Control Panel Intrsion Alarm Systems DBE Control Panel DBE Control Panel www.boschsecrity.com Eight (maximm) on-board points Eight sers and passcodes with three athority levels Two programmable on-board relay otpts

More information

Experimental Comparison of the Performance of Refrigerants R134a and R32/R134a in Dry Expansion and Liquid Recirculation Refrigerating Systems

Experimental Comparison of the Performance of Refrigerants R134a and R32/R134a in Dry Expansion and Liquid Recirculation Refrigerating Systems Prde University Prde e-pbs International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 1998 Experimental Comparison of the Performance of Refrigerants R134a and R32/R134a

More information

Microgrid Fault Protection Based on Symmetrical and Differential Current Components

Microgrid Fault Protection Based on Symmetrical and Differential Current Components Microgrid Fault Protection Based on Symmetrical and Differential Current Components Prepared for Public Interest Energy Research California Energy Commission Prepared by Hassan Nikkhajoei and Robert H.

More information

LC4 Ceiling Loudspeaker Range

LC4 Ceiling Loudspeaker Range Commnications Systems LC4 Ceiling Lodspeaker Range LC4 Ceiling Lodspeaker Range www.boschsecrity.com Innovative CosCone fll range driver Excellent speech and msic reprodction Unrivalled opening angle for

More information

LA1 UMx0E 1 Metal Column Loudspeakers

LA1 UMx0E 1 Metal Column Loudspeakers Commnications Systems LA UMxE Metal Colmn Lodspeakers LA UMxE Metal Colmn Lodspeakers www.boschsecrity.com Good speech intelligibility and backgrond msic reprodction For applications where directivity

More information

LA1 UMx0E Metal Column Loudspeakers

LA1 UMx0E Metal Column Loudspeakers Commnications Systems LA1 UMxE Metal Colmn Lodspeakers LA1 UMxE Metal Colmn Lodspeakers www.boschsecrity.com Good speech intelligibility and backgrond msic reprodction For applications where directivity

More information

B465 Universal Dual Path Communicator

B465 Universal Dual Path Communicator Intrsion Alarm Systems B465 Universal Dal Path Commnicator B465 Universal Dal Path Commnicator www.boschsecrity.com The B465 Conettix Universal Dal Path Commnicator converts the Pblic Switch Telephone

More information

Auto Drain Valve. Longer life & Higher resistance to foreign matter. AD402-A Series CAT.ES40-65A. Improved foreign matter resistance

Auto Drain Valve. Longer life & Higher resistance to foreign matter. AD402-A Series CAT.ES40-65A. Improved foreign matter resistance Ato Drain Valve RoHS Longer life & Higher resistance to foreign matter Improved foreign matter resistance Catching of foreign matter is redced with no sliding part. Diaphragm type Poppet type Shape prevents

More information

LSN RF Fire Detection System

LSN RF Fire Detection System 17 19 18 34 3 50 49 21 20 36 35 52 51 23 2 38 37 54 53 24 10 26 25 40 39 5 57 56 13 12 28 27 42 41 59 58 15 14 30 29 4 43 61 60 16 32 31 46 45 63 62 48 47 64 Fire Alarm Systems LSN RF Fire Detection System

More information

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT POTENTIALS OF LOW GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL REFRIGERANTS FOR INTERCITY BUS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT POTENTIALS OF LOW GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL REFRIGERANTS FOR INTERCITY BUS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM THERMAL SCIENCE: Year 0, Vol., No., pp. -4 PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT POTENTIALS OF LOW GLOBAL WARMING POTENTIAL REFRIGERANTS FOR INTERCITY BUS AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM Saban UNAL a, Cagri KUTLU a, and M.

More information

B465 Universal Dual Path Communicator

B465 Universal Dual Path Communicator Intrsion Alarm Systems B465 Universal Dal Path Commnicator B465 Universal Dal Path Commnicator www.boschsecrity.com Compatible with control panels sing Contact ID, SIA, Plse 3/1 or Plse 4/2 commnication

More information

FAS 420 Series Aspirating Smoke Detectors LSN improved version

FAS 420 Series Aspirating Smoke Detectors LSN improved version Fire Alarm Systems FAS 420 Series Aspirating Smoke Detectors LSN improved version FAS 420 Series Aspirating Smoke Detectors LSN improved version www.boschsecrity.com Connectable to the fire panels FPA

More information

ICP-AMAX2-P2-EN Intrusion panel, fr/de/nl/pt

ICP-AMAX2-P2-EN Intrusion panel, fr/de/nl/pt Intrsion Alarm Systems ICP-AMAX2-P2-EN Intrsion panel, fr/de/nl/pt ICP-AMAX2-P2-EN Intrsion panel, fr/de/nl/pt www.boschsecrity.com 8 hardwired zones / 2 areas / 64 ser codes On-board voice dialer Macro

More information

B465 Universal Dual Path Communicator

B465 Universal Dual Path Communicator Intrsion Alarm Systems B465 Universal Dal Path Commnicator B465 Universal Dal Path Commnicator www.boschsecrity.com The B465 Conettix Universal Dal Path Commnicator converts the Pblic Switch Telephone

More information

FPA 1000 UL Analog Addressable Fire Panel

FPA 1000 UL Analog Addressable Fire Panel Fire Alarm Systems FPA 1000 UL Analog Addressable Fire Panel FPA 1000 UL Analog Addressable Fire Panel www.boschsecrity.com Spport for p to 508 points on two analog addressable loops Bilt in Ethernet connector

More information

ICP-AMAX3-P2-BE Intrusion panel, fr/de/nl/pt

ICP-AMAX3-P2-BE Intrusion panel, fr/de/nl/pt Intrsion Alarm Systems ICP-AMAX3-P2-BE Intrsion panel, fr/de/nl/pt ICP-AMAX3-P2-BE Intrsion panel, fr/de/nl/pt www.boschsecrity.com 32 zones / 8 areas / 128 ser codes On-board voice dialer Macro fnctionality

More information

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVES

PRESSURE REGULATING VALVES Type EPR PRESSURE REGUATING VAVES Evaporating pressure regulating valves Direct operated, 2-way valves designed for maintaining suitable evaporating pressure in refrigeration. Fitted at te evaporator outlet

More information

Blue Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors

Blue Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors Intrsion Alarm Systems Ble Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors Ble Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors www.boschsecrity.com Pet friendly Selectable model available optimize installation for pet (45 kg [00

More information

FMC 210 DM Double Action Call Points

FMC 210 DM Double Action Call Points Fire Alarm Systems FMC 10 DM Doble Action Call Points FMC 10 DM Doble Action Call Points www.boschsecrity.com Adjstment after alarm triggering Individal identification thanks to atomatic or manal detector

More information

D2212B Control Panel. Intrusion Alarm Systems D2212B Control Panel. Eight on-board points. Up to 24 wired or wireless points

D2212B Control Panel. Intrusion Alarm Systems D2212B Control Panel.   Eight on-board points. Up to 24 wired or wireless points Intrsion Alarm Systems DB Control Panel DB Control Panel www.boschsecrity.com Eight on-board points Up to wired or wireless points Eight sers and passcodes with three athority levels Two programmable on-board

More information

ICP-AMAX4-P3-EN Intrusion panel, en/es/pl/sv

ICP-AMAX4-P3-EN Intrusion panel, en/es/pl/sv Intrsion Alarm Systems ICP-AMAX4-P3-EN Intrsion panel, en/es/pl/sv ICP-AMAX4-P3-EN Intrsion panel, en/es/pl/sv www.boschsecrity.com 64 zones / 16 areas / 250 ser codes On-board voice dialer Macro fnctionality

More information

World Class Leaders in Fire Detection Since RANGEOVERVIEW Intelligent Leak Detection System

World Class Leaders in Fire Detection Since RANGEOVERVIEW Intelligent Leak Detection System World Class Leaders in Fire Detection Since 1918 RANGEOVERVIEW Intelligent Leak Detection System What is the greatest risk? The Soltion Despite the nderstandably significant resorces spent on mitigating

More information

Blue Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors

Blue Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors Intrsion Alarm Systems Ble Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors Ble Line Gen2 TriTech Motion Detectors www.boschsecrity.com Pet friendly Selectable model available optimize installation for pet (45 kg [00

More information

Fireray5000-EN. Fire Alarm Systems Fireray5000-EN. Extended monitoring range. Up to 2 detectors per system controller

Fireray5000-EN. Fire Alarm Systems Fireray5000-EN.  Extended monitoring range. Up to 2 detectors per system controller Fire Alarm Systems Fireray5000-EN Fireray5000-EN www.boschsecrity.com Extended monitoring range Up to 2 detectors per system controller Two pairs of fire and falt relays (one per detector) Transmitter

More information

LH1 UC30E Music Horn Loudspeaker

LH1 UC30E Music Horn Loudspeaker Commnications Systems LH1 UC3E Msic Horn Lodspeaker LH1 UC3E Msic Horn Lodspeaker www.boschsecrity.com Excellent speech and msic reprodction Two way system Attractive ABS hosing Provisions for internal

More information

Wildlife Corridors & Crossings State Action. NCEL Chicago Forum November 3, 2017 Ruth Musgrave NCEL Conservation Coordinator

Wildlife Corridors & Crossings State Action. NCEL Chicago Forum November 3, 2017 Ruth Musgrave NCEL Conservation Coordinator Wildlife Corridors & Crossings State Action NCEL Chicago Form November 3, 2017 Rth Msgrave rth@ncel.net NCEL Conservation Coordinator What are Wildlife Corridors and Crossings? Why are they needed? q Corridors:

More information

SDG&E Feeder Protection Philosophy:

SDG&E Feeder Protection Philosophy: SDG&E Feeder Protection Philosophy: Reliability Without Compromising Safety Karl Iliev System Protection and Control Engineering (SPACE) SDG&E 1 SDG&E Distribution System 22,000 miles of lines 60% underground

More information

Oil Circulation-Its Effects on Compressor Capacity, Theory and Experiment

Oil Circulation-Its Effects on Compressor Capacity, Theory and Experiment Prde University Prde e-pbs International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 1972 Oil Circlation-Its Effects on Compressor Capacity, Theory and Experiment K. W. Cooper Borg-Warner

More information

CC600PB Solution 144 Control Panel

CC600PB Solution 144 Control Panel Intrsion Alarm Systems CC600PB Soltion 144 Control Panel CC600PB Soltion 144 Control Panel www.boschsecrity.com 16 on-board zones (expandable to 144 wired or wireless), partitionable to 8 areas with 256

More information

The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative. Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the

The Exploration on the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative. Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Te Exploration on te Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and te Mecanism of te Teoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycle Zao Lei, Zao Xijin, Hu Andu Professor, graduate

More information

Multi-Family Green Building Programs. Chris Johnson Johnson Environmental Subsidiary of, Integro Services Group, Inc. Engineers and Architects

Multi-Family Green Building Programs. Chris Johnson Johnson Environmental Subsidiary of, Integro Services Group, Inc. Engineers and Architects Mlti-Family Green Bilding Programs Chris Johnson Johnson Environmental Sbsidiary of, Integro Services Grop, Inc. Engineers and Architects In accordance with the Department of Labor and Indstry s statte

More information

luxcontrol lighting control system SWITCH sensors smartswitch HF 5DP f Automatic switching based on motion and light level

luxcontrol lighting control system SWITCH sensors smartswitch HF 5DP f Automatic switching based on motion and light level Automatic switcing base on motion an ligt level Prouct escription Motion etector for luminaire installation Motion etection troug glass an tin materials (except metal) For automatic on/off switcing of

More information

VAmP 120. Arc Flash Protection Units. Arc Protection. Customer benefits

VAmP 120. Arc Flash Protection Units. Arc Protection. Customer benefits Arc Protection 01 VAmP 120 Arc Flash Protection Units Customer benefits Personnel Safety A fast and reliable arc protection unit may save human lives in case of an arc fault arising in a switchgear during

More information

ICP-AMAX3-P2-EN Intrusion panel, fr/de/nl/pt

ICP-AMAX3-P2-EN Intrusion panel, fr/de/nl/pt Intrsion Alarm Systems ICP-AMAX3-P2-EN Intrsion panel, fr/de/nl/pt ICP-AMAX3-P2-EN Intrsion panel, fr/de/nl/pt www.boschsecrity.com 32 zones / 8 areas / 128 ser codes On-board voice dialer Macro fnctionality

More information

HEATER E L E CT R I C DUCT RENEWAIRE EVERYWHERE EVERY GEOGRAPHY, EVERY CLIMATE, EVERY HOME, EVERY BUILDING AND EVERY APPLICATION

HEATER E L E CT R I C DUCT RENEWAIRE EVERYWHERE EVERY GEOGRAPHY, EVERY CLIMATE, EVERY HOME, EVERY BUILDING AND EVERY APPLICATION E L E CT R I C DUCT HEATER FLIPPABLE EK SERIES SHOWN RH SERIES RH-W SHOWN RENEWAIRE ERV + ELECTRIC DUCT HEATER: A SINGLE-SOURCE SOLUTION RENEWAIRE EVERYWHERE EVERY GEOGRAPHY, EVERY CLIMATE, EVERY HOME,

More information

LC4 Ceiling Loudspeaker Range

LC4 Ceiling Loudspeaker Range Commnications Systems LC4 Ceiling Lodspeaker Range LC4 Ceiling Lodspeaker Range www.boschsecrity.com Innovative CosCone fll range driver Excellent speech and msic reprodction Unrivalled opening angle for

More information

LBC 3200/00 Line Array Indoor Loudspeaker

LBC 3200/00 Line Array Indoor Loudspeaker Commnications Systems LBC 3200/00 Line Array Indoor Lodspeaker LBC 3200/00 Line Array Indoor Lodspeaker www.boschsecrity.com Extended listening area Excellent intelligibility of speech and msic Uniform

More information

Technical System Catalogue Chillers for IT cooling

Technical System Catalogue Chillers for IT cooling Tecnical System Catalogue Cillers for IT cooling Cillers for IT cooling Te Rittal IT ciller in conjunction wit free cooling supplies exceptionally energy- and cost-efficient IT cooling media. Te system

More information

Step by Step Detailed Procedure Expected Result Observations Verify power off at all loads on emergency power. Verify all loads have power.

Step by Step Detailed Procedure Expected Result Observations Verify power off at all loads on emergency power. Verify all loads have power. 1. ATS Breaker Open ATS Breaker Verify power off at all loads on emergency power. Close ATS Breaker & put ATS Sw. to Auto Verify all loads have power. 2. Generator Cold Open normal power breaker & immediately

More information

Control Panel-Based Alarm System

Control Panel-Based Alarm System Control Panel-Based Alarm System Installation Programming Operating Keep this manal safe for reference and ftre maintenance Introdction Contents Thank yo for choosing the Yale Wireless Alarm System. This

More information

AMAX panel Intrusion Alarm Systems AMAX panel zones / 8 areas / 128 user codes. On-board voice dialer

AMAX panel Intrusion Alarm Systems AMAX panel zones / 8 areas / 128 user codes. On-board voice dialer Intrsion Alarm Systems AMAX panel 3000 AMAX panel 3000 www.boschsecrity.com 32 zones / 8 areas / 128 ser codes On-board voice dialer Macro fnctionality USB direct connection This hybrid panel is designed

More information

Independent Zone Control (I.Z.C.)

Independent Zone Control (I.Z.C.) Operation and Installation Guide Independent Zone Control (I.Z.C.) DELAYED INSTANT ARMED 1 2 3 4 7 5 6 8 9 * * fi Radionics R D279A Operation & Installation Guide 46456B Page 2 Copyright 2000 Radionics

More information

INDEX 1. LAY-OUT OF ELECTRICAL BOX LAYOUT AND COMPONENTS OF E124 BOARD... 5

INDEX 1. LAY-OUT OF ELECTRICAL BOX LAYOUT AND COMPONENTS OF E124 BOARD... 5 E124 INDEX 1. LAY-OUT OF ELECTRICAL BOX... 3 2. LAYOUT AND COMPONENTS OF E124 BOARD... 5 2.1 Description o components...5 2.2 Tecnical speciications...6 2.3 Inputs deault setting terminal board...6 3.

More information

Thermal performance of hydronic radiator with flow pulsation Numerical investigation Embaye, Mebrahtu; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad

Thermal performance of hydronic radiator with flow pulsation Numerical investigation Embaye, Mebrahtu; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad Thermal performance of hydronic radiator with flow plsation Nmerical investigation Embaye, Mebraht; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmod, Saad DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.12.056 License: Other (please specify

More information

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF THERMOSTAT SETTINGS ON THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS

AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF THERMOSTAT SETTINGS ON THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS International Journal of Technology (2018) 2: 364-371 ISSN 2086-9614 IJTech 2018 AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF THERMOSTAT SETTINGS ON THE ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF HOUSEHOLD REFRIGERATORS

More information

LB1 UMx0E Premium sound Cabinet Loudspeaker Range

LB1 UMx0E Premium sound Cabinet Loudspeaker Range ommnications Systems LB1 UMxE Premim sond abinet Lodspeaker Range LB1 UMxE Premim sond abinet Lodspeaker Range High-fidelity msic and speech reprodction Spplied with adjstable wall monting bracket Self

More information

Case Study: Cabinet Cooling Using a Water and Refrigeration System C m C /

Case Study: Cabinet Cooling Using a Water and Refrigeration System C m C / Case Study: Cabinet Cooling Using a Water and Refrigeration System Escalating computing capabilities and srinking cip packages are leading to corresponding increases in server and rack poer densities.

More information

FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels

FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels Fire Alarm Systems FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels www.boschsecrity.com Spport for p to 508 points on two analog addressable loops Bilt-in Ethernet connector

More information

JW SERIES. Three Phase Thyristor Regulator PSE-351

JW SERIES. Three Phase Thyristor Regulator PSE-351 JW SERIES Three Phase Thyristor Regulator JW Series is compact lightweight three-phase control thyristor regulators enabling high-density instrumentation. The methods of control are divided into two ways,

More information

Operation of a Two-Phase Reverse Loop Thermosyphon

Operation of a Two-Phase Reverse Loop Thermosyphon Journal of Applied Science and Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 259 264 (2015) DOI: 10.6180/jase.2015.18.3.06 Operation of a Two-Phase Reverse Loop Thermosyphon Meng-Chang Tsai 1, Shung-Wen Kang 2 *, Heng-Yi

More information

Distributed Generation (greater than 10kW) Connecting to Vector s electricity network

Distributed Generation (greater than 10kW) Connecting to Vector s electricity network Distributed Generation (greater than 10kW) Connecting to Vector s electricity network Important information about installing distributed generation with capacity greater than 10 kilowatts Purpose of this

More information

LBC 3011/x1 Panel Loudspeakers

LBC 3011/x1 Panel Loudspeakers Commnications Systems LBC 311/x1 Panel Lodspeakers LBC 311/x1 Panel Lodspeakers High-qality speech and msic reprodction Two-way system Simple power setting Flsh-monting in walls, ceilings, or frnitre Srface-monting

More information

IMR Environmental Equipment, Inc Central Ave. St. Petersburg, FL Phone:

IMR Environmental Equipment, Inc Central Ave. St. Petersburg, FL Phone: 6400 IMR Environmental Equipment, Inc. 3634 Central Ave. St. Petersburg, FL 33711 Phone: 727-328-2818 E-Mail: Info@imrusa.com www.imrusa.com Table of Contents I. Overview.... 3 II. Working Principle..

More information

Hot Water Dispenser. Important: Read and save these instructions.

Hot Water Dispenser. Important: Read and save these instructions. Part No. 3184330 nstallation nstrctions/use and Care Gide Hot Water Dispenser mportant: Read and save these instrctions. MPORTANT: nstaller: Leave nstallation nstrctions with homeowner. Homeowner: Keep

More information

FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels

FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels Fire Alarm Systems FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels FPA 1000 Analog Addressable Fire Panels www.boschsecrity.com Spport for p to 508 points on two analog addressable loops Bilt-in Ethernet connector

More information

VAMP 120 & 121. Arc Flash Protection Units. Arc Protection. Customer benefits

VAMP 120 & 121. Arc Flash Protection Units. Arc Protection. Customer benefits 01 VAMP 120 & 121 Arc Flash Protection Units Customer benefits Personnel Safety A fast and reliable arc protection unit may save human lives in case of an arc fault arising in a switchgear during work

More information

ASFP On-site guide to installing fire-stopping

ASFP On-site guide to installing fire-stopping ASFP On-site gide to installing fire-stopping ASFP On-site gide to installing fire-stopping In this gide fire-stopping incldes cavity barriers, penetration seals for services and linear joint seals. The

More information

R32 As a Solution for Energy Conservation and Low Emission

R32 As a Solution for Energy Conservation and Low Emission Prde University Prde e-pbs nternational Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference School of Mechanical Engineering 2 R32 As a Soltion for Energy Conservation and Low Emission R. Yajima Daikin ndstries

More information

Feasibility Study of Condensation Heat Exchanger with Helical Tubes for a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System

Feasibility Study of Condensation Heat Exchanger with Helical Tubes for a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System Feasibility Study of Condensation Heat Exchanger with Helical Tubes for a Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System Kwanghee Seo 1) and Taewan Kim 2)* 1) KEPCO Engineering & Construction Company. INC., 269 Hyeoksin-ro,

More information

FIELD STUDY OF THE ROTARY DESICCANT SYSTEM USING THE CROMER CYCLE BRONISLAVA VELTCHEVA

FIELD STUDY OF THE ROTARY DESICCANT SYSTEM USING THE CROMER CYCLE BRONISLAVA VELTCHEVA FIELD STUDY OF THE ROTARY DESICCANT SYSTEM USING THE CROMER CYCLE By BRONISLAVA VELTCHEVA A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS

More information

PRODUCED BY THE OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE OF ENERGY NETWORKS ASSOCIATION

PRODUCED BY THE OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE OF ENERGY NETWORKS ASSOCIATION PRODUCED BY THE OPERATIONS DIRECTORATE OF ENERGY NETWORKS ASSOCIATION Engineering Recommendation G83 Issue 2 Amendment 1 July 2018 Recommendations for the Connection of Type Tested Small-scale Embedded

More information

New GuideLed safety luminaires

New GuideLed safety luminaires CEAG GuideLed safety luminaires New GuideLed safety luminaires Linear design combined wit ig economy GuideLed SL 111.1, 121.1 CG-S Recessed mounting EN 1838 LED * GuideLed SL 111.1 CG-S IP1 GuideLed SL

More information

Proceedings Design, Fabrication and Optimization of a Silicon MEMS Natural Gas Sensor

Proceedings Design, Fabrication and Optimization of a Silicon MEMS Natural Gas Sensor Proceedings Design, Fabrication and Optimization of a Silicon MEMS Natural Gas Sensor Marjan Shaker 1,, Erik Sundfør 3, Gaël Farine 3, Conor Slater 3, Pierre-André Farine 1 and Danick Briand, * 1 Electronic

More information

V liquid fromopen width textile material

V liquid fromopen width textile material Textile Chemist and Colorist Agst 199O/Vol. 22, No. 8 Basic Principles of Vacm Slot xtraction By ARTHUR D. BROADBNT. University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke. Qebec, Canada acm extraction removes excess V

More information

A TRNSYS Simulation Case Study on Utilization of Heat Pump For both Heating and Cooling

A TRNSYS Simulation Case Study on Utilization of Heat Pump For both Heating and Cooling Energy Science and Technology Vol. 3, No. 2, 2012, pp. 84-92 DOI:10.3968/j.est.1923847920120302.397 ISSN 1923-8460[PRINT] ISSN 1923-8479[ONLINE] www.cscanada.net www.cscanada.org A TRNSYS Simulation Case

More information

B4512 Control Panels. Intrusion Alarm Systems B4512 Control Panels.

B4512 Control Panels. Intrusion Alarm Systems B4512 Control Panels. Intrsion Alarm Systems B4512 Control Panels B4512 Control Panels www.boschsecrity.com Spports p to 28 points sing a combination of hardwired or wireless points for installation flexibility and 2 areas

More information

SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THE FRESH AIR HANDLING UNIT WITH LIQUID DESICCANT TOTAL HEAT RECOVERY

SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THE FRESH AIR HANDLING UNIT WITH LIQUID DESICCANT TOTAL HEAT RECOVERY SIMULATION ANALYSIS ON THE FRESH AIR HANDLING UNIT WITH LIQUID DESICCANT TOTAL HEAT RECOVERY Xiaoyun Xie, Yidan Tang, Xiaoqin Yi, Shuanqiang Liu,Yi Jiang Department of Building Science and Technology,

More information

AMAX3-P2ENG Intrusion kit, fr/de/nl/pt, GPRS

AMAX3-P2ENG Intrusion kit, fr/de/nl/pt, GPRS Intrsion Alarm Systems AMAX3-P2ENG Intrsion kit, fr/de/nl/pt, GPRS AMAX3-P2ENG Intrsion kit, fr/de/nl/pt, GPRS www.boschsecrity.com This kit incldes the following: One AMAX panel with langage package 2:

More information

* How much fresh intake air reaches the box cut face

* How much fresh intake air reaches the box cut face 157 Ventilating the Box Ct of a Two-Pass 4-ft xtended Ct dward D. Thimons, Charles D. Taylor, and Jeanne A. Zimmer NIOSH Pittsbrgh Research Laboratory Pittsbrgh, PA 15236 ABSTRACT On a continos miner coal

More information

FiberSystem. Fiber Optic Linear Heat Detection for Special Hazard Applications

FiberSystem. Fiber Optic Linear Heat Detection for Special Hazard Applications FiberSystem 4000 Fiber Optic Linear Heat Detection for Special Hazard Applications The Protectowire Fiber Optic System In today s complex industrial environments, the potential for down time and financial

More information

Development Of A Low-Cost Heat Pump Water Heater For Residential Applications

Development Of A Low-Cost Heat Pump Water Heater For Residential Applications Development Of A Low-Cost Heat Pump Water Heater For Residential Applications Robert A. Zogg, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA Edward Barbour, Arthur D. Little, Inc., Washington, DC Brian J. Nowicki,

More information

TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SOUND AND VIBRATION, ICSV10 REAL TIME CONTROL OF SOUND PRESSURE AND ENERGY DENSITY IN A MINING VEHICLE CABIN

TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SOUND AND VIBRATION, ICSV10 REAL TIME CONTROL OF SOUND PRESSURE AND ENERGY DENSITY IN A MINING VEHICLE CABIN Colin Hansen, page number 1 TENTH INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON SOUND AND VIBRATION, ICSV10 REAL TIME CONTROL OF SOUND PRESSURE AND ENERGY DENSITY IN A MINING VEHICLE CABIN Colin H. Hansen, Daniel A. Stanef

More information

Each burner shall be equipped with a Micro-Processor Based Burner Management Flame Safeguard and Parallel Positioning Control System.

Each burner shall be equipped with a Micro-Processor Based Burner Management Flame Safeguard and Parallel Positioning Control System. Product Guide Specification Nexus Integrated Burner Control System 1. General 1.1 Overview Each burner shall be equipped with a Micro-Processor Based Burner Management Flame Safeguard and Parallel Positioning

More information

Safety Instructions MS 10B ALARM UNIT MS 10B ALARM UNIT. Used symbols. Always observe this information to prevent damage to the device

Safety Instructions MS 10B ALARM UNIT MS 10B ALARM UNIT. Used symbols. Always observe this information to prevent damage to the device Safety Instructions Used symbols Important Comments Before starting with installation of the MS 10B Alarm Unit, we recommend you to read the important information beneath. Qualification The installation

More information

Asphalt. Tel: +44 (0) u Fax: +44 (0) u

Asphalt. Tel: +44 (0) u Fax: +44 (0) u Asphalt 45 Analysis and Binder Recovery 45 Design and Testing of Bitminos Mixtres 45 Specific Gravity 46 Bitmen and Tar 47 Temperatre and Density 47 Core Drilling 47 Pavement The main engineering se of

More information

This EREC G98 draft uses text from a number of sources and is therefore colour coded to demonstrate where the words have come from as follows.

This EREC G98 draft uses text from a number of sources and is therefore colour coded to demonstrate where the words have come from as follows. To incorporate the EU Network Code Requirement for Generators (RfG) with existing GB documentation a number of new Engineering Recommendations are being drafted. G98 covers the connection procedure and

More information