Studies on Performance of Different Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn) Cultivars and their Vase Life" THESIS

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1 Studies on Performance of Different Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn) Cultivars and their Vase Life" THESIS Submitted to the Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya Jabalpur in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE in AGRICULTURE (Horticulture) RAKESH MAHOVIYA Department of Horticulture Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, INDORE

2 CERTIFICATE -I This is to certify that the thesis entitled "Studies on performance of different tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn) cultivars and their vase life." Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE (HORTICULTURE) of the Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) is a record of the bonafide research work carried out by Mr. RAKESH MAHOVIYA Id. No. 264/97, under my guidance and supervision. The subject of the thesis have been approved by the students advisory committee and the Director of Instructions, J.N.K.V.V., Jabalpur. No part of the thesis has been submitted for any other degree or diploma (certificate awarded etc.) or has been published. All the assistance and help received during the course of investigation have been duly acknowledged by him. Place Indore Date Dr. N Chairmen of the Thesis has been approved by the students advisory committee pta V d~ committee CHAIRMAN Dr. N. K. GUPTA MEMBER Dr. A. C. PATHAK ~i...r. MEMBER - Prof. G. V. KATTI MEMBER. - Dr.H.C.TIWARI

3 CERTIFICATE -II This is to certify that the thesis entitled "Studies on performance of different tuberose (Polianihes tuberosa Jinn) cultivars and their vase life. Submitted by Mr. RAKESH MAHOVIYA Id. No. 264/97 to the Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE (HORTICULTURE) has after evaluation been approved by the external examiner and by the student's advisory committee after an oral examination on the same. Place Indore Date (Dr. N. Chairman of the advisry committee Members of the advisory committee. CHAIRMAN Dr. N. K. GUPTA MEMBER Dr. A. C. PATHAK MEMBER - Prof. G. V. KATTI MEMBER - Dr.H.C.TIWARI HEAD OF~SECTION DEAN DEAN Culture College, lndor Dre J.N. Kash Vi JaaaJ Cti0~1 srt a Vidat. R' p4r{m pj ': a

4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT he i49/u ofq?43a4/ a, m4le4h ry in? * J our m dee/v eizeo yja44ad& la all Uu a rtlia lived me, in a, convluic&øe' nuzr"2 ~ g /ilzt~e' nine / / ada4e' ESL dofin, m r wlm6 JL.Cl~ ~Fi12dPi Q~i assn a~ inde6leag fa m~v seo~iec%d f?tomuy J A'amd l& may 9.. Janes 1+ ltarhuy irl. 1. J(ialisa Wovda,n gz 9. X A4iE.a., O,.,~16./ar1. e Ward Jz, avail fhi4*tatl.isci4 to ea'+e m sinc ' 64arsuca 4- l)i. r r ' fir ~! / r! r'r ~ r I /r /!

5 ecr4/1e00' t%an. Lam' gi, a9?a1 and Y{a7 Q+ Or J P/ISLPA' lf&uak/ cow- r i 24 r/ r / r r r r r r

6 CONTENTS CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE NO. I Introduction 1-4 II Review of Literature 5-15 III Materials and Methods IV Experimental Findings u Discussion VI Summary and Conclusions Bibliography Appendix Vita

7 LIST OF TABLES Table no. Title Page No. 3.1 Meteorological data recorded during crop season Physio-chemical, Chemicals properties of the soil Cropping history of the experimental field Detail of manure and fertilizers application Time required for sprouting Days to flower initiation Period for full bloom stage Days to 50% flowering Plant population per plot No. of leaves per plant Length of leaves (cm) Width of leaves (cm) No. of effective tillers No. of spikes in bulb per plant Length of spike (cm) Length of rachis No. of flowers per spike Colour of the flower Type of flower Bud length (cm) Flower length (cm) Flower diameter Fresh flower weight (g/100 flowers) Fresh flower yield (kg/ha) Vase life of spikes Oil (concrete) content (g/500g of flower) 52

8 LIST OF FIGURES Figure no. Title After Page No. 3.1 Meteorological observations recorded during the period of 17 investigation. 3.2 Layout plan of the experimental field Days to sprout after sowing Flowering initiation (DAS) Days to marketable flower from bud initiation Plant population per plot No. of leaves per plant Length of leaves Width of leaves Width of leaves (cm) No. of effective tillers No. of spikes in bulb per plant Length of spike (cm) Length of rachis No. of flowers per spike Bud length (cm) Flower length (cm) Flower diameter Fresh flower weight (g/100 flowers) Fresh flower yield (kgiha) Vase life of spikes Oil (concrete) content (g/500g of flower) 52

9 ABBREVIATIONS S.No. LEGENDS DESCRIPTION 1 Cm Centimeter 2 m Meter 3 Sqm Square meter 4 ha. Hectare 5 g Gram 6 Kg Kilogram 7 Mt. Metric tonne 8 d.sm-' Deci Simen's per meter 9 c Degree Centigrade 10 DAS Day After Sowing 11 RBD Randomized Block Design 12 ANOVA Analysis of Variance 13 NS Non Significant 14 EMS Error Means Sum of Square 15 SEm.+ Standard Error of Means 16 MSS Mean Sum Square 17 CD Critical Difference 18 Dia. Diagram

10 CHAPTER -I

11 INTRODUCTION Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa linn.) is commonly known as one of the most beautiful and popular bulbous plant belonging to the family Amaryllidacea and native to Mexico (Trueblood 1973). It is spread to the different parts of the world during 16th century. The name tuberose is derived from tuberose, this plant being the tuberous hyacinth as distinguished from the bulbous hyacinth. The name therefore, is tuber-rose not tuberose. Polianthes is a monotypic genus closely related to that Bravoa from which it differs in having a perianth tube is widened upwards. According to Rose ( ), however the genus contains about a dozen of species but they are not clearly distinct. According to Whitakar (1934) the haploid number of chromosomes in Polianthes tuberosa is 30 of which 5 are large & 25 small. Cytological investigations made by Schiva & Lenten (1983) showed chromosome numbers of 60 in the single cultivar which was fertile, used in perfumery & 50 in the infertile double used for cut flowers. The texts of the 16`h century are the earliest references to the different species of tuberose. About 12 species were discovered in the cool mountain valleys of Western and North Western Mexico. These species range in colour from white orange red to striped. Rose ( ) made the most extensive contributions to new species of Polianthes tuberosa on various collecting trips to Mexico. Tuberose varieties are named on the basis of the number of rows of petals they bear. The cultivar "single Mexican" has been identified as promising ones for large-scale cultivation in Tamil Nadu. This variety produces maximum flower during October-December, which is considered as lean months for tuberose flower yield. The "double type" has more than three rows of corolla segment. Flowers of some double types are white in colour. The flowers tinged with red in 'double' type are known as pearl. The semi double types bear white flower with two or three rows of corolla segment. There are some streaked I

12 leaf forms known as variegated where as in others the flowers have a little tinged of red in bud stage, but turning to white when open fully. "Fuberose is cultivated on large scale in France, Italy, South Africa, North Carolina, and USA and in many other tropical and sub tropical areas including India. Guenther (1952) reported that for centuries the chief center of cultivation of Polianihes tuberosa for the perfume industry has been the fertile valley of the Siange River. In India the commercial cultivation of tuberose is confined mainly to West Bengal, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Maharashtra. However it is adapted to the North Indian climatic condition and grows well in Uttar Pradesh and some parts of Madhya Pradesh. Among the commercially grown flowers in India tuberose occupies a prime position because of its potential for the cut flower trade as well as for the essential oil industry. Tuberose has got considerable importance and it is cultivated commercially for its multipurpose use. It is grown for garden decoration in pots, beds and borders. The flower remains fresh for long time and stand long distance transportation due to their waxy nature and fills a useful place in the flower market. They are used for artistic garlands, floral ornamental, bouquets and buttonholes. The long flower spikes are excellent for cut flower for table decoration when arranged is bowls and vases. The variegated type with golden striped leaf margins is attractive and suitable for beautification of gardens. The flowers emit a delightful fragrance and tuberose oil is one of the most expensive of the perfumes raw materials. The yield of concrete from fresh flower ranges from 0.08 to per cent of which 18 to 23 percent constitute alcohol soluble c "absolute" and pure concrete has good market price (Guenther 1952). The essential oils are used in costiest perfumes or as modifiers in other "absolutes", such as Jasmine or Rose absolute. The most common constituents of tuberose concrete are geraniol, nerol, benzyl alcohol, methyl benzoate, methyl silicilate, eugenol, benzyl benzoate and methyl antranilate. (Hussain 1986). Furthermore, fragrant flowers are added along with stimulants or sedatives to the favorite beverage prepared from chocolate and served either cold or hot as desired (True blood, 1973). It has been reported that the oil is added in the items like non-alcohol beverages in the proportion of 0.26-ppm ice 2

13 cream, ice etc ppm, Candy 1.5 ppm and baked food 1.7 ppm. The leaves, flowers, bulbs and roots contain sterol triterpenes, carbohydrates, saponins and traces of alkaloids. Flavonoids are present in leaves and flowers the percentage of total flavonoids calculated as kempferol 3-0-oxloside in the air-dried, leaves was determined to be 0.28%. The bulbs contain an alkaloid, lycorin that causes vomiting. Two steroidal sapogenins namely hecogenin and a small amount of a trans fructosisdase have also been observed. (Srinivasan and Bhatia, 1954; Bhatia and Srinivasan 1954.) The bulbs are considered to be diuretic and emetic. They are rubbed with turmeric and butter and applied as a paste over red pimples of infants (Kirtikar and Basu; 1935). Dried Tuberose bulbs in the powdered form are used as a remedy for gonorrhea Area of flower production in world is ha. India has the maximum area under ornamental crops 88,600 ha. The wholesale value of the world floriculture industry was $20.89 billion (1997), Bhattacharya (2003). Every year the value is increasing by 11.15%. Production of Indian floriculture 5.09MT(loose flower), million number of cut flower, export ( ) crone and India's share in international flower trade is 0.35% to different 75 countries. Area and production (cut flowers and loose flowers) of tuberose in Madhya Pradesh is 438 ha. and I394q Source:- A Report by Department Of Horticulture Madhya Pradesh) The main importing counties of Indian floriculture are The Netherlands,USA,Japan Germany, Australia,UAE,Belgium and Shrilanka.A total of 186 export-oriented units for production of cut flowers were approved in India.. (Commercial Floriculture by S.K. Bhattacharya 2003). Most of the export-oriented units located around big cities viz. Banglore, Chennai, Kolkatta, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Pune. But cities of Madhya Pradesh i.e. Indore, Ujjain, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur etc. are gaining importance in this field. Since Indore coming under Malwa region of M.P. is agro climatically most suited for growing tuberose. There is a great scope for building up of commercially cut flower market for tuberose in this region. Cut flower industry is still in its infantry 3

14 around Indore and growers are unaware of the importance of tuberose as a cut flower according to various cultivars, which has both local and international market. Therefore there is need to introduce tuberose as a cut flower, source of oil industry and possibly more way towards export in this area. Looking to the potential of the some tuberose cultivars there is an urgent need to evaluate them under Malwa conditions. So that suitable cultivars could be recommended for Malwa Region of M.P. Keeping these points in view the present studies were undertaken with the following objectives: - 1. To find out higher flowers yielding varieties (cultivar) of tuberose. 2. To study the vase life of cut flowers in different varieties (cultivar) in tuberose. 3. A attempt had been made To analyze the oil content in tuberose flower. 2

15 1 CHAPTER -II

16 REVIEW OF LITERATURE Though many cultivars of tuberose can be grown in a particular agro-climatic region but all are not suitable for that region for cut flower or maximum production. Among them some are well suited while other perform poorly. SO, there is a need for evaluation of cultivars and recommendation of a cultivar best suited for a particular agro-climatic region so for this reason many workers have done the work for evaluating different cultivars for different region along with the studies on vase life and concrete findings. The literature pertaining to their work has been reviewed and presents under the following headings. 1. Varietal performance 2. Vegetative & phenogenic character 3. Vase life studies 4. Oil content 1. Varietal Performance Bankar and Mukhopadhyay (1980) at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore has found significant differences were found in the morphological characteristics of 4 tuberose cvs. (Single, Double, Semi-double and Variegated) studied. These included the number of leaves, width of leaves ( cm) and spikes/plant, lengths of spikes, number of florets/spike, number of days required for flowering, duration of flowering and the number of bulbs produced/plant, rachis length (41.5 cm). The results indicated that commercially cv. Single was the most important, followed by Double and Variegated. Irulappan et al. (1980) at Banglore conducted trial on the 11 tuberose types and cvs. studied over 2 years, Calcutta Single and Single Mexican gave the highest total flower yield, namely, 456 and 447 flowers per clump, respectively. Calcutta Semi-Double gave the lowest yield of 43 flowers. They also explored that tuberose 5

17 cultivars have single, double and in between flower type semi double type in them with different colour in florets ie. White. pink and pink white etc. The data are tabulated. Schiva and Lanteri (1983) at Remo, Italy the species includes one single cv_ which is fertile and used in perfumery, and two infertile double cultivars used for cut flower production. Cytological investigations showed chromosome numbers of 60 in the single cv. and 50 in the doubles. It is suggested that the double forms are derived from the single by loss of 10 chromosomes due to abnormal spontaneous mitotic or meiotic division. Gupta el al. (1984) at Botanical Research Institute. Lucknow found two gamma-induced mutants of Polianthes tuberosa, the single-flowered cv. Rajat Rekha and the double-flowered cv. Svarna Rekha, are described. Data are tabulated on plant height. leaf length (34-37 cm) and width ( cm), number of spikes/plan, number of flowers/spike, and flower, stalk and spike lengths for the 2 cultivars and control plants_ e Farina and Paterniani (1986)at Remo. Italy. Bulbs [rhizomes) of Polimuhes tuberoses cultivars La Perla. Fiorentina, and a single-floe-wed type were planted in the open from 1 Apr. to 1 Aug. in 1983 and The highest flower production over the 2 years % as obtained from early June plantings for La Perla and the single cultivar, and from early May plantings for Fiorentina. A second flowering of Fiorentina and the single cultivar was obtained from lateral bulbils(bulblets) developed during the flowering of the primary bulbs; this prolonged the productive season to early Nov. Data on the effects of year, planting month, harvesting month and cultivar, and stem and inflorescence lengths are tabulated Patil et al_ (1987) under Pune conditions In 3-year trials. 4 cultivars were assessed for the average number of flower stalks and flowers produced ha(14-15 vba), and the average flower weight, spike length (80-90 cm) and stalk height The data are tabulated Overall the cv. Single scored best and is recommended for commercial production for cut flowers and for garland making. 0

18 Arora and Sharma (1991) in their varietal study under Ludhiana conditions with five cultivars found that `Snow princess' took least number of days for the basal floret to open and described `Melody' as good perfumer. Lal and Pant (1992) reported performance of newly developed hybrids of gladiolus under U.P. hill conditions and found that `Chaubatia' `Arunima' had mandrin red flowers with white strips and a spike length of 89.2 cm `Chaubatia Ankur' had flowers of green with azalea pink strips and an average Spike length of 88.9 cm and `Chaubatia Shobhit' with rose purple flowers and an average Spike length of 86.2 cm. Mahanta and Paswan (1994) studied performance of 10 gladiolus cultivars under Jorhat conditions (Assam) conditions for several characteristics. Cultivars 'Cooper King' and 'Tunas Classic' were superior for all the characteristics and promising Assam conditions Patil et al (1994) studied on performance of Exotic gladiolus cultivars for examine their export quality at Ganeshkind during the rabi seasons in 3 succeeding year and indicated that cv 'Sancerre' produced the longest spike, the largest number of floret/spike, corms and cormels/plant followed by cultivars `Yellow Stone' and 'Hinting Song'. These cultivars were also rated highly for colour, floret arrangement, shape and texture. Singh-KP (1995) at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta. Bangalore P. tuberos is one of the most important commercial flower crops both in India and abroad_ It is also grown for its essential oils_ The most important production technologies for P. tuberosa developed in India, including suitable cultivars, time of planting, size of planting material_ planting distance, depth and method of planting, nutritional requirement, intercropping, plant growth regulators, micropropagation, use of saline-alkali soils, herbicides, storage of bulbs and ratooning are described. John era! (1996) studied the performance of 41 gladiolus cultivars at Shalimar (J&K) for cut flower and cormel production. `Classic', `Red Majesty', `Rose Supreme', `Oscar', `Sunny Boy' and `White Prosperity' were the most suitable for cut 7

19 flower production, with flower spike ranging in length from cm for `Oscar' to cm for `white prosperity'. Cultivars 'Buffy Beauty' `king bear' and `White Prosperity' was best for production of cormels. Niranjan et al. (1997) nine genotypes of tuberose (four single and five double types) were evaluated for flower yield and related floral traits. Among the single types, the hybrid Shringar recorded the highest flower yield; hybrid Suvasini recorded the highest spike yield among the double types. Correlation studies revealed positive associations of flower yield with number of flowers/spike (40-50), flower diameter and 100 flower weight ( g) in single types, while in double types spike yield was positively associated with rachis length (20-23 cm), bud length (5 cm) flower length and flower diameter. Kannan el al. (1998) nine ecotypes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) were evaluated at Annamalai University in 1994/95. Length of scape, length of spike, diameter of flower, scapes/plant and flowers/spike exhibited significant positive association with yield. These components were also positively intercorrelated among themselves. Path coefficient analysis indicated that length of scape, number of effective tillers (1-4) length of spike, scapes/plant, flowers/spike, vase life, longevity and floral concrete recovery had direct positive effect on flower yield, while diameter of flowers had negative direct effects. Length of scape and length of spike were the strongest forces influencing yield. Negi et al. (1998) assessed the performance of 4 new Indian bred hybrids (74- DHN-86-1, 74-SIN-98-1, , ) and one mutant (No-1) of gladiolus as compared to that of the standard CV Friendship at IIHR Banglore and found Hy ( ), to the best among them. Pant et al. (1998) evaluate performance of 40 gladiolus cultivars under U.P. hills conditions for morphological traits. 'Apple Blossom' (92.76 cm), 'Picardy' (87.44 cm) and occur (86.33 days) 'Friendship' had the most flowers/spike (1953) followed by 'Oscar' (1933), Hawaii produced the most corms/plant (4.40). 'Han-Vah Mac'. had the heaviest spike ( gm) followed by Oscar ( gm).

20 Y Zizzo el al. (1999) In trials in Sicily,at Istituto Sperimentale per la Floricoltura, San Remo, Italy. bulbs [rhizomes] of the double cv. La Perla and the semi-double cv. La Fiorentina were planted on 25 Mar., 15 Apr., 5 and 25 May, 14 June and 4 July 1984 in a greenhouse and on 4 and 24 June, 14 July and 3 Aug in the open. Using a range of planting dates it was possible to extend the period of flowering to cover the period from Aug. to early Nov. Thus, La Perla bulbs planted in the greenhouse from 25 Mar, to 24 June produced flowers for cutting from l Aug. to 20 Sep., while bulbs planted in the open from 4 to 24 June gave flowers from 15 to 30 Sep., those planted on 14 July gave flowers from 20 to 30 Oct., and those planted on 3 Aug. began flowering on 20 Nov. Good yields of cv. La Fiorentina were obtained in the open from July and Aug. plantings, which gave flowers in early Oct. and mid- Nov., respectively. 2. VEGETATIVE & PHENOGENIC CHARACTER Mukhopadhyay and Bankar (1981) at Banglore Tuberose rhizomes were planted monthly between January and December. Data are tabulated on plant height, number of leaves, days to flower, spikes/plant, spike and rachis length, number of florets/spike, and the number and weight of rhizomes. The highest number of spikes/plant ( ) was obtained from April or May planting. The highest number of rhizomes/plant ( ) was obtained from March or April planting. Mukhopadhyay and Sadhu (1985) at Banglore Freshly harvested rhizomes of the cv. Single were soaked for 24 h in solutions containing GA3 at 10, 100, 250 and 500 p.p.m., and then planted in 30-cm pots. The treatments delayed days-to-sprouting from 8.1 in the control to 17.4 (maximum) at 500 p.p.m., diminished final plant height from 42 to 34 cm (minimum) at 100 p.p.m., and reduced the number of flowering rhizomes/plant but increased rachis length from cm in the control to 20.8 cm (maximum) at 100 p.p.m. Malini and Khader (1989) in south Indian conditions at Banglore assessed trials on tuberose var. single and reported for single cultivar days to flowering and flower yield in control occurred at 122 days and 24.7 g/plant respectively.

21 Pal and Das (1990) at Nadia, West Bengal Field trials after planting tuberose [Polianthes tuberosa] cv. Single in March The following tuberose growth parameters were recorded : height (from to cm), the number of leaves/plant (from to ), the number of bulbs/plant (from 12 to 12-19), the wt of bulbs (from to g), the duration of flowering (from to d), the length of flower spikes (from to cm), the number of flower spikes/plot (from to ) and the flower yield/plot (from to kg). Gowda et al. (1991) at Division of Horticulture, University of Agriculture, GKVK, Bangalore.Three rates of N application (100, 150 and 200 kg/ha), 3 of P205 (50, 75 and 100 kg) and 3 of K20 (100, 125 and 150 kg) were compared for a cutflower crop of P. tuberosa grown at a spacing of 30 X 30 cm. All the P205 and K20 and half the N were applied as a basal dressing; the remaining N was applied as a top dressing 30 days after planting. Increasing N significantly increased plant height. Both N and K20 significantly influenced the number of days required for flower spike emergence. Increasing P and K20 rates resulted in a greater number of flower spikes and number of flowers/spike. The highest yield of flowers (40.20/spike), the longest spikes (81.28 cm) and the longest duration of flowering (29.75 days) were obtained with 200 kg N + 75 kg P kg K20 /ha. Parthiban and Khader (1991) at Coimbatore In an experiment aimed at determining the fertilizer requirements of Polianthes tuberosa cv. Single, N was applied at 50, 75, 100 or 125 kg, P at 25, 50 or 75 kg and K at 37.5, 62.5 or 87.5 kg/ha. All the P and K were applied with half the N at planting. The remaining N was applied 45 days later. Application of 100 kg N + 75 kg P kg K/ha resulted in the highest number of spikes/plant (1.72), number of flowers/spike (39.67) and the highest flower yield ( kg/ha). Gonzalez et al. (1992) at Spain P. tuberosa cv. Excelsior tubers (10-12 cm) were planted at a density of 24 tubers/m2 in an unheated greenhouse in the Mediterranean conditions of Murcia (where planting for cut flower production usually takes place outdoors in mid-spring) in either winter (Feb.), spring (Apr.) or summer

22 (Aug.). Flower yield was lower from the winter planting (18.0 stems/m2) than from the spring or summer plantings (29.3 and 26.4 stems/m2, respectively). The percentage of planted tubers that flowered was also lowest for the winter planting (70.3%) and highest for the spring planting (92.2%). The complete cultivation cycle (from planting to harvest) lasted 220 days for the winter planting, compared with only 120 and 113 days for the summer and spring cycles, respectively. The duration of the flowering period followed the same pattern. Flower quality (in terms of flower stem and floral spike lengths, number of floret pairs and flower stem thickness) was highest in the spring-planted crop, good in the winter-planted crop, but poor in the summerplanted crop. Parthiban et al. (1992) at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore P. tuberosa cv. Single plants were supplied with 50, 75, 100 or 125 kg N/ha, 25, 50 or 75 kg P/ha and 37.5, 62.5 or 87.5 kg K/ha. The greatest plant height (58.93 cm) was obtained with the 125 kg N + 50 kg P kg K/ha treatment combination. The highest mean number of leaves (41.34) and number of side suckers/clump were obtained with the 100 kg N + 75 kg P kg K/ha treatment combination.. Bankar (1993) at Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur Bulbs [rhizomes] of tuberose cv. Double ( cm in diameter) were planted at a 25 X 25 cm spacing in Apr. Flower initiation was studied in bulbs dug up at 10-day intervals and sectioned longitudinally. Flower initiation was first observed 40 days after planting (4.76%). Flower initiation increased sharply at 110 days after planting (from 7.14% to 49.20%), and increased further (to 87.20%) at 126 days after planting. Barman and Pal (1993) at Nadia, West Bengal, India. Foliar sprays of micronutrients (Zn, Mn, Fe or Cu) were applied 3 times at 60-day intervals to P. luberosa, grown for cut flowers, beginning at the 5- to 6-leaf stage. Treatment with ZnSO4 at 0.25% resulted in the highest number of leaves/clump (87.98) and flower spikes/plot (355.5/2 X 2.5-m plot). Controls (water-sprayed) produced leaves/clump and flower spikes/plot. Belorkar el al. (1993) at College of Agriculture, Nagpur,A field experiment was

23 carried out, during the kharif and rabi seasons of 1991, to study the effect of soaking the bulbs [rhizomes] for 24 h in gibberellic acid (0, 10, 20 or 40 p.p.m.) followed by N fertilizer treatment (0, 50, 60 or 70 kg/ha) in the field. N at 70 kg/ha produced the highest number of rachises/ha ( ), flowers/stalk (40.65) and flower yield (63.1 q/ha). A gibberellic acid soak at 45 p.p.m. with 70 kg N/ha was the best combination yielding rachises/ha, 50.6 flowers/stalk and q flowers/ha. For number of flowers/stalk and flower yield, there was a distinct positive interaction between gibberellic acid and N. Murthy and Gowda (1994) In field trials conducted on sandy loam soil at Banglore during kharif season 1990, the Polianthes tuberosa cv. Double untreated control values for crop flower yields and plant population were 67.8 g/0.25 m2 and plants /ha. Halepyati et al. (1995) In a field experiment conducted during the winter season at Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Banglore in and Polianthes tuberosa cv. Single, plants grown in well drained sandy loam soil and timely irrigations were maintained equal to evaporation yielded t/ha flowers, greatest spike length (88.0 cm) and rachis length (22.2cm) flowers/spike (38.8) Mahanta and Paswan (1995) at department of horticulture Assam Agricultural university Jorhat when bulbs of Polianthes tuberosa cv single was planted for cut flower production and reported number of spikes/ m2 (58.55) and spike yield ( q/ha). Wange et al.(1995) at ZARS GaneshKind,Pure in trials in on a medium black soil Polianthes tuberosa when planted resulted cut flower yield was dozen /ha with untreated control. Dalai et al (1999) at regional fruit research station Katol field experiment was conducted in 1991 to study the quality of p. tuberosa flower in Katol and reported rachis length, flower stalk length, flower weight and vase life were cm, cm, g/plant and days respectively. 12

24 Tak el al. (1999) at department of Horticulture, Rajsthan agriculture university Bikaner campus Udaipur reported p. tuberosa cv. Single when under Udaipur conditions reported the number of days required for sprouting (20.83 days) in control plant height (65.65), flower spike length ( cm) flower diameter (3.67 cm), floret number per spike (38.03) and fresh flower yield (12.26 t/ha.). 3. Vase life studies Balakrishna et al. (1989) a study was carried out during 1986 on flowering spikes of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Doubles. Spikes were harvested when one or two of the lower florets were open, cut to 55 cm in length and all but 2 or 3 leaves were removed. After recording FW, each spike was placed in a 500 ml bottle containing 300 ml of distilled water (control), or chloride or sulphate salts of Al, Ca and Mg (0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 mm), or cobalt sulphate (1.0, 1.5 or 2.0 mm). Vase life was increased by all treatments compared with the control (7 days), the longest vase life being observed in 1.0 mm Al (10.63 days) followed by 2.0 mm Co (10.40 days). Saini et al. (1991) Studies the performance of six gladiolus cultivars in Hisarviz. George Muzeure, 'Pusa Suhagin', Sylvia', 'Melody', 'Miniature' and 'Morning Kiss' and were assessed for numerous characters including vase life of flowers and found that vase life was longest (11.58 days for'pusa Suhagin' and shortest (6.31 days for 'Miniature' Das and Barman (1993) at Department of Horticulture, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalya Kalyani, Nadia Freshly cut spikes of a single-flowered cultivar's of tuberose [Polianthes luberosa] were placed in glass jars containing 500 ml sucrose, B- Nine [daminozide], silver nitrate, copper sulphate, boric acid, MH or aluminium sulphate solutions, all at 0.2 or 0.4%. Control spikes were placed in water. The solutions were changed every 3 days. Longest vase life (12.6 days) was obtained in 0.4% sucrose solution. All treatments increased vase life compared with the control (6.0 days). The highest percentage of fully opened flowers (79.2%) was obtained in 0.4% NIH solution compared with 58.9% in the control. Gawade et al. (1994) at Regional Fruit Research Station, Ganeshkind, Pune 13

25 Cut flower stalks of Polianthes tuberosa were pulsed with 5, 10, 15 or 20% sucrose for 2, 4 or 6 h and then kept in tap water which was changed every day and the flower stalk shortened by 1.5 cm. Vase life was 7 days. Stalk FW was generally highest in the tap water control. Pulsing for 2 h tended to increased flower opening. Reddy et al. (1995) at Department of Horticulture, HAU, Hisar, Vase life of Polianthes tuberosa cv. Single was influenced by 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS; 200 or 400 p.p.m) and sucrose (4%). Cut flowers in distilled water (control) lasted for 8.7 days whilst those kept in a solution containing sucrose + 8-HQS (400 ppm) lasted for 13.7 days. The efficacy of 8-HQS in prolonging vase life was due to increased water uptake. Reddy etal. (1995) at College of Agriculture, Bijapur, Karnataka, Vase life of Polianthes tuberosa flowers was significantly influenced by citric acid, 8- hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS) and sucrose. Control flowers in distilled water lasted for 8 days; flowers in a solution containing citric acid (100 p.p.m) + 8-HQS (400 ppm) + sucrose (4%) lasted for 16 days. Water uptake and retention were improved by this solution. Reddy et al. (1997) Sucrose, 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate (8-HQS) and their interactions significantly enhanced the vase life of flowers of Polianthes tuberosa cv. Double. Spikes kept in a solution containing 4% sucrose + 2 mm 8-HQS had the longest vase life (17 days). De and Barman (1998) Experiments were conducted at Lembucherra(ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Tripura Centre, Lembucherra, Tripura (w) to study the effects of stem length (30, 45, 60, 75 or 90 cm), harvesting stage spikes with green buds, greenish white buds, creamy white buds, one floret opened and two florets opened and sucrose concentration (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% or 12%) on vase life and cut flower quality of tuberose cv. Single. Results indicated that stem length of 75 cm, harvesting when spikes had creamy white buds or one floret opened and using 8% sucrose as the holding solution produced the highest quality, longest-lasting cut flowers_ 14

26 4. Oil content (concrete) Sharga and Motial (1983) at National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, In 2-year trials, plants growing in 25 cm clay pots received N as urea at 2.14, 4.28 or 6.42 g/litre, orthophosphoric acid at 0.9, 1.8 or 2.6 ml/litre and/or potassium citrate at 2.2 or 4.42 g/litre applied in solution as a foliar spray at 50 ml/plant every 15 days starting on 2 June. The highest essential oil yield was obtained from plants receiving the medium N rate, the highest P and the lower K rate. Chandravadana et at (1994) at Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta, Bangalore revealed P. tuberosa flowers yield rare and valuable perfume materials. Indole was identified in the flowers of 4 P. tuberosa cultivars (single, double, hybrid single and hybrid double), cultivated in India. The indole content in the absolute varied in the range of %. Lawrence (1995) at Winston-Salem, NC 27102, USA, revealed Advances in the following essential oils/extracts are reviewed: orris (Iris germanica, I. pallida and I florentina [I. germanica]) oil and extracts, tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) and its extracts, jonquil (Narcissus jonquilla) and its extracts, hyacinth [Hyacinthus orientalis] and its extracts, and phoebe oil (Phoebe porosa). Meenakshi et al. (1996) at Banglore revealed the concrete content of the flowers of 4 cultivars of P. tuberosa (2 single-flower cultivars: Mexican Single and Shringar, and 2 double-flower cultivars: Pearl Double and Suvasini) was determined in March and October. Single cultivars yielded a higher concrete content ( %) than the double cultivars ( %). Flowers harvested during October yielded a higher concrete content than those harvested during March. 15

27 CHAPTER - III

28 MATERIALS AND METHODS This chapter comprises of the material & methods employed during the course of investigation "studies on performance of different tuberose (Polianthes tuberose Linn) cultivars and their vase life. "The investigation carried out is being elaborated under the following heads: 3.1 Experimental site The present experiment was carried out during Kharif season of at Horticulture Nursery, college of Agriculture, Indore (M.P.). Indore is situated in Western part of Madhya Pradesh at a latitude 22 43" N and longitude 75 66" E with an altitude of meters above mean sea level (M.S.L.). 3.2 Climate of the region Indore comes under sub-tropical semiarid region having a temperature range of as maximum and 6-25 as minimum. During March to May it is hottest while December - January are the coolest relative humidity generally fluctuates between 30 and 85%. In this area, most of the rainfall is received during mid June to early October, while winter rains are occasional. The annual rainfall is 941 mm. The southwest monsoon is responsible for the major part of precipitation. The meteorological data recorded during the period of investigation are presents in Table Soil The soil of the experimental fields was medium black (vertisol) with adequate drainage and uniform topography. The physical chemical analysis of the soil was carried out in soil testing laboratory of Soil salinity scheme. College of Agriculture, Indore. The results for soil analysis are presented in table

29 Period Table:3.1 Meteorological parameters recorded at Indore (M.P.) Std. Week Weekly Rainfall (mm) Relative Humidity (%) Tem erature ( C) Maximum Minimum June June 25 -July July July July July July 30-Aug Aug Aug Aug Aug 27 - Sept Sept Sept Sept Sept Oct Oct Oct Oct Oct. 29-Nov Nov. 5-1 l Nov No. of Rainy days Nov Nov Dec Nil Nil Dec Nil Dec Dec Dec Jan Jan Jan Jan mm Nil Jan Feb mm Feb Feb Feb mm Feb March March I March March March 26-April

30 N t E U) m E f m m M O N a X m ~ Q a C N 0 N O N Qi C L V +ice rq 1 N.0 N E a> 00 a L.0 Ei e Z ~ O y N U v O v 0 0 N p E a) Q 4) r I- 0 4) C) e~.sn N N 0) Q 0 f : M 0 N co N ao CO qt N 0 co co It r e- r r (30) dwal uiw '(so) dwa j xew (%) 'H'2! `(Wt) Ilcd wleb N

31 Table:3.2 Physical Chemical characteristic of the soil S. Composition Content Category Methods No. l Physical i. Sand By Bouyoucos hydrometer ii. Silt " iii. Clay iv. Textural class - Clay - 2. Chemical i. Organic Carbon (%) 0.55 Low Walky & Black (Mohr et al. 1965) ii. Available Nitrogen (kg/ha) Low Alkaline Permanganate (Mohr et al. 1965) iii. Available Phosphrous (kg/ha) 9.60 Low Oslan method (Oslan et al. 1954) iv. Available Potassium (kg/ha) High Flame photometer (Jackson (1967) v. Soil ph 7.30 Slightly Glass electrode ph alkaline meter (Jackson 1967) vi. Electrical conductivity (do Sm') 0.50 Normal Conductive bridge at 25) The physical analysis showed that the soil was typical black clay in texture and percentage of clay in the soil was fairly high (53.4%) followed by silt (36.2%) and sand (10.4%). The chemical analysis indicated that the soil was normal though calcareous and slightly alkaline in reaction. Soil contained low Nitrogen, Phosphorus and high potash. 3.4 Cropping history of the experimental field A comprehensive account of the crop grown in experimental field for the past four year is presented below in table 3.3:

32 Table:3.3 Cropping history of the experimental field Year Kharif crop Rabi crop Cotton Fallow Soybean (seed production) Fallow Cowpea Coriander (Seed production) Experiment on (Marigold) Present experiment (tuberose) Continue Continue Source: Office research farm (Horticulture Nursery) College of Agriculture, Indore 3.5 Experiment details The experiment was laid out in randomized block design (RBD) 1) 0 Ti T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T3 TS Ti T6 T2 14 T6 T4 T2 T5 T3 T1 4) N 0 a) W E Road North T2 T, T4 15 S Marigold trail (South) Details of the experiment are given below 1. Crop -- Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn) 2. Experiment Design Randomized Block Design 3. Number of replication 4 4. Number of Treatment 6 19

33 The treatments included 'six' cultivars of tuberose. Treatment code Ti T2 T3 Cultivar Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar T4 Suvasini T5 Vybhav T6 Gorakhpur 5. Total Number of Plots 4 x 6 = Gross size of experiment field Length = 21.5 m Breadth = 20.5 m 7. Area of the experiment field = m2 8. Gross plot size Length = 5.0 m Breadth = 3.0 m 9. Gross area of plot - 15m2 10. Plant to plant distance = 30 cm 11. Row to row distance = 30 cm 12. Space between two plots = 0.5 m 13. Net plot size 4.4 m x 2.4m2 20

34 14. Net plot area = 10.56m2 15. Plants tagged for observation / plot = Date of planting = 8`h Aug Planting material The planting material of tuberose is bulb and bulb lets (known as clump). The present experiment comprising six tuberose cultivars. Bulbs for planting were obtained from genetics and breading department (All India coordinated Research Project on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants) College of Agriculture, Indore. 3.7 Preparation of planting material & seed treatment Bulbs of uniform size were selected from six cultivars. Dried scales were removed from the bulbs. These bulbs were dipped in bavistin Solution 0.2% for 30 minutes to treat them against pathogens. The treated bulbs were then used for planting. Spindle shaped bulbs free from diseases and having an average diameter of 1.5 cm are used. 3.8 Details of field operations The tuberose grows in a wide range of soils its cultivation can also be extended economically in almost unproductive soils affected by salinity and alkalinity. Loam and Sandy loam soils having a ph range from 6.5 to 7.5 with good aeration and drainage are considered suitable for its cultivation Field Preparation In order to obtain fine tilth of soil, the fields was given one cross ploughing by tractor driven cultivator followed by two harrowing lastly planking was done to make the plot thoroughly leveled Layout of the experiment After fields preparation experiment was laid down in randomized block design (R.B.D.) with 4 replications and 6 treatments. The treatments randomized as per 21

35 random number table (Panse and Sukhatme, 1985). Distances between replication and plots were maintained 0.5 m & 0.5 wide was left around the field Planting After land and plot preparation, Shallow furrow at 30-cm. distance and 10 cm deep were prepared with the help of Kudali and Spade. These furrows were filled with well-decomposed dung manure. Bulb to bulb distance was maintained 30 x 30cm Manure and fertilizers Manures and fertilizers used in the experiment have been given below in table Table 3.4: -Details of manure and fertilizers application Manures/Fertilizers Dose Remark FYM 10 kg/sq m Basal Nitrogen (Urea 46%N) 50 gm / sq. m V2 Basal + V2 (50) days after planting Phosphorus (SSP 16% P205) 200 gm / sq. m Basal Potash (MOP 60% K20) 200 gm / sq. m Basal DAP spray 10 gm / sq. m Spray (0.5%) Fertilizer applied as recommended * Foliar application of DAP was given twice before flowering Cultural operations Total ten irrigations were given to the crop. First light irrigation was applied immediately after planting the bulbs. Thereafter an interval of 20 days was maintained. Experimental plots were kept weed free by regular hand weeding at 30-35days intervals. 22

36 3.8.6 Plant protection Incidence of Aphids and stem rot (Scterotium rolfsii) was recorded in some plants. In order to check the attack of insect and disease spray of monocrotophos(5%) and dithane M-45(3g/1) were given at monthly interval Harvesting The spikes were harvested when 2-3 pairs of flowers from the bottom of the spike opened. The individual spikes were harvested by cutting from the bottom. 3.9 Biometrical observations Ten plants were selected at randomly and tagged in each treatment and replication for the purpose of recording the observations. The mean value of data recorded of ten plants in each treatment of the four replications was taken to represent a particular cultivar with respect to a character Observation recorded G Observations were recorded at different stages of plant growth Visual observation a. Sprouting The number of days took from planting to emerge sprout in different treatment. The number of days required to sprout produces from each of the randomly selected plants were counted and the average number of days was calculated. b. Flowering (i) Initiation The number of days taken from planting to the emergence of spike was counted. The days from planting to the stage at which the first flower spike appears in each plot was thus calculated. 23

37 (ii) Bud initiation to marketable flower Number of days taken from the emergence of spike to the opening of the first floret in a spike was expressed as the number of days from bud initiation to marketable flower. (iii) 50% flowering Actual numbers of days were counted from the planting date to emerge 50% flowering in a plot Pre harvest observation a. Plant population per plot Number of actual plant emerged are calculated per plot and recorded. b. Number of leaves The actual number of leaves from each ten randomly selected plants was counted and the average was calculated. c. Length and width of leaves Length and width of third leaf of each tagged plant was measured with the help of a scale at full growing stage of plant and expressed in cm. d. Number of effective tillers. Number of effective tillers was calculated on the basis of emergence of marketable spikes through a single bulb of tagged plant Observations after flowering a. Number of sticks in bulb (per-plant) The number of sticks (spike) per plant was recorded at full spike stage by cutting the spikes produced from ten randomly selected plants and averaging. C 24

38 b. Length of sticks (spike) The length of spike was measured from the site of origin to the top of the spike and was expressed in cm. c. Colour of flower (floret) Colour of the florets of different cultivars was identified with the help of "Royal Horticulture Society" colour charts. d. Type of flower Flowers were classified according to the number of rows of corolla segments. one row corolla as single, semi double flowers bearing two to three rows of segments and flowers having more than three rows of corolla segments considered as double. e. Rachis length The observation on the length of rachis was measured from the first bottom florets to the top floret i.e. to the portion of spike bearing florets and was expressed in cm. f. Number of flowers/spike (florets) The observation on number of floret per spike was recorded at full bloom stage. g. Bud length Bud length was measured from the point of floret starting to the bud ending. h. Flower length Length of the first floret in each tagged spike was measured in c.m. from the point of its attachments to the tip of its largest petal. i. Flower diameter Diameter of the first floret in each tagged spike was measured by stretching the end of petals and was recorded by using thread. j. Fresh flower weight g/100 flower Fresh spike weight was recorded by weighing the 100 flowers after harvest and was expressed in grams. 25

39 k. Fresh flower yield kg/ha The flower yield per hectare was computed by converting the flower yield plot into flower yield per hectare deducting 15% loss of areas for bunds and channels. The flower yield was expressed in kg Concrete parameter Based on the concrete extracted in g/500g flowers using hexane extraction method concrete (oil content) was expressed in g. Extraction of concrete from flowers Flower paste is prepared from 500g very fresh flowers plucked in morning, generally g pastes is obtained. Prepared paste is mixed with 500m1 methanol. Mixture is filtered and resulted two separate parts residue and methanol. Obtained methanol solution (about 400m1) is mixed with 125ml hexane and shacked well for 30 minutes. Mixture is again filtered and results formation of two layers haxonic layer (top layer) and lower. The top layer (hexane layer) is distilled and concrete (oil) was obtained and residue hexane is reused. (AOAC, 1964 a book by FAO & Dr.Rajpal Kaisalya herbals,indore - a commercial method of volatile oil extraction) Vase life of the spike Vase life of the marketable spike of different varieties was observed in the different concentrations. The spike with first floret opening was cut and immediately put in to different concentration of sucrose solution. Recorded period for which flower remained fresh was expressed in days. The concentration used to find out vase life days are as follows 1. Control (distilled water) 2. 2% sucrose solution 3. 4% sucrose solution 4. 8% sucrose solution 26

40 Analysis of variance The growth and yield data recorded were statistically analyzed with fisher method of variance (Sundaraj et al 1972). Whenever F test was significant for comparisons of treatments means CD values were worked out at probability level of The data obtained from a set of observations for each character were tabulated and analysis by the method of analysis of variance as advocated by Fisher (1967). Table : The skeleton of analysis of variance of the design as follows : Source variation of Degree freedom of Sum square of MSS Calculated F Table F Value 5% 10% Replication 3(r-1) Treatments 5(t- 1) Error 15(r-1)(t-1) Total 23 The significant differences between treatments (cultivars) were judged by using critical difference (CD), which was calculated as follows Ems=Error mean sum of square EMS = ESS e.d.f SEm=Standard error of mean SEm = + EMS r CD = Critical difference for treatments (cultivars) mean CD at 5% or 1% = SQR (Sem x 2 x e.d.f. at 5% or 1%) Where e.d.f. = Error degree of freedom = 15 r = Number of replications = 4 27

41 t = Number of treatments (cultivars) = 6 t = Value of Fisher's table for error degree of freedom (15) at 5% = t = Value of Fisher's table for error degree of freedom (15) at 1% = Presentation of data "The data of various observations stated above have been summarized and presented in tables showing average variance. Suitable diagrams depict the important differences in data. The analysis of variance for various characters have been presented in Appendix I & li. 28

42 CHAPTER-IV

43 EXPERIMENTAL RESULT The present experiment was conducted during year to study the " performance of different tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn) cultivars and their vase life". The result were statistically analyzed, using analysis of variance technique to test the significance and are presented in the following paragraph under appropriate heads. The promising variations among different cultivars are being illustrated with suitable diagrams, in this chapter important characters of cultivars under trial are as follows in brief: - SHRINGAR It is a hybrid developed from a cross between 'single' X 'double'. It bears single type of flowers on strong, medium spikes The flower bud is attractive with slightly pinkish tinge in contrast to greenish buds in 'single'. The individual flower is bigger in size than that of 'single '. Its loose flowers are ideal for making garlands while spikes can be used as cut flowers. Yield of loose flowers is about 15,000 kg/ha/yr which is 40% higher than 'Mexican single'. The concrete content of the hybrid is at par with 'Mexican single' (0.13%) and its absolute contained higher indole content. Shringar is preffered by farmers and industries because of its higher flower yield. PRAJWAL Prajwal bears single type flowers on tall stiff spikes. The flowers buds are slightly pinkish white; the flowers when in bloom are white. The individual flowers are larger in size, compared to local single. It yields more in loose flowers than shringar. Hence cultivar is recommended both for loose flowers and cut flower purpose. Prajwal bears single type flowers on tall stiff spikes. The flower buds are slightly pinkish white flowers are larger in size It yields more in loose flowers. The yield is approximately tones/ha. Hence cultivar is recommended for lose flower and cut flower purpose. It yields superior concrete content and medium vase life days. 29

44 GANDHI SAGAR Gandhi sagar cultivar bears double type flowers waxy white sweet scented, tubular, 4to6cm, long and are borne in lax spikes on flowers on flowers stems, half meter high. The spikes of flowers are useful for cutting, for vase decoration and flowers are useful for making bouquets and buttonholes. Flower yield is about ( tonnes/ha), but has lower yield than hybrids comparatively. Vase life days and concrete content were normal. SUVASINI Suvasini a multiwhorled cultivar with bold big pure white flowers borne on long spikes is a cross between "single X double" It bears more flowers in a spike, flower opening is bold with shy opening of flowers in double. The yield recorded in this cultivar is tones/ha. 'Suvasini' recorded 25% more yield than 'Double'. The spikes are best suited as cut flower, concrete % is medium and vase life days are more than other cultivar. VYBHAV Vybhav bears semi double flowers on medium spike length flower buds are greenish in contrast to pinkish buds in Suvasini; yield of loose flower is maximum tones/ha, it is suitable for cut flower production. It has slightly lower concrete content comparatively with medium vase life days. GORAKHPUR An erect herb, cm high with stout bulbs; leaves basal, 6-9 in number (per bulb lets) cm long, about 1.3 cm wide, linear, bright green, reddish near the base, flowers funnel shaped, waxy white, the tube bent only near the base, filaments attached on upper part of corolla, fragrant, in long terminal racemes. Fresh flower yield tones/ha is least comparatively; vase life days and concrete content are less comparatively. Gorakhpur was late for flower bearing. 30

45 4.1 Visual observation days after sowing (DAS) Time required for sprouting As regards the sprouting period various cultivars showed a significant difference in number of days required by them. The range of days varies from (minimum in cultivar "Vybhav") to (maximum in cultivar "Gorakhpur"). The data pertaining to this character is represented in table: -4.land diagram number: - I Cultivar Vybhav is followed by "Suvasini"(19.49days) Gandhisagar (19.84days) "Prajwal"(20.12days) and "Shringar"(20.23days). Table: Time required for sprouting S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur C + at 5% Cd at 1 % Days to Flower Initiation (DAS) Flowering Initiation was studied as number of days taken for full emergence of spike and number of day taken for first bud to bloom. 31

46 Dia. No. 1 : Days to sprouting after sowing 18 r I- > > CO s CO C C0 Cultivars a c-. L- 0

47 Table: -4.2 Days to Flower Initiation (DAS) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % The data presented in table number: -4.2 and diagram number: -2 showed highly significant difference in flower initiation, period among the cultivars between ranges of 88.5 to The earlier flower initiation is observed in variety "Vybhav" (88.5days) followed by "Prajwal" (93.70days). The maximum number of days required by cultivar "Gorakhpur"(117.40days) Period for full bloom stage There was no significant difference among the cultivars with respect to number of days taken from bud stage to marketable flower stage. The range was between days to days with mean value of days. The minimum number of days was taken by cultivar 'Gorakhpur' followed by 'Suvasini ' (12.55) 'Prajwal' (13.00), 'Vybhav' (14.57), 'Shringar' (13.85), 'Prajwal' (13.00), and maximum in the cultivar 'Gandhisagar' (15.50). The cultivar `Shringar', and 'Gandhi Sagar' required more number of days than the mean value (13.43) days. The data pertaining to this character is presented in table: -4.3 and diagram:

48 Dia. No. 2: Flowering Initiation (DAS) :i a) 0 U, L. G) 100 N Cu c`a 3 ca Cu Cu > >1 Co LL C Cu Cultivars Flowring Initiation El 50% flowering Co

49 Dia. No. 3: Days to marketable flower from bud initiation t L~. 4 2 a. Cu 'c N U_ > U) L U) C 0 Cuftivars

50 Table: -4.3 Period for full bloom stage S. No. Name of cultivars Mean I Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CDat5% CD at 1% Days to 50% flowering The data showed highly significant difference for days to 50% flowering. The range was between days to days with a mean days. The maximum number of days (157.70) were taken by cultivar 'Gorakhpur' followed by 'Suvasini' ( days), 'Shringar ' ( days), Gandhi Sagar' ( days) and 'Vybhav' ( days). While minimum number of days were taken by 'Prajwal' ( days') for 50% flowering. J The cultivars Gorakhpur, Suvasini, Shringar and Gandhi Sagar were recorded number of days taken for 50% flowering more than the mean value The cultivars Gandhi Sagar and Suvasini were at par with each other. (Table number: and diagram number: - 2). 33

51 Table: Days to 50% flowering S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % Preharvest observation Observations recorded prior to harvest are recorded in this category. Following observation on. number of leaves, length of Ieaves, width of leaves and number of effective tillers were recorded Plant population per plot It is evident from the data that the cultivar varied significantly with respect to number of plant population per plot. The range was between plants to plants with mean plant population plants per plot. The cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' ( plant) showed maximum plant population which was statistically at par with 'Gorakhpur' ( plant) per plot followed by 'Prajwal' (119.50), 'Vybhav' ( plants), 'Shringar' ( plants), lowest plant population was recorded in 'Suvasini' ( plants) which was statistically at par with 'Shringar', 'Prajwal' and 'Vybhav' (Table number: and diagram number: -4). 34

52 Dia. No. 4: Plant population per plot 'r. 4 ca 0 C) E z n 0 ca 3 m c t 0 C CC in CC > co CC 5 I- 0. C6 Y CC O Cultivars

53 Table 4.5 Plant population per plot S. No. Name of cultivars Mean I Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CDat5% CDat1% Number of leaves per plant Cultivars have no significant difference among themselves regarding number of leaves per plant. The numbers of leaves range from to leaves per plant with average number of leaves per plant. The highest number of leaves was observed) in 'Prajwal' (59.53 leaves) followed by 'Vybhav '(58.23 leaves) Shringar (58.00 leaves) 'Suvasini ' (57.65 leaves) 'Gorakhpur' and minimum number of leaves was found in cultivar Gandhisagar (56.23 leaves). The cultivars Shringar (58.00 leaves) 'Vybhav '(58.23 leaves)& 'Prajwal' (59.53 leaves) were having number of leaves more than average value leaves. (Table number: -4.6 and Diagram number: - 5) 35

54 Dia. No. 5: Number of leaves per plant Cu 3 cv c L a. M Cu (U C cm 0 Cultivars a CU 0

55 Table: Number of leaves per plant S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1% Length of leaves (cm.) The length of leaves observed at full growing stage of crop revealed existence of significant difference for this character among the various cultivars. The range was from cm to cm with average length cm. Cultivar 'Vybhav' (40.35 cm) showed the maximum leaf length that was statistically at par with 'Gandhi Sagar' (40.22 cm) followed by cultivars 'Prajwal' (37.95 cm), 'Gorakhpur' (36.67 cm) and 'Suvasini ' (36.60 cm). Shortest leaf length was recorded in the cultivar 'Shringar' (32.97 cm). The cultivars `Prajwal', `Gandhi Sagar' and `Vybhav' were recorded more leaf length than average (37.47cm). (Table number: and diagram number: - 6). 36

56 Dia. No. 6: Length of leaves (cm.) W c`a C (I) t a _ > Cl) L Cl) C ~Co~y V Cultivars c J 7 d N Y cc 0 Mu

57 Table: -4.7 Length of leaves (cm.) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 2 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % Width of leaves (cm) Cultivars showed non-significant difference with respect to width of the leaves. The range was in between 1.06 cm to 1.12 cm. and the mean value was 1.08 cm. The maximum width of leaf recorded in the cultivar 'Prajwal' (1.12 cm) followed by 'Vybhav' (1.10 cm), 'Gandhi Sagar' (1.07 cm), 'Shringar ' (1.06 cm), where as minimum width of leaf (1.06 cm) were recorded in cultivar' Gorakhpur' and 'Suvasini `. ("fable number: and diagram number: - 7). 37

58 Dia. No. 7 : Width of leaves (cm.) N C) 1.09 Co as 1.08 O m 3 Co C 0 C CU s U) d > U) L Cl) C CU Cultivars

59 Table: 4.8 Width of leaves (cm) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CDat5% CD at 1% Number of effective tillers There was highly significant difference among the cultivars with respect to number of effective tillers. The range was in between 2.57 to 4.82 with a mean of 3.55 tillers per plant. The maximum number of effective tillers were found in 'Vybhav' (4.82) which was statistically higher over all other cultivars under study which was at par with 'Suvasini ' (4.30) followed by 'Prajwal' (3.97) and remaining all three cultivars i.e. 'Shringar ' (2.85), 'Gorakhpur' (2.82) and 'Gandhi Sagar' (2.57) were statistically at par with each other. The cultivars 'Prajwal', 'Suvasini ' and 'Vybhav' were having the more number of effective tillers than the mane value (Table number: -4.9 and diagram number: - 8). 38

60 Table: Number of effective tillers S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur 2.82 CD at 5% CD at 1 % OBSERVATION AFTER FLOWERING Flowering characters were studied are number of spikes per plant, length of spike, colour of flower, type of flower, rachis length, number of flowers per spike, bud length flower length, flower diameter, fresh flower weight per 100 flowers and fresh flower yield kg/ha Number of spikes in bulb per plant The data showed highly significant difference in number of spike in bulb per plant the range between lowest and highest was 2.45 to 4.42 with mean value 3.36 the maximum number of spike were found in cultivar 'Vybhav' (4.25) which is statistically more than all other cultivar also was at par with 'Suvasini '(4.12) followed by 'Prajwal' (3.77) and other at par cultivars 'Shringar' (2.70), 'Gorakhpur' (2.70) and the minimum 39

61 Dia. No. 8 : Comparision of No. of effective tillers and No. of spike in bulb/plant n 5 ri z E3 2 i x > L. a >1 Cl) -c 0) - 0 M 0 0 Cultivars No. of effective tillers No. of spikes bulb/plant

62 number of spike were found in cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' (2.45). (Table number : and diagram number: - 8). The cultivars viz. `Prajwal', 'Suvasini ' and 'Vybhav' were found to have comparatively more number of spikes than average value Table: Number of spikes in bulb per plant S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur 2.70 CDat5% CD at 1 % Length of spike (cm) The cultivars showed significant difference with respect to the spike length. The range was between to cm with a mean value cm. The maximum spike length (95.05 cm) was recorded in the cultivar 'Suvasini' which was superior over all other cultivars followed by 'Prajwal' (88.20 cm), 'Gandhi Sagar' (85.81 cm), 'Vybhav' (83.68 cm), 'Shringar '(82.05 cm) and minimum length of spike (74.36 cm) was recorded in the cultivar 'Gorakhpur'. The cultivars 'Shringar ' and 'Vybhav' were at par with each other. The cultivars viz. a 'Suvasini ', 'Prajwal' and 'Gandhi Sagar' were having the spike length more than the mean value (84.86 cm). (Table number 4.11 & diagram number 9).

63 Table: Length of spike (cm) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % Length of Rachis (cm) Regarding rachis length the cultivars also showed highly significant difference with a range of cm to cm and with a mean value cm. The maximum rachis length (40.80 cm) was observed in the cultivar'vybhav' followed by 'Suvasini' (39.95 cm) 'Prajwal' (34.9 cm), 'Gorakhpur' (26.42 cm) and 'Shringar ' (26.20 cm). The cultivar Gandhi Sagar' having shortest (23.55 cm) rachis length. The cultivar'vybhav' was at par with 'Suvasini ' and also cultivar 'Shringar' was statistically at par with 'Gorakhpur'. The cultivars viz. `Prajwal', 'Suvasini ' and 'Vybhav' were having rachis length more than mean value (32.13 cm). (Table number: and diagram number: -9). 41

64 Dia. No. 9: Comparision of spike length and rachis length 70 T rn 0 J 50 NN 10 0 c`a 3 VJ.L VJ C /cc~ V Cultivars Spike length 0 Rachis length

65 Table: Length of rachis (cm) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at l% Number of flowers /spike The data pertaining in table 4.13 and diagram 10 reveals that the all cultivars have significant difference among them. The range between maximum flowers/spike in Vybhav (58.23) to minimum in cultivar Gandhisagar (34.5) The cultivar Vybhav is followed by Suvasini (55.95), Prajwal (54.15), Shringar (38.05) and Gorakhpur (35.08). The cultivars Prajwal and Suvasini were statistically at par with each other. 42

66 'Cable: Numbcr of flowers /spike No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % Colour of the flower Colour of the florets decides the beauty of the flower different cultivars under study showed remarkable difference in colour of flower and the colour of florets ranged between white to pink or in between them. Following observation were taken in this regard. (Table: ) Type of flower In tuberose the type of flower decides many characters such as beauty, oil contents, attractiveness and longevity. This character also varied with different cultivars. There are mainly two type of flower found in the tuberose i.e. single and double and in between viz. semi double. The cultivars `Shringar' and 'Prajwal' were found as be single type, where as 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Suvasini ' and 'Gorakhpur' were recoded as double while 'Vybhav' as semi double. (Table: -4.14) 43

67 Dia. No. 10 : No. of flower per spike ME `t(( 0 3 N m a U) > U) L Cl) > (0 O 0 Co C7 Cultivars

68 Table:-4.14 Colour of the flower S. No. Name of cultivars Colour I Shringar Pink White 2 Prajwal Pink White 3 Gandhi Sagar Pink 4 Suvasini White 5 Vybhav White 6 Gorakhpur Pink White Bud length (cm) The cultivars showed highly significant difference with respect to floral bud length. The range was in between 5.15 cm to 6.60 cm with mean value 5.70 cm. The maximum bud length (6.60 cm) was recorded in cultivar 'Vybhav' which was statistically higher over 'Suvasini ' (5.95 cm), 'Gandhi Sagar' (5.25 cm) and 'Shringar ' (5.20 cm). The cultivar 'Gorakhpur' showed the minimum bud length (5.15 cm). The cultivars 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Shringar' and 'Gorakhpur' were at par. The cultivars viz. 'Vybhav', 'Suvasini ' and 'Prajwal' were recorded more bud length than mean value 5.70 cm. (Table number: and diagram number: - 9). Table 15. Type of flower S. No. Name of cultivars Type of Flower 1 Shringar Single 2 Prajwal Single 3 Gandhi Sagar Double 4 Suvasini Double 5 Vybhav Semidouble 6 Gorakhpur Double

69 Table: Bud length (cm) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur 5.15 CDat5% CD at 1 % The cultivars viz. 'Vybhav', 'Suvasini ' and 'Prajwal' were recorded more bud length than mean value 5.70 cm. (Table number: and diagram number: - 9) Flower length (cm.) Length of the first floret recorded in various cultivars was having highly significant difference. The range was from 5.02 cm to 5.54 cm. with an average of 5.20 cm. The maximum flower length was observed in the cultivar 'Vybhav' (5.42 cm) which was statistically superior over all other cultivars followed by 'Suvasini ' (5.37 cm), 'Prajwal' (5.20 cm), 'Shringar ' (5.10 cm), and 'Gorakhpur' (5.07 cm). The cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' was having the minimum flower length (5.02 cm), which was statistically at par with 'Gorakhpur'. The cultivar 'Vybhav' and 'Suvasini ' were recorded flower length than the average value 5.20 cm. and Prajwal cultivar has flower length as the mean value (5.20). (Table number: and diagram number: - 10). 45

70 Dia. No. 11 : Comparison of Bud length, Flower length and flower diamter 5 n 2 I C Co Co CO (5 U) > >+ t (!) t (I) Lf to 'E C Co L 0 0 Cultivars Bud length D Flower length Flower diameter

71 Table: Flower length (cm.) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur 5.07 CDat5% CD at 1% Flower diameter (cm.) The cultivars showed highly significant difference with respect to the diameter of the first floret. The range was between 3.10 cm to 4.90 cm with a mean value 3.96 cm. Flower with maximum diameter (4.90 cm) was recorded in cultivar in 'Vybhav' which was statistically superior over all other cultivar followed by 'Suvasini ' (4.65 cm), 'Shringar' (4.07 cm), 'Prajwal' (3.65 cm) and 'Gorakhpur' (3.42 cm). The minimum flower diameter was recorded in the cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' (3.10 cm). The cultivars viz. 'Vybhav', 'Suvasini' and 'Shringar ' have more flower diameter than the average value (3.96 cm). (Table number: and diagram number: - 10).

72 Table: Flower diameter (cm.) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Grakhpur 3.42 CD at 5% CD at 1 % Fresh flower weight (g. /100 flower) There were highly significant differences among the cultivars with respect to fresh flower weight of 100 flowers. The range was in between g. to g with a mean value g. The maximum weight was found in cultivar 'Vybhav' ( g.) followed by 'Suvasini' ( g.), 'Gorakhpur' (123.37g), 'Gandhi Sagar' ( g.), 'Shringar' (94.42 g.) which was at par with the lowest weight recorded cultivar 'Prajwal' (93.45 g.). The cultivars 'Vybhav' and 'Suvasini ' were recorded to have more flower weight than the average weight ( g.) (Table number: and diagram number: - 11). 47

73 Dia. No. 12: Fresh flower weight (g.f100 flower) C+ m ca :c C) y m L r C 0 Cultivars

74 Table: Fresh flower weight (g. /100 flower) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean I Shringar 94, Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % Fresh flower yield (kg. /ha.) Highly significant differences among the cultivars with respect to fresh flower yield kg/ha. The range was between to kg. with a mean of kg. The maximum yield was found in the cultivar 'Vybhav' ( kg/ha) followed by 'Prajwal' ( kg/ha), 'Shringar' ( kg/ha), 'Gandhi Sagar' ( kg/ha), 'Gorakhpur' ( kg/ha). Where as the 'Suvasini ' ( kg/ha) gave the lowest yield per hectare. The cultivar 'Vybhav', 'Shringar' and 'Prajwal' were found to have more yield kg/ha than the average value kg. /ha. The cultivars 'Prajwal' and 'Vybhav' were at par with each other. (Table number: and diagram number: - 12).

75 Dia. No. 13: Fresh flower yield (kg/ha) , X m 3 cc C L 4 _ > Cl) t (/) a C Cu 0 Cultivars Cl)

76 Table: Fresh flower yield (kg. /ha.) S. No. Name of cultivars Mean I Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Grakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1% VASE LIFE OF CUT SPIKES Vase life of cut flower denotes flower longevity after harvesting ie how many days, cut flower can withstand as fresh after harvest Vase life of spikes (control, in water) There were no significant differences among the cultivars for the vase life in control (water). The vase life days ranged from 5.25 to 6.50 days with average vase life 5.87 days. The maximum vase life was observed in cultivar 'Vybhav' (6.5 days) followed by 'Prajwal' (6.25 days), 'Suvasini ' (6.00 days), 'Gorakhpur' (5.75 days), 'Shringar ' (5.50 days) and lowest vase life statistically was recorded in cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' (5.25 days). 49

77 The cultivars 'Prajwal', 'Suvasini ' and 'Vybhav' were having more vase life days than the average vase life 5.87 days. (Table number: and diagram number: - 13) Table: Vase life of spikes S. No. Name of cultivars Control Distilled water 2 % Sucrose 4 % Sucrose 8 % Sucrose 1 Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1 % Vase life of spikes (2% sucrose solution) In 2% solution of sucrose the cultivars also showed significant variation with range of 6.25 to 8.25 days with mean of 7.20 days. The maximum vase life was observed in cultivar 'Suvasini '(8.25 days) followed by 'Vybhav' (7.75 days), 'Prajwal' (7.25 days), 'Gorakhpur' (7.00 days), 'Gandhi Saga? (6.75 days) and the lowest vase life was recorded in cultivar'shringar' (6.25 days). The cultivars 'Gorakhpur', 'Vybhav', 'Prajwal' were statistically at par with each other. The cultivars 'Prajwal', 'Suvasini ' and 'Vybhav' were having vase life more than the average value (7.20 days). (Table number: and diagram number: -13) Vase life of spikes (4% sucrose solution) The cultivars understudies were varying significantly with respect to the vase life of the spikes under 4% sucrose solution. The range was between 8 to 11 days with 50

78 Dia. No. 14 : Vase life of spike 12 ~ 10 0 x 3 m -E > m I- ) C CO CO CO L C') U) N Y CO 0 Cultivars CD Control 2% Sucrose 0 4% Sucrose 8% Sucrose

79 a mean 9.04 days. The maximum vase life was 11 days in cultivar 'Suvasini ' which was superior over other cultivars followed by 'Vybhav' (9.25 days), 'Prajwal '(9 days), 'Gandhi Sagar' (8.75 days), 'Gorakhpur' (8.25 days). The cultivar 'Shringar' has the minimum vase life (8 days). The cultivar 'Shringar ', 'Gandhi Sagar' and 'Gorakhpur' were statistically at par with each other. Cultivar 'Prajwal' was at par with 'Vybhav'. Cultivars 'Vybhav' and 'Suvasini ' were having longer vase life days than the mean value 9.04 days. (Table number: & diagram number: - 13) Vase life of spikes (8% sucrose solution) Similarly the cultivar showed highly significant difference with respect vase life of spike under 8% sucrose solution, the range between lowest and highest 6.50 to days with a average of 7.75 days. The maximum vase life days was recorded in cultivar 'Suvasini ' followed by the cultivars 'Vybhav' (8.50 days), 'Gorakhpur' (7.25 days), 'Shringar ' and 'Prajwal' have equal vase life days (7 days) which is statistically at par with lowest vase life days recorded cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' (6.5 days). The cultivars 'Vybhav' and 'Suvasini ' were having vase life more than the average value (7.75 days). (Table number : and diagram number: -13). 4.5 Oil content (concrete) g/500 g. of flower Various cultivars showed highly significant difference with respect to concrete content in the flowers. Which was varied between 41.15g to 54.04g. With a mean value 46.80g. The maximum concrete content was recorded in 'Prajwal' (54.07 mg) followed by 'Shringar ' (51.62 g), 'Suvasini ' (49.12g), 'Gandhi Sagar' (43.52g), 'Vybhav' (41.35g) which was at par with the lowest concrete containing cultivar 'Gorakhpur' (41.15g). 51

80 Dia. No. 15 : Oil content (concrete) g1500 g. of flower ~p 0 30 r~~ u [I] m 3 cc m Ca c c Co Cl) L Cl) c Co Cultivars

81 Table: Oil (concrete) content g/500 g. of flower S. No. Name of cultivars Mean I Shringar Prajwal Gandhi Sagar Suvasini Vybhav Gorakhpur CD at 5% CD at 1% The cultivar 'Suvasini `, 'Shringar ' and 'Prajwal' were found to have more concrete than the average concrete value 46.80g. (Table number: and diagram number: -14). 52

82 CHAPTER - V I DISVISSION

83 DISCUSSION In this chapter the performance of six promising cultivars have been discussed in light of the work done by various investigations at different agro-climatic condition. Through the discussion it will be easy for a nurseryman, a horticulturist and for a grower to select the suitable material according to their need. The facts are as follows A. Visual observation (Days after planting) After planting bulbs timely sprouting of bulbs is very important primary character for the evaluation of better cultivars. Various cultivars showed a significant difference in day's requirement for sprouting. The minimum days (18.23) required by the cultivar "Vybhav" and maximum days days were required by cultivar "Gorakhpur". Tak et. al (1999) reported the sprouting period in cv. single as days. The slight increase in sprouting period is most probably due to change in climatic conditions of different places and the cultivar used. As regards the initiation of floral bud various cultivars showed highly significant differences in them after sowing cultivar "Vybhav" required only 88.5 days to initiate first floral bud hence may be treated as the earliest cultivar. Where as cultivar "Suvasini" required days for initiation The great difference in period is due to the delay in sprouting of various cultivar characters. Bankar et al. (1993) have also reported similar trend, who observed first floral initiation in cv. Double at 40 days and gradual increase in initiation up to 126 days. The great variation regarding this character is most probably due to the behavior of different cultivars and change in climate. Days to marketable flower from bud initiation for different cultivars showed non significant difference, more or less equal number of days required from bud stage to marketable flower. Minimum number of days required for cultivars 'Gorakhpur' (l 1.15days) while the maximum days by cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' (15.50 days). This trend may be attributed to check the varietal growth character and also the marketing 53

84 condition from bud stage and therefore it supports present study. Results were also supported by the findings of Pal and Das (1990) the duration of flowering (from to l 4-19 days), but Gowda el al. (1991) has reported longest duration of flowering (29.75) days. Variation occurred for this is due to the cultivars difference and also due to the climatic difference. Regarding Days to 50% flowering the result was found highly significant. Minimum number of days were required by the cultivars 'Prajwal' (114.55days) which may be considered as the early cultivar, followed by medium maturing variety "Prajwal" were 'Vybhav' (121.65days), 'Gandhi Saga? ( days), 'Shringar' ( days), Suvasini (152.72days). Maximum number of days to 50% flowering was observed in cultivar Gorakhpur (157.70). The average number of days for this characteristic was ( days). These variations may attribute to different temperatures and seasonal conditions prevailing at different places in the particular area cultivars have maintained the difference notice in the number of days taken for flowering. The results indicated that there is a particular time period for each cultivar for flowering. The findings by Bankar et al. (1993) reported 110 days after planting (from 7.14 to 49.20% and increased further (to 87.20%)at 126 days after planting. The variations in flowering attribute were because of cultivars character, which may be also influenced by climatic conditions. The cultivars showed significant difference in respect to the plant population per plot. The average number of plant population was Maximum was found in the cultivar 'Gandhi Sagar' (133.00) and minimum was found in 'Suvasini'. The trends of variations among the cultivars were similar with slight differences this may be due to germination percentage and also the climatic requirement of the different cultivars specially temperature, day length and relative humidity etc. Singh (1995) supports our study,wange el al, (1995) reported dozen/ha while Murthy and Gowda (1993) reported plants /ha. Other growth parameters viz, number of leaves and width of leaves the results were non-significant and almost they were similar in number of leaves per plant. The average number of leaves similarly the width of the leaves has not shown any 54

85 difference statistically with an average of 1.08 cm. Both the characters are responsible for the vegetative growth shown by the different cultivars, which finally decides the reproductive economical life of cultivars. Findings for number of leaves and width of leaves have similar trends with the results of Barman and Pal (1993) reported leaves /clump,findings of Parthian el al. (1992) reported leaves /clump and width 1.3 cm.similar results were also given Bankar and Mukhopadyay (1980) and Gupta el al. (1984). Significant results were found regarding the length of leaves with the average leaf length was cm. The maximum leaf length was recorded in cultivars 'Vybhav' (40.35 cm) followed by 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Prajwal', `Gorakhpur', 'Suvasini ' and shortest leaf length was recorded in the cultivars `Shringar' (32.97). It was also observed that this character was directly co-related with the yield and the quality of the flowers produced by the cultivar, this character is mainly responsible for the best quality no doubt yield of tuberose cut flower, more length of leaves resulted in increase plant height hence more photosynthesis enhances vegetative growth. Result has shown similar trend with the findings of Gupta et al. (1993) reported leaf length cm supports our findings. As the number of effective tillers (spikes) was concerned the cultivars showed significance difference among them. The highest number of effective tillers were found in 'Vybhav' (4.825) followed by 'Suvasini', 'Prajwal', 'Shringar', 'Gorakhpur' and 'Gandhi Sagar ' with average number of effective tillers (3.55) this character is most important one. The maximum number of spikes in cultivar Vybhav due to more food material conserved in the leaves. Findings of Parthiban et al..(1992) reveals 1.72 spike although are very low but differences, in findings are probably due to the cultivars used and also due to the climatic conditions. Kanan et al. (1998) have also reported similar findings 1-4 number of effective tillers,which supports our present findings. Length of spikes of different cultivars have shown significant different among them the highest spike length was noticed in cultivars 'Suvasini ' (95.05 cm) followed by 'Prajwal', 'Gandhi Sagar `, 'Vybhav `, 'Shringar' and lowest in `Gorakhpur'. This 55

86 character is especially desirable for cut flower because large spike will have more number of flowers and most preferred by consumer. The spike length recorded is accordance with the by Halepyati et al. (1995) reported spike length 88.0 cm. Similar findings is also reported by Pal and Das et al. (1990) reported flower spike length 72.0 cm, while Patil et al. (1987) under pune conditions reported cm spike length, supports present study,slight differences may be due to the climatic conditions of different places. As for as the number of flowers /spike is concerned it is another very important characteristics of the tuberose which is directly proportional to the yield of the cultivar. When number of flowers/spike are more, then produce of the cultivar would have more weight and resultant more flowers /spike gives attractiveness. Among the cultivars under experiment Vybhav recorded highest number of flowers /spike (55.95) followed by Suvasini, Prajwal, Shringar, Gorakhpur and lowest in cultivar Gandhisagar.Niranjan et al. (1997) reported (40-50 flowers /spike),while Tak et al. (1999) reported (38.03 flowers/spike) supported our present finding slight bdifferences may be due dry period and climatic conditions. Rachis length is another important spike character that was positively and significantly correlative with spike length. Cultivars that have large spike may have large rachis length and they may be considered as best quality spike for cut flower purpose. In present study there were highly significant differences among the cultivars with respect to rachis length. The cultivar `Vybhav' (41.80 cm) was having longest rachis length followed by 'Suvasini', 'Prajwal', 'Gorakhpur', 'Shringar' and minimum rachis length in 'Gandhi Sagar'. The findings were also supported by Niranjan et al. (1997) reported rachis length (22-23 cm), variation in findings is due to the climatic conditions and cultivars differences. Similar findings were under south Indian conditions by Banker and Mukhopadhyay (1980). Along with the spike characters some flower characters are also important for tuberose cut flower viz, bud length, flower length, flower diameter. As these characters will decide the attractiveness of the spike and marketable quality. If number of florets is more there the spike will be attractive. With respect to this character 56

87 cultivars showed highly significant difference 'Vybhav' has highest bud length 6.6 cm. followed by 'Prajwal', 'Suvasini', 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Shringar' and lowest in 'Gorakhpur'. In case of floret size length of the flower and diameter of floret are considered in the both characters the cultivars have shown highly significant differences as for as length of the flower maximum length was recorded in 'Vybhav' (5.42 cm) followed by 'Suvasini', 'Prajwal', 'Shringar', 'Gorakhpur' and minimum in 'Gandhi Sagar' supported by the findings of Niranjan et al. in year (1997) reporting 5 cm bud length. As for as the diameter of flower is concern different cultivars have shown highly significant results. This is also a very important in deciding the whorl of the flower maximum flower diameter was observed in cultivars 'Vybhav' followed by `Suvasini', `Shringar', `Prajwal', 'Gorakhpur ' and lowest in 'Gandhi Sagan'. Similar findings by were reported Tak el al. (1999) has reported diameter of flower 3.67cm. Slight differences are due to cultivars tested and different climatic conditions. Colour of the flower is another important flower character of tuberose this beatifies the flower. The colour of flowers ranged from white to pink in different cultivars. The different colourful in tuberose is reported by Meenakshi et al. (1996). Pink white colour was found in cultivars 'Shringar' 'Prajwal' and 'Gorakhpur' while pink was in 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Suvasini 'and 'Vybhav' were recorded white flower. The different coulors of tuberose was reported by Iruppan et al. (1980). Tuberose has different types of flowers they are single, double and semi double. Single cultivars were 'Shringar' and 'Prajwal' while characteristics is observed in 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Suvasini' and 'Gorakhpur' while semi double was observed in 'Vybhav'. The findings of Iruppan et al. (1980) reported different types of flowers. Fresh flower weight per 100 flower (g.) was found very significant among the different cultivars. The maximum weight was observed in 'Vybhav' ( g) followed by 'Suvasini', 'Gorakhpur ','Gandhi Sagan', 'Shringar' and 'Prajwal'. This is a very important character which contribute the total yield of the cultivars. 'Vybhav ' have shown highest weight this may be probably due to the semi double type character which have more number of whorls per spike while single cultivars have less weight 57

88 per 100 flower due to single type flower as they have only one whorl of flower. The similar trends of results were also confirmed by Tak. el al. (1999) reporting g/plant, supported the present findings along with findings of Malini et al. (1989) reported 24.7g/plant,while Murthy and Gowda (1993) reported 67.8g/0.25 meter square. Differences in yield attribute are due to the cultivar and dry conditions of the year. As for as the fresh flower yield is concerned the different cultivars have also showed highly significance with each other. Maximum fresh flower yield (kg/ha.) was recorded in cultivar 'Vybhav' ( kg.) followed by 'Prajwal', `Shringar', 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Gorakhpur' and lowest in 'Suvasini'. This capacity may be due to the single and double cultivars difference; double cultivars have given more yield kg. per ha. than the single one. Parthiban et al. (1991) reported kg/ha. yield similarly, Halepyati et al. (1995) reported 10.04t/ha (10040 kg/ha)tak et al. (1999) reported tlha (12260kg/ha) yield which supports present findings slight differences in yield variation is probably due to the cultivars and environmental of experimental area. Vase life of flower is very important character for a good cut flower; longevity days after spike cut is an important character. The preference of the consumer depends on the vase life of cut spike along with other good qualities of spike as colour of florets, spike length and the number of florets per spike. In present study the cultivars have shown highly significant difference for vase life of cut flower treated with various concentrations sucrose. For this study the spikes were harvested when one or two of the lower flowers were open cut to 55cm in length and removing all leaves but 2-3 leaves were left after recording flower weight, each spike was placed in a bottle containing solution as per treatment and the solution were changed in every three days reported by Das and Barman (1990) and Bal Krishna etal. (1989). In control (pure water) maximum vase recorded with life of cultivar 'Vybhav' (6.50 days) followed by 'Prajwal', 'Suvasini ', 'Gorakhpur `, 'Shringar' and 'Gandhi 58

89 Sagar'. Bal Krishna et al. (1989) reported 7days vase life, where as Das el al. reported 6.0 days vase life in control. As for as the sucrose solution at 2% the cultivars have shown significant difference among them. Highest vase life days were recorded in cultivars 'Suvasini' (8.25 days) followed by'vybhav' and 'Prajwal'. Similar trend was also observed with 4% sucrose solution cultivar 'Suvasini ' rccorded the maximum vase life (I1 days) followed by 'Vybhav ' and Prajwal'. Research work by Reddy el al. (1996) recorded 12.7days vase life in 4% sucrose, while Singh et al. (1996) reported 16 days vase life. The cultivars also showed same trend in 8% sucrose solution but clearly the number of days to vase life were declined. Maximum number of days recorded in 'Suvasini' (10.25) followed by 'Vybhav' and 'Prajwal'. Vase life of cut spike indicates the duration in which the spike can withstand without any damage. Similar findings have been given by Barman et al. (1998) reported 8% sucrose as the holding solution produced the highest quality longest lasting flowers. As regards the oil content was recorded highly significant differences existed with respect to extraction of oil content (concrete) g/500 gm of flower. The maximum concrete was recorded in cultivar 'Prajwal' ( g) followed by 'Shringar', `Suvasini', 'Gandhi Sagar', 'Vybhav ' and lowest in 'Gorakhpur'. The concrete present in the flower is directly related with fragrance emitted by tuberose flower. Single cultivars have been recorded for more concrete containing cultivars than double or semi double cultivars. Similar findings of Chandravardhana et. al (1994) reported to concrete content in different cultivars and Meenakshi el. al (1996) reported "single" cultivars yielded higher concrete content ( %) than the double cultivars ( %), supported our present findings. Slight differences occurred might be probably due to different cultivars, method of extraction and environmental conditions Meenakshi et. al (1996) studied the oil content of tuberose and reported higher oil content (concrete content ) % in single cvs. Mexican singles. Which is in agreement with present study, he was also reported higher oil from October bahar than summer bahar. 59

90 CHAPTER - V I

91 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Study on the performance of six cultivars of tuberose was carried out at the horticulture nursery, college of agriculture Indore (M.P.) during kharif season In this chapter the summary and conclusion of investigation and the suggestion for future study are incorporated. The important biological parameters under study of tuberose cultivars were classified as visual observation (DAS), Preharvest observation, observation after flowering, vase life records and concrete amount. Under visual observation studies i.e. days to sprout flowering initiation (DAS), days to marketable flower from bud initiation and days to 50% flowering, pre harvest observation includes plant population per plot, number of leaves per plant, length of leaves, width of leaves, number of effective tillers, observation after flowering includes, number of spike in bulb per plant, length of spike, length of rachis, colour of flower, type of flower, bud length, flower length, flower diameter, fresh flower weight per 100 flower (g.), fresh flower yield (kg/ha.) and also post harvest observation such as vase life of flowers (days), concrete (oil content) g per 500 g. of flower. Days to sprout after sowing was significant it was observed that cultivars 'Vybhav' was earliest variety followed by'prajwal' and 'Gandhi Sagar'. Flowering initiation (DAS) was found highly significant in this regard also 'Vybhav 'was earliest followed by 'Prajwal' and 'Shringar for days to bud initiation to marketable flower shown no significant differences and this flowering attribute was on an average same. Days to 50% flowering were also recorded highly significant among the cultivars earliest was 'Prajwal' followed by 'Vybhav' and 'Gandhi Sagar'. Significant different among the cultivars were also recorded with highest plant population in cultivar'gandhi Sagar' followed by'gorakhpur' and 'Prajwal'.

92 It is found statistically that there were no significant difference among the cultivars with respect to the number of leaves all cultivars shown almost same number of leaves. Length of leaves observed have shown significant difference in them maximum leaf length was observed in cultivars 'Vybhav' followed by 'Gandhi Sagar and 'Prajwal'. As for the width of leaves are concerned there were no significant difference among the cultivars. Almost all cultivars have shown same leaves width. For the flowering attribute i.e. number of effective tillers and number of spike in bulb per plant have shown significant difference. Highest effective tillers were found in cultivar'vybhav' followed by 'Suvasini and 'Prajwal'. There were highly significant difference among the cultivars for the length of spike, the cultivar 'Suvasini' has highest spike length followed by 'Prajwal', 'Gandhi Sagar'. There was remarkable difference in number of flowers/spike maximum number of flowers/spike was recorded in cultivar Vybhav followed by Suvasini and Prajwal. Similarly length of rachis shown highly significant difference with maximum rachis length in cultivar 'Vybhav' followed by 'Suvasini' and 'Prajwal'. There was remarkable difference in colour of flower among the cultivar. Pink white colour was observed in cultivar 'Shringar', 'Prajwal' and 'Gorakhpur'. White colour was found in 'Suvasini ' and 'Vybhav' while pink colour was observed in 'Gandhi Sagar'. In the similar way the type of flowers differed accordance with different cultivar i.e. cultivars 'Shringar' and 'Prajwal' were single, 'Suvasini' and 'Gorakhpur ' were double while 'Vybhav ' was semi double. 61

93 Flower length also shown significant difference among the cultivars with maximum flower length recorded in the cultivar 'Vybhav' followed by 'Suvasini' and 'Prajwal'. Flower diameter was highly significant differed with maximum flower diameter in cultivar'vybhav' followed by'suvasini' and 'Shringar'. Fresh flower rate per 100 flower (g.) also shown very highly significant difference among the cultivars noticing maximum weight in cultivar 'Vybhav ' followed by'gorakhpur' and 'Gandhi Sagar'. Fresh flower yield kg/ha. also showed very highly significant difference among the cultivars maximum yield (kg./ha) was found in cultivar 'Vybhav ' followed by 'Prajwal' and 'Shringar'. As far as the vase life of flower is concerned all cultivars have shown similar trends in different sucrose percent viz. 2%, 4%, and 8%. Maximum vase life was recorded in cultivar 'Suvasini' followed by 'Vybhav ' and 'Prajwal' but in control (pure water) the vase life different trade maximum vase life was in 'Vybhav' followed by 'Prajwal' and 'Suvasini'. Oil content (concrete) g. /500 g. of flower also showed highly significant difference among the cultivars according to this finding maximum concrete was recorded in 'Prajwal' followed by'shringar' and 'Suvasini' CONCLUSION Based on the performance of six tuberose cultivars with respect to various biological parameters and consumers preference the cultivars 'Vybhav', 'Suvasini 'and 'Shringar' are found promising in performance under Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh for cut flower marketing Whereas for concrete (oil content) production cutivar "Prajwal" is found to be best amongst the cultivar studied. 62

94 As for as the vase life days are concerned 'Suvasini', 'Vybhav' and 'Prajwal' are found superior. SUGGESTION The suggestions for further research work on the basis of the present study are as follows: 1. Production technology can be standardize for the cultivars performed well leading under Malwa region of M.P. 2. Studies on post harvest handling including packaging, storage and transpiration may be conducted. 3. The findings of investigation are based on one season data hence it needs confirmation. 4. Suitability of some other promising cutivar can also be tested for summer season. 63

95

96 BIBLIOGRAPHY Arora,J.S. and Sharma, S.C. (1991)Genotype X environmental interactions of some quantitative traits in gladiolus cultivars.punjab Horticulture Journal of Horticulture, 48: Bankar-GJ; Mukhopadhyay-A( 1980 ) Varietal trial on tuberose (Polianihes tuberosa L.). South-Indian-Horticulture, 1980,28:4, ; 3 ref. Balakrishna-HV; Reddy-TV; Rai-BGM (1989) Post-harvest physiology of cut tuberoses as influenced by some metal salts. Mysore-Journal-of-Agricultural-Sciences. 1989, 23: (3): ; Bankar-GJ (1993) Flower initiation study in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) cv. Double. Progressive-Horticulture. 1991, pub!. 1993, 23:(1-4): ; Barman-D; Pal-P (1993) a note on effects of micronutrients on growth and yield of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Single. Horticultural Journal. 1993, 6: (1): 69-70; Belorkar-1'V; Patil-BN; Dhumal-BS; Golliwar-VJ; Dalal-SD (1993) Effect of nitrogen levels and gibberellic acid on growth, flowering and yield of tuberose (Polianihes tuberosa). Journal-of-Soils-and-Crops. 1993, 3: 2, ; 7 ref. Bhatia, J.S. and Srinivasan, M. (1954). J Sci. Industr. Res., 13: (8): 373. Chandravadana-MV; Meenakshi-Srinivas; Murthy-N; Srinivas-M(1994) Indole in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa) varieties. Journal-of-Essential-Oil-Research. 1994, 6: (6): ; *Dalal-SR; Dalal-NR; Rajurkar-DW; Golliwar-VJ; Patil-SR A (1999) Effect of nitrogen levels and gibberellic acid on quality of flower stalk of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). Journal-of-Soils-and-Crops. 1999, 9: 1, 88-90; 3 ref. 64

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100 *Pant. C.C., lal, S.D., shah, Deepak and Shar,, D. (1998). Performance of some gladiolus cultivars under U.P. Hills conditions. Recent Horticulture, 4: Parthiban-S; Khader-MA(1991) Effect of N, P and K on yield components and yield in tuberose. South-Indian-Horticulture. 1991, 39: 6, ; 1 ref. 4 Parthiban-S; Khader-MA; Thamburaj-S(1992) TITLE: Effect of N, P and K on growth and development of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn). South-Indian- Horticulture. 1992, 40: 3, ; 4 ref. Pause, V.G. and Sukhatme ( 1985). Statistical methods for agricultural workers. (2"d Edn.), ICAR, New Delhi. Patil-JD; Patil-BA; Chougule-BB; Bhat-NR1987) Effects of bulb size and spacing on stalk and flower yield in tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) cv. Single. Current Research Reporter, Mahatma phule Agricultural University. 1987, 3: (2): Patil, S.S.D.,Katwate,S.M. Patil,M.T. and Patil,G.K.91994).Performance of gladiolus jounal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities, 19(1) Reddy-BS; Kartar-Singh; Gangadharappa-PM; Singh-K; Sathyanarayan- Reddy-B(1997) Influence of 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate and sucrose on post harvest physiology of tuberose cv. Double. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 1997, 10: (4): ; Reddy-BS; Singh-K; Gupta-AK; Singh-A; Sathyanarayana-Reddy-B; Kartar- Singh; Amarjeet-Singh (1995) Post harvest life of tuberose as affected by 8-hydroxy quinolinc sulphate and sucrose. Advances-in-Agricultural-Research-in-India. 1995, 3: ; 4 Reddy-BS; Singh-K; Singh-A; Sathyanarayana-Reddy-B; Kartar-Singh; Amerjeet-Singh (1995) Effect of sucrose, citric acid and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate on the post harvest physiology of tuberose cv. Single. Advances in Agricultural Research in India. 1995, 3: ; 10.

101 * hose, J.N. ( ) Studies of Mexican and certral American plants, No. 3. Cont. U.S. Nat. Herbarium 8; Saini, R.S., Gupta, A.K. and Yama dagri, R.V. (1991). Performance of different cultivars of gladiolus grandiflora under Hissar conditions. South Indian horticulture,39: *Sharga-AN; Motial-VS (1983 ) Studies on the effects of foliar nutrition on essential oil content of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa Linn.). Indian-Journal-of- Horticulture. 1983, 40: 3-4, ; 7 ref. Schiva-T; Lanteri-S(1983 ) Cytological observations on two cultivars of Polianthes tuberosa. Annali-del l'istituto-sperimentale-per-la-floricoltura. 1983, received 1985, 14: 1, 1-18; 10 pl., 2 fig.; 17 ref. Singh-KP (1995): Improved production technologies for tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.) - a review of research done in India. Agricultural Reviews Karnal. 1995, 16:( 3): ; S.K. Bhattacharjee (2003) Commercial Floriculture 2003 (1): 5-6. *Srishivasan, M. and Bhatia, J.S. (1954) Curr, Sci., 23; 192. *Trueblood, E.W.E. (1973) Econ. Bot., 27: 157:23 Wangc-SS; Patil-PL; Patil-JJ(1995 ) Effect of nitrogen levels and gibberellic acid on quality of flower stalk of tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa L.). Journal-of-Soilsand-Crops. 1999, 9: 1, 88-90; 3 ref. Whitaker, T.W. (1934) J. Arnold Arb., 15: Zizzo-GV; Fascella-G; Agnello-S (1999) Tuberose, effect on flowering of planting date and bulb size. Colture-Protette. 1999, 28: (4): 71-74;

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