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1 University of Winnipeg Pearson College

2 What is Plant Propagation? The The multiplication of plants by both sexual and asexual means Requires Requires a knowledge of plants and how to manipulate them. Can Can be considered an art-form.

3 Sexual Propagation What is it? The propagation of plants from SEEDS The most common type of propagation In order for one to be successful using this method, one must understand various details about

4 What is a seed? A A seed is a whole plant in miniature surrounded by a seed coat. It is a ripened flower ovule.

5 Taxonomic Classes Angiosperm The flowering plants, seeds are borne in an enclosed ovary (Examples Corn, beans and Maples 250,000 species). Gymnosperm The seeds of gymnosperms are borne naked with no ovary (Examples: Pines, spruces, and ginkgo 700 species) Minnesota Tree Care Advisors

6 Subclasses of Angiosperms Monocot Plants that have one cotyledon (seed leaf) in their seeds (60,000 species). Dicot Plants that have two cotyledons in their seeds (185,000 species).

7 Seed Composition 3 parts of a seed: Seed Coat (Protects the embryonic plant.) Embryo (The new plant) Endosperm (Food storage tissue)

8 Oklahoma Education--

9 Seed Components A seed contains all of the genetic information needed to develop into an entire plant. It contains three parts. (1) Embryo-a a miniature plant which will grow when conditions are favorable. (2) Endosperm-built in food supply for the plant. (3) Seed Coat Hard outer covering, protects the seed from disease and insects. Prevents water from entering the seed before the proper time.

10 Monocot Seed Parts

11 Hypogeal Emergence Iowa State University http//maize.agron.iastate.edu/images/corn/fig1.gif

12 Iowa State University http//maize.agron.iastate.edu/images/corn/fig1.gif

13 Dicot Seed Parts

14 The seedsite.co.uk/seedparts.html

15

16

17 Epigeal Emergence Iowa State University http//

18 Epigeal Emergence Hypogeal Emergence Mrs. Killough s AP Biology Class

19 Viability & Longevity If a seed is viable it will germinate and grow normally Longevity is how long the seed will remain viable Influences of viability species ---woody (5-7 7 years) --- succulent (1-3 3 years) Storage Conditions degrees F Time

20 In order for germination to take place: The The seed must be ripe (ripe when it falls off the tree/plant Dormancy requirement must be met.

21 Seed Dormancy Physical / Seed coat dormancy-a a hard seed coat does not allow water to penetrate (Redbud, locust). Scarification-breaking of the seed coat (fire, insects, digestion, fungi, mechanically or with chemicals. 3 methods: - Mechanical treatment - Hot water treatment - Sulfuric Acid treatment Embryo dormancy-seeds must go through a chilling period before germinating (elm, witch hazel) Stratification: Seed must experience: 1. warm, dry period 2. cool, moist period days at degrees F 3. warm moist period

22 Selection of Seeds Identification of locally grown seeds Select Select certified seeds -have been tested for germination ability and purity. Choose Choose hybrid seeds for greater vigor

23 Seed Germination Germination-Seed embryo goes from a dormant state to an active, growing state. Conditions for germination 1. The seed absorbs water through the seed coat 2. The seed has oxygen 3. The seed has a favorable temperature 4. Some species, require light (Celery) others darkness. 5. Dormancy Period

24 Favorable Temperature Most species require F. Some species have specific temperature requirements Cool temps (40-77) 0 F (broccoli, carrot, celery, lettuce, onion, coleus, delphinium) Warm temps -above 50 0 F; asparagus, corn, tomato -above 60 0 F; beans, pepper, cucurbits

25 Seed Germination What to do to start seeds? Field bedding Moisture, seedbed, depth, irrigation Planting in flats conditions control, Germinating medium sowing, firming, covering, fungicide watering, temperature

26 Seed Germination Factors that cause poor germination old seed uneven moisture too hot/ too cold Fungi damping off improper depth Damping off causes newly sprouted seedlings to fall over and die.

27 Seedling Care Culture of Plants Watering Fertility Light Temperature Transplanting

28 Transplanting & Culture of Handling Plants Handle by leaves Big plants can be planted deeper Throw away bad seeds Watering transplants More water is required after moving Water immediately after Soil fertility Increase levels of fertilizers

29 Culture of Plants Care for your plants Light Water Soil fertility Temperature Protection Pest & Diseases

30 Indirect vs. Direct plants sown indoors plants must be transplanted tomatoes, peppers, eggplant Seeding seeded directly into permanent growing area most economical method corn, melons, beans, beets, peas, etc..

Chap 12. Plant Propagation. I. Three Methods of Plant Propagation

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