Wildland and WUI Fire Research Planning Workshop PROCEEDINGS

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1 Wildland and WUI Fire Research Planning Workshop PROCEEDINGS HELD: 14 July 2015 in Centennial Colorado PREPARED BY: Casey C. Grant, P.E. Fire Protection Research Foundation Quincy, Massachusetts USA September 2015 Fire Protection Research Foundation FIRE PROTECTION RESEARCH FOUNDATION ONE BATTERMARCH PARK QUINCY, MASSACHUSETTS, USA WEB:

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3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Fires in the wildland and in wildland urban interface (WUI) communities are a growing problem. These fires have massive economic impacts both in the structural loss, affecting businesses and households, and the cost of fire suppression and re-forestation. This workshop was conducted on 14 July 2015, and held at the Embassy Suites Denver Tech Center, East Costilla Avenue, Centennial, Colorado. Forty-two fire protection and safety professionals attended. The goal of the workshop was to provide clarification of the research needs for the wildland and WUI fire problem by: reviewing related research, discussing trends, and identification/prioritization of research needs. This activity is intended to directly support the applicable NFPA Technical Committees and programs. The summary observations from this discussion are separated according to the sub-topics of Fire Management and Fire Protection Page ii -----

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The workshop has been made possible through support from the: National Fire Protection Association This workshop summary report has been prepared by Casey Grant, Executive Director for the Fire Protection Research Foundation. The information contained herein is based on the input of numerous professionals and subject-matter-experts. While considerable effort has been taken to accurately document this input, the final interpretation of the information contained herein resides with the report author. Photographs included in this report were taken at the workshop by Micelle Steinberg, NFPA About the Fire Protection Research Foundation The Fire Protection Research Foundation plans, manages, and communicates research on a broad range of fire safety issues in collaboration with scientists and laboratories around the world. The Foundation is an affiliate of NFPA. About the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Founded in 1896, NFPA is a global, nonprofit organization devoted to eliminating death, injury, property and economic loss due to fire, electrical and related hazards. The association delivers information and knowledge through more than 300 consensus codes and standards, research, training, education, outreach and advocacy; and by partnering with others who share an interest in furthering the NFPA mission. All NFPA codes and standards can be viewed online for free. NFPA's membership totals more than 65,000 individuals around the world. Keywords: wildland, fire WUI, wildland urban interface, research planning Page iii -----

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary ii Acknowledgements iii Table of Contents iv 1. Introduction and Background Update on Codes, Standards and Related Programs Review of Recent/On-Going Wildland/WUI Fire Related Research Summary Observations Annex A: Workshop Participants and Attendees Annex B: Workshop PowerPoint Slides Annex C: Code Fund Request Form Page iv -----

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7 1) INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Fires in the wildland and in wildland urban interface (WUI) communities are a growing problem. The last 15 years contains six of this century s top ten most damaging U.S. single fire events; all of these events occurred in WUI communities. On a larger scale, wildland fires account for approximately 57 casualties/year worldwide. [Sources: Hall, The Total Cost of Fire, NFPA, 2009; and Headwaters Economics, WUI Fire Fact Sheet, 2011]. These fires have massive economic impacts both in the structural loss, affecting businesses and households, and the cost of fire suppression and re-forestation. Over 46 million homes in 70,000 U.S communities are at risk of WUI fires. These WUI fires have destroyed an average of 3,000 structures annually in the U.S. over the last decade and this threat continues to rapidly grow. [Source: Maranghides, WUI Fire Data Collection and Exposure Modeling Project, 2011]. Since 2000, over 38,000 homes have been lost to WUI fires in the U.S. In 2009, the total cost of WUI fire was estimated to be over $14 billion. Suppression costs alone were estimated to exceed $4.5 billion in 2013 [Sources: Hall, The Total Cost of Fire, NFPA, 2009; and Headwaters Economics, WUI Fire Fact Sheet, 2011]. This half day workshop will seek to clarify the research needs for the wildland and WUI fire problem by: reviewing related research, discussing trends, and identification/prioritization of research needs. This activity is intended to directly support the NFPA Technical Committees and programs such as: TC on Wildland & Rural Fire Protection (NFPA 1141, 1142, 1144); TC on Wildland Fire Management (NFPA 1143, 1145); TC on Wildland Fire Fighting Protective Clothing and Equipment (NFPA 1977); NFPA s Firewise Communities Program; and NFPA s Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone Seminar. The workshop was conducted on 14 July 2015, and held at the Embassy Suites Denver Tech Center, East Costilla Avenue, Centennial, Colorado. Forty-two fire protection and safety professionals attended; the list of attendees is included in Annex A: Workshop Participants and Attendees. The PowerPoint slides used by the speakers are included in Annex B: Workshop PowerPoint Slides. An example of one of the presentations is shown in Figure 1, and the agenda for the workshop Is shown in Figure 2. Figure 1: Workshop Presentation by the NFPA Wildland Fire Operations Division Page 1 of

8 Figure 2: Workshop Agenda The overall workshop was facilitated by Casey Grant of the Fire Protection Research Foundation. Speakers that utilized slides included Ryan Depew addressing the NFPA Codes and Standards, Michele Steinberg and her staff (Aron Anderson, Faith Berry, Cheryl Blake Lucian Deaton, Cathy Prudhomme, and Tom Welle) addressing the NFPA Wildland Fire Operations activities, and Dr. Michael Gollner of the University of Maryland addressing the case study project on Pathways to Fire Spread on Fires in the Wildland Urban Interface. Additional presentations were provided by others addressing research at their respective organizations, including Nelson Bryner of NIST, Dr. Steve Quarles of IBHS, Cory Butler of NIOSH, and George Broyles, Tony Petrilli and Dr. Bret Butler of the US Forest Service Page 2 of

9 2) UPDATE ON CODES, STANDARDS AND RELATED PROGRAMS The purpose of this workshop is to help shape the direction and focus of the research needed in wildland and WUI topic areas, in support of the NFPA codes, standards and related programs. As such, this section clarifies the NFPA activities addressing wildland and WUI topic areas. Addressing wildland and WUI topic areas is a priority for NFPA. While there are multiple other divisions within NFPA that provide supplemental support among their other assigned topic areas (e.g., NFPA Public Affairs Division and the Fire Protection Research Foundation), the NFPA has the following two key operational activities that directly address the wildland and WUI topic areas: 1) NFPA Wildland Fire Operations Division (which includes the Firewise Communities Program); and 2) NFPA Codes and Standards through the Public Fire Protection Division. 2.1) NFPA Wildland Fire Operations Division and Firewise Communities Program NFPA has been engaged in outreach and advocacy on wildfire safety since 1986 with the advent of a cooperative agreement between NFPA and the USDA Forest Service. The agreement, which has been renewed and expanded over the past three decades, is the foundation for the establishment of the Firewise Communities Program and related outreach activities. Specifically, the program promotes local safety solutions by involving homeowners to prepare their homes from the risk of wildfire (see The program today is co-sponsored by USDA Forest Service, the US Department of the Interior, and the National Association of State Foresters. Firewise is a key component of Fire Adapted Communities a collaborative approach that connects multiple organizations that are focused on wildfire education, planning and management. The community recognition component of the program (Firewise Communities/USA ), launched in 2002, currently engages more than 1,200 neighborhoods in a formal voluntary process of wildfire risk reduction. The expansion of WUI areas and increasing wildfire risks led NFPA to establish its Wildland Fire Operations Division in Its mission is to protect people and property in communities at risk from wildfire through NFPA s role as a visible, trusted and recognized advocate, consensusbuilder and authoritative leader (see The Division has widespread duties in support of its mission, including the facilitation of nationallyaccepted standards addressing wildfire risk areas, education of property owners facing the wildfire risk, improvement of statistical information on wildland fires and home losses, and cultivation of global partnerships. In addition to the Firewise program, the Division develops and delivers the Assessing Wildfire Hazards in the Home Ignition Zone seminar, and hosts a biennial education conference, Backyards & Beyond, in furtherance of its mission. 2.2) NFPA Codes and Standards The NFPA codes and standards are a primary activity at NFPA, and they were the basis for the founding of the Association in 1896 when the NFPA was established. The NFPA standards addressing wildfires date to the 1930s when the NFPA Forest Committee provided Community Page 3 of

10 Forest Fire Fighting Equipment (1934) and Fire Protection and Prevention for Summer Homes in Forested Areas (1935). These documents are still active today in the form of NFPA 1906, Standard on Wildland Fire Apparatus (2016) and NFPA 1144, Standard for Reducing Structure Ignition Hazards from Wildland Fire (2013). Figure 3 provides an illustration of the covers of these early standards. The current documents in the NFPA system addressing wildland and WUI fire risks fall into the following Technical Committee activities: Technical Committee on Wildland & Rural Fire Protection Technical Committee on Wildland Fire Management Technical Committee on Wildland Fire Fighting Protective Clothing and Equipment Technical Committee on Respiratory Protection Equipment Technical Committee on Wildland Fire Fighting Personnel Professional Qualifications Technical Committee on Fire Department Apparatus Technical Committee on Fire Service Occupational Safety and Health The following sections provide an overview of each of these NFPA Technical Committee projects, and the scope of activities and the documents that they administer ) Technical Committee on Wildland & Rural Fire Protection TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This committee shall have the primary responsibility for documents on fire protection in wildland, rural, and suburban areas. NFPA 1141, Standard for Fire Protection Infrastructure for Land Development in Wildland, Rural, and Suburban Areas DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard covers the requirements for the fire protection infrastructure in wildland, rural, and suburban areas where there is an intended change of land use or intended land development. NFPA 1142, Standard on Water Supplies for Suburban and Rural Fire Fighting DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard identifies a method of determining the minimum requirements for alternative water supplies for structural fire-fighting purposes in areas where the authority having jurisdiction (AHJ) determines that adequate and reliable water supply systems for fire-fighting purposes do not otherwise exist. An adequate and reliable municipal-type water supply is one that is sufficient every day of the year to control and extinguish anticipated fires in the municipality, particular building, or building group served by the water supply. NFPA 1144, Standard for Reducing Structure Ignition Hazards from Wildland Fire DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard provides a methodology for assessing wildland fire ignition hazards around existing structures, residential developments, and subdivisions and improved property or planned property improvement that will be located in a wildland/urban interface area, and provides minimum requirements for new construction to reduce the potential of structure ignition from wildland fires ) Technical Committee on Wildland Fire Management TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This committee shall have the primary responsibility for documents on wildland fire management Page 4 of

11 NFPA 1143, Standard for Wildland Fire Management DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard provides minimum requirements to fire protection organizations on the management of wildland fire, including prevention, mitigation, preparation, and suppression. NFPA 1145, Guide for the Use of Class A Foams in Manual Structural Fire Fighting DOCUMENT SCOPE: (1.1.1) This document presents information for agencies planning to use Class A foam for structural fire fighting and protection. It presents information on foam properties and characteristics, proportioning and discharge hardware, application techniques, and safety considerations. (1.1.2) This document describes the use and application of Class A foams that meet the requirements of NFPA 1150, Standard on Foam Chemicals for Fires in Class A Fuels. (1.1.3) This document does not apply to the use of Class A foam in sprinkler systems or on fires involving Class B flammable or combustible liquids. (1.1.4) This document is not written for applications of Class A foam in the wildland fire environment. However, much of the material in this guide can be helpful to those who use Class A foam in wildland fire applications. See Annex B for publications that address use of Class A foam in wildland applications. (1.1.5) This document is not intended to discourage the use of emerging technologies and practices, provided that the recommended level of safety is not lessened ) Technical Committee on Wildland Fire Fighting Protective Clothing and Equipment TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on protective clothing and protective equipment, except respiratory protective equipment, that provides hand, foot, torso, limb and head protection, as well as interface protection for fire fighters or other emergency services responders during incidents involving wildland fire fighting operations. These operations include the activities of fire suppression and property conservation in forest, brush, grass, ground cover, and other such vegetation that is not within structures but that is involved in fire. Additionally, this Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on the selection, care, and maintenance of wildland fire fighting protective clothing and protective equipment by fire and emergency services organizations and personnel. NFPA 1977, Standard on Protective Clothing and Equipment for Wildland Fire Fighting DOCUMENT SCOPE: (1.1.1) This standard shall specify the minimum design, performance, testing, and certification requirements for items of wildland fire fighting protective clothing and equipment, including protective garments, protective helmets, protective gloves, protective footwear, protective goggles, and protective chain saw protectors; and for load-carrying equipment. (1.1.2) This standard shall specify requirements for any accessories or enhancements built into, attached to, or sold with the certified wildland fire fighting protective clothing and equipment and for load-carrying equipment by the product manufacturer for later attachment and shall be tested with the wildland fire fighting protective clothing and equipment and for load-carrying equipment with those accessories and enhancements installed or attached, as specified in (1.1.3*) This standard shall not be interpreted as providing criteria for respiratory protection for wildland fire fighting operations as wildland fire fighting respiratory protection equipment is specified in NFPA 1984, Standard on Respirators for Wildland Fire- Fighting Operations. (1.1.4) This standard alone shall not be interpreted as providing criteria for protective clothing or equipment for structural fire fighting operations. (1.1.5) This standard shall not be interpreted as providing criteria for fire shelters for wildland fire entrapment situations. (1.1.6) This standard shall not be construed as addressing all safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It shall be the responsibility of the persons and organizations that use this standard to establish safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use of this standard. (1.1.7) Certification of wildland fire fighting protective clothing and Page 5 of

12 equipment to the requirements of this standard shall not preclude certification to additional appropriate standards where the protective clothing or equipment meet all applicable requirements of each standard. (1.1.8) This standard shall not be construed as addressing all of the safety concerns associated with the use of compliant respirators. It shall be the responsibility of the persons and organizations that use compliant respirators to establish safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (1.1.9) This standard shall not be construed as addressing all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with the use of this standard by testing facilities. It shall be the responsibility of the persons and organizations that use this standard to conduct testing of respirators to establish safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to using this standard for any designing, manufacturing, and testing. (1.1.10) Nothing herein shall be construed to restrict any jurisdiction or manufacturer from exceeding these minimum requirements ) Technical Committee on Respiratory Protection Equipment TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on respiratory equipment, including breathing air, for fire and emergency services personnel during incidents involving hazardous or oxygen deficient atmospheres. This Committee shall also have primary responsibility for documents on the selection, care, and maintenance of respiratory protection equipment and systems by fire and emergency services organizations and personnel. NFPA 1984, Standard on Respirators for Wildland Fire Fighting Operations DOCUMENT SCOPE: 1.1.1) This standard shall specify the minimum design, performance, testing, and certification requirements for respirators to provide protection from inhalation hazards for personnel conducting wildland fire-fighting operations. (1.1.2) This standard shall specify only respirator requirements for use in non-idlh (immediately dangerous to life and health) wildland environments during wildland fire-fighting operations. (1.1.3) This standard shall specify requirements for any accessories or enhancements built into, attached to, or sold with the certified wildland fire-fighting respirator by the respirator manufacturer for later attachment and which shall be tested with the wildland fire-fighting respirator and with those accessories and enhancements installed or attached, as specified in and (1.1.4) This standard shall not specify requirements for any wildland fire-fighting protective clothing and protective equipment other than that identified in through (1.1.5) This standard shall not specify requirements for respirators for any other fire-fighting operations other than those identified in and 1.1.2, any technical rescue operation, any hazardous materials emergencies, or any CBRN incident operations. (1.1.6) Certification of respirators for wildland fire-fighting operations to the requirements of this standard shall not preclude certification to additional appropriate standards where the respirator meets all the applicable requirements of each standard. (1.1.7) This standard shall not be construed as addressing all of the safety concerns associated with the use of compliant respirators. It shall be the responsibility of the persons and organizations that use compliant respirators to establish safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (1.1.8) This standard shall not be construed as addressing all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with the use of this standard by testing facilities. It shall be the responsibility of the persons and organizations that use this standard to conduct testing of respirators to establish safety and health practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to using this standard for any designing, manufacturing, and testing. (1.1.9) Nothing herein shall restrict any jurisdiction or manufacturer from exceeding these minimum requirements Page 6 of

13 2.2.5) Technical Committee on Wildland Fire Fighting Personnel Professional Qualifications TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on professional qualifications for personnel engaged in wildland fire management. NFPA 1051, Standard for Wildland Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard shall identify the minimum job performance requirements (JPRs) for wildland fire duties and responsibilities ) Technical Committee on Fire Department Apparatus TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on the design and performance of fire apparatus for use by the fire service. NFPA 1906, Standard for Wildland Fire Apparatus DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard shall define the minimum requirements for the design, performance, and testing of new automotive fire apparatus that are designed primarily to support wildland fire suppression operations ) Technical Committee on Fire Service Occupational Safety and Health TECHNICAL COMMITTEE SCOPE: This Committee shall have primary responsibility for documents on occupational safety and health in the working environment of the fire service. The Committee shall also have responsibility for documents related to medical requirements for fire fighters, and the professional qualifications for Fire Department Safety Officer. NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program DOCUMENT SCOPE: This standard shall contain minimum requirements for a fire service related occupational safety and health program Figure 3: Covers of 1934 and 1935 Editions of NFPA Wildland Related Standards Page 7 of

14 Figure 4: Workshop Presentation on Case Study Project on Pathways to Fire Spread on Fires in the Wildland Urban Interface Page 8 of

15 3) RECENT/ON-GOING WILDLAND/WUI FIRE RELATED RESEARCH The applicable information relating to wildland and WUI fire research was discussed, and it was indicated and generally agreed that this is an expansive topic area with much activity. The specific research projects, both previous and current, that have had direct and indirect involvement with the Fire Protection Research Foundation were reviewed. The FPRF Code Fund process was likewise reviewed, which provides limited funding each year from NFPA to stimulate research is selected key areas. The Code Fund submittal form is included in Annex C, which provides a convenient one-page form to help package worthwhile research ideas. Dr. Michael Gollner of the University of Maryland addressed the case study project on Pathways to Fire Spread on Fires in the Wildland Urban Interface. Presentations were also provided by others addressing research through their respective organizations. This included: Nelson Bryner of NIST, Dr. Steve Quarles of IBHS, Cory Butler of NIOSH, and George Broyles, Tony Petrilli and Dr. Bret Butler of the US Forest Service. The following is a summary of various wildland and WUI fire research and reports (Note: this summary is not all-inclusive, and is intended to provide noteworthy examples): USFS (U.S. Forest Service) o Joint Fire Science Program: o USDA Forest Products Laboratory: o US Forest Service Technology & Development: o US Forest Service R&D Stations (addressing fire): o Fire & Aviation Management Program: o Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory: o Northern Research Station: o Pacific Northwest Research Station: o Pacific Southwest Research Station: o Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Laboratory: o Rocky Mountain Research Station: NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) o Wildland Urban Interface Fires: o WUI Fire Group: NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) o Fighting Wildfires: o Publications and Resources: o National Occupational Research Agenda: DHS/FEMA AFG Program (Assistance to Fire Fighters Grants): o Fire Prevention and Safety Grants Research & Development: Page 9 of

16 o Multiple projects and centers of research (e.g., academia, etc ). USFA (US Fire Administration): o National Fire Academy: o Data, Publications and Library: NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research): o Research Applications Laboratory: o Computational and Information Systems Laboratory: ncar-program-operating-plan/80-computational-andinformation-systems NIFC (National Interagency Fire Center): o Wildland Situation Report: o National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWCG, via DLA): IIBHS (Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety): o Research Center: NFPA (National Fire Protection Association): o Fire Protection Research Foundation: o Fire Analysis & Research: Others (e.g., DOLA: Colorado Department of Local Affairs) Page 10 of

17 4) SUMMARY OBSERVATIONS A review of all the key themes and pertinent points of information that were raised during the workshop were distilled into a set of summary observations. This is based on presentations and discussions that occurred throughout the Workshop, along with supplemental information that was addressed during in Workshop discussions. 4.1) Summary Observations from Presentations A presentation by Dr. Michael Gollner of the University of Maryland focused on their recent research study on Pathways for WUI Fire Spread, which includes a summary of the perceived research gaps on this topic. [Source: Gollner, Pathways for Building Fire Spread at the Wildland Urban Interface, Fire Protection Research Foundation, March 2015]. This report identifies the pathways for fire spread at the wildland urban interface and identifies the gaps in information to inform prevention and protection strategies. There are multiple potential pathways for wildland fires to ignite buildings within the WUI. For example, this includes both fire and ember exposure, and depends on the characteristics of the wildland (e.g., fuels, terrain, weather, etc.), the characteristics of the community (e.g., construction materials, building designs, housing density, landscaping, etc.), and the characteristics of the interface (e.g., separation distance, physical barriers, extent of perimeter, etc.). A summary of the perceived research gaps from this project are illustrated in Figure 5, Summary of Research Gaps from Project on Pathways for WUI Fire Spread. Figure 5: Summary of Research Gaps from Project on Pathways for WUI Fire Spread Page 11 of

18 4.2) Summary Observations from Plenary Discussion The following represent the primary issues offered for consideration in the plenary discussion as WUI and Wildland research topics. These are separated in the two basic groups consistent with the two central NFPA Technical Committees addressing this topic area: Fire Management and Fire Protection ) Fire Management This section addresses the first basic topic area of Fire Management. Because the list is relatively short it is not in any particular order of priority. Interestingly, the most talked-about topic was the NFPA 1142 water supply table, which at this time is a significant issue that this particular Technical Committee is struggling to address and in need of scientific support. Clarify and define the WUI fire fighting environment that is a mix of wildland and urban fire fighters (in terms of PPE, apparatus, tools, tactics, strategy, training, best practices, proqual, etc.) Address situational awareness of fire fighters in the WUI and wildland (consider using competitive challenge approach, or proof-of-concept approach) Establish scientific basis for NFPA 1142 water supply table Clarify fire flow formula Address multiple structures like a WUI event Address equipment limitations Clarify use of water gels and water additives Evaluate real-time data collection and usage with UAVs/UASs Address for wildland and also WUI, which have different characteristics (e.g., distances, etc.) Consider using competitive challenge approach, or proof-of-concept approach Clarify strategies for using apparatus for shelter in place 4.2.2) Fire Protection This section addresses the second basic topic area of Fire Protection, and as with the previous section, the list is relatively short and not in any particular order of priority. Update NFIRS and other national data collection programs to meaningfully address WUI and Wildland Develop representative test method for ember exposure (address assemblies as well as materials) Clarify the understanding of exposures in the WUI o Address home spacing o Evaluate use of sprinklers and other built-in fire protection measures o Evaluate the impact of fences, and especially plastic fences Clarify planning strategies for open spaces (roads, green spaces, etc.) Address the fire integrity of road culverts, which have failed in multiple fires and seriously impacted fire management activities Evaluate code-application effectiveness and establish metrics o Clarify methods for pre-event evaluation o Define post-event evaluation methods Page 12 of

19 Develop on-line peer-supported, neighborhood-oriented WUI assessment methodology o Model based on certain local approaches (like Colorado Springs), but roll-out on a national scale o Address post-fire evaluation as well as pre-event preparation o Consider crowdsourcing model o Address and clarify metrics to make sure science supports approach Develop research clearinghouse, with an analysis of research availability (consider crowdsourcing approach for research updates) Page 13 of

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21 ANNEX A: WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS AND ATTENDEES The following were the workshop attendees at the Wildland and WUI Fire Research Planning Workshop in Centennial Colorado on Tuesday 14 July 2015: Paul Acosta, Colorado State Fire Fighters Association Aron Anderson, National Fire Protection Association Faith Berry, National Fire Protection Association Cheryl Blake, National Fire Protection Association Randall Bradley, Stanislaus Consolidated Fire Protection District George Broyles, US Forest Service Technology and Development Center Nelson Bryner, National Institute of Standards and Technology Bret Butler, US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station Corey Butler, CDC / National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Lorraine Carli, National Fire Protection Association Vernon Champlin, NE Teller Fire Protection District Erik Christiansen, Exponent Lucian Deaton, National Fire Protection Association Ryan Depew, National Fire Protection Association Dave Evans, Home Safety Foundation / Virginia Department of Forestry Michael Gollner, University of Maryland Dan Gorham, National Fire Protection Association Casey Grant, Fire Protection Research Foundation William Hendricks, Safer Building Solutions Justice Jones, Austin Fire Department Jeremy Keller, Bellefontaine Fire Department / Ohio Fire Chiefs Association Bob Kowalski, Nationwide Matthew Lee, CAL Fire Paula Levesque, National Fire Protection Association Tom McGowan, National Fire Protection Association Don Oaks, California Fire Chiefs Association Tony Petrilli, US Forest Service Technology and Development Center James Pine, San Diego County Fire Authority Cathy Prudhomme, National Fire Protection Association Stephen Quarles, Insurance Institute for Business & Home Safety Christina Randall, Colorado Springs Fire Department Ernie Schmidt, 3M Fire Protection Products Gregory Schreiner, San Diego County Fire Authority Ray Scott, Home Safety Foundation / Virginia Department of Forestry Deborah Shaner, Shaner Life Safety Amy Ray Solaro, Truckee Meadows Fire Protection District Michele Steinberg, National Fire Protection Association Rick Swan, IAFF Local 2881 / CDF Fire Fighters Brian Walsh, National Fire Protection Association Bill Watters, Verisk Analytics / ISO Thomas Welle, National Fire Protection Association Todd Wood, National Park Service Page 15 of

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23 ANNEX B: WORKSHOP POWERPOINT SLIDES Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (1 of 13) Page 17 of

24 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (2 of 13) Page 18 of

25 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (3 of 13) Page 19 of

26 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (4 of 13) Page 20 of

27 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (5 of 13) Page 21 of

28 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (6 of 13) Page 22 of

29 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (7 of 13) Page 23 of

30 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (8 of 13) Page 24 of

31 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (9 of 13) Page 25 of

32 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (10 of 13) Page 26 of

33 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (11 of 13) Page 27 of

34 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (12 of 13) Page 28 of

35 Figure 6: Workshop PowerPoint Slides (13 of 13) Page 29 of

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37 ANNEX C: CODE FUND REQUEST FORM The following is the Code Fund Request Form (available at used to package and consider projects by the Fire Protection Research Foundation: Page 31 of

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