Research on the influence of seed tuber size and planting density on the yield of potato grown on sandy soils

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1 Volume 17(2), , 2013 JOURNAL of Horticulture, Forestry and Biotechnology Research on the influence of seed tuber size and planting density on the yield of potato grown on sandy soils Dima Milica 1*, Diaconu Aurelia 1, Croitoru Mihaela 1 Research- Development Center for Field Crops on Sandy Soils Dabuleni *Corresponding author. Abstract The variety, planting density, along with other technological links are only a part of the technological factors that lead to the success of the potato crop on sandy soils, where thermo-hydric stress conditions in summer months prejudicial major production both quantitatively and quality. Establishing optimum planting density should be made depending on the variety, planted tuber size, level of fertilization and environmental conditions. Results posted from CCDCPN Dabuleni on commercial production of tubers obtained show that using the seed planted large tubers planted at a density of plants / ha was achieved highest production of 44.1 t / ha in variety Carera. A level close to production of 36.7 t / ha respectively 36.1 t / ha was obtained in variety Tresor and Carera using the small tubers planted at a density of plants / ha. The results obtained, on the quality of potato tubers, depending on the density of planting, show that the number of plants increases, the quality of the tubers/1ha diminishes, with slight differences depending on variety Key words potato, density, production The potato is a plant with high ecological plasticity can be grown in all parts of our country from north to south and from lowland and up in the mountains. Related to planting density have done some research and found that potato production depends on the number of main stems per unit area.[2] It is generally known potato ability to deliver a large number of strains of the tubercle existing teeth and therefore to ensure may be easily planned density per unit area. This feature, in turn also depends on the variety and planting size [5]. Research by now [1,3,7,8,9] showed that between potato production and number of stems per hectare there is a linear relationship to achieve high yields essential planting a large number of eyes per unit area capable of giving main stems. [6] showed that planting density should be determined by the size of tubers used for planting, variety, and agrofond production purposes. It also shows that the number of stems per plant increases with size tuber planted capacity and level of fertilization and reaches optimum at a density of thousand nests / ha then decreases. Effects planted tuber size and planting density on the yield varies depending on environmental conditions, humidity can be a limiting factor of planting density [4]. Material and Method Were used for experimentation varieties: Tresor, Riviera, Carera. Planting tubers were used small fraction (30-45 mm diameter) tubers large fraction (45-55 mm diameter) and cut tubers. Planting density was plants / ha, respectively pl / ha. Before planting, during the growing season were conducted observations and biometric measurements of the number of eye tubercle, the number of teeth on tubers planted tuber weight, number of main stems per plant. Weight of tubers at harvest was determined on the nest by size: fractions greater than 35 mm and less than 35 mm fraction and production of tubers per variant. Laboratory to determine the content of soluble solids, total solids, sugars, C vitamin. The experiment was located in the field by method of subdivided parcels. Results obtained It was determined the influence of weight of the tubers on fertility elements tuber planted (number of eyes, number of teeth and number of main stems) in the variety Tresor and it was found that there was a positive correlation between the weight of planted tuber and the number of eyes, teeth and main stems/plant.(figure 1) As increasing planting density increases and the number of main stems so that the density of plants / ha when used at planting small tubers were obtained stems / ha( table 1). 105

2 Number of eyes, teeth and main stem Elements of fertility to the varieties considered in study Table 1 Variety Tuber size * The density of planting * No.eye/ tuber No.teeth/tu bercul Weight/ bulb planter (g) No.main stems/plant No./main stems/ ha Tresor 1 1 4,5 3,8 38,5 2, ,7 4,3 40,6 3, ,2 6,0 101,5 3, ,1 6,0 101,0 2, ,5 4,4 61,0 2, ,5 3,3 64,6 2, Riviera 1 1 6,4 5,1 43,0 2, ,8 4,9 47,2 2, ,2 5,9 88,3 2, ,0 3,8 88,0 2, ,5 3,0 46,0 2, ,7 3,4 46,8 2, Carerra 1 1 4,9 4,2 26,7 2, ,0 4,5 38,0 3, ,0 6,0 130,0 2, ,2 6,1 127,4 2, ,9 3,8 74,2 2, ,6 3,4 69,4 2, *Tuber size : 1- small * Density of planting: pl/ha 2- large pl/ha 3- cut y = x R 2 = y = 0.026x R 2 = y = x R 2 = Tuber weight planted(g) Nr. ochi Nr. colți Nr. tulpini Fig. 1.Influence of size of the tuber planted in eye,teeth and main stem at Tresor variety 106

3 Number of teeth and main stem/nest Production of tubers(t/ha) y = -2E-08x x R 2 = Number main stems/ha Fig.2. The correlation between the number of main stems and production depending on the size of the tubers planted the Tresor y = x R 2 = y = x R 2 = Number of eyes/tuber Nr. colți Nr tulpini Fig.3. The influence of the number of eyes on the number of teeth and main stem/nest the Tresor Production capacity elements determined by weighing and counting the number and weight were tubers / plant on fraction size. Regarding the influence of the combination of size tubers x variety x planting density on the number of tubers / plant (table 2) shows that the number fraction of greater than 35 mm tubers (tubers commercial) decreases with increasing density. The largest number of commercial tubers / plant (6.5 or 6.3) was recorded at a density of plants / ha for variety Carera where they used to planting tubers of mm diameter cut tubers. Results on the production of commercial tubers obtained show that large seed tubers planted at a density of plants / ha achieved the highest production of 44.1 t / ha in variety Carera, 32.5 t / ha for variety Tresor. A level close to production of 36.7 t / ha was obtained from variety Tresor, of 36.1 t / ha for variety Carera using small tubers as planting material planted at a density of plants / ha. 107

4 Table 2 Influence of combination of factors variety x size tubers x planting density on the yield components Variety Tuber size * Commercial tubers ( Fraction greater Small tubers (fraction less than 35 mm) The densit y of plantin Commercial tuber production t/ha than 35 mm) No./ Weight(g) No./nest Weight(g)/ g * nest /nest nest Tresor , , , , , ,1 Riviera , , , , , ,7 Carerra , , , , , ,0 *Tuber size : 1- small * Density of planting: pl/ha 2- large pl/ha 3- cut The quality of potato tubers, depending on the density of planting Variety Tuber size The density of planting Tresor Riviera Carrera Total soluble Water Dry matter soluble Acidity C Vitamin mg/100g fresh Small ,3 79,7 5,8 0,1 16, ,2 82,2 4,1 0,25 14,96 Large ,9 79,1 4,9 0,1 15, ,2 79,8 4,6 0,21 10,56 Cut ,4 78,6 5 0,19 10, ,9 0,19 8,8 Small ,6 82,4 4,9 0,12 14, ,8 86,2 4,6 0,21 11,44 Large ,1 83,9 4,7 0,25 13, ,1 86,9 4,5 0,19 7,04 Cut ,2 85,8 4,1 0,21 15, ,6 84,4 4,5 0,21 14,96 Small ,4 0,09 7, ,6 84,8 4,1 0,11 6,16 Large ,7 85,3 6,5 0,11 19, ,5 85,5 4,7 0,11 14,96 Cut ,7 83,3 6,3 0,12 20, ,5 84,5 5,7 0,11 11,44 Table 3 108

5 The results obtained on the quality of potato tubers depending on planting density (table 3), show that the number of plants / ha increases, quality decreases tubers with slightly different depending on the kind considered. Total dry matter showed values ranging from 13.8 to variety Riviera, using small tubers at planting at a density of plants / ha and 20.9 in variety Tresor, using large tubers at planting at a density of plants / ha. The total dry matter accumulation amount of water decreases percentage of tubers. Soluble dry matter ranged between 4.10 and 6.50 with an upward trend in the size of seed tubers. Soluble dry matter of tubers showed lower values with increasing planting density. Tubers acidity was very little influenced by planting density. As C vitamin content, it presents higher values the variety Carrera, using the large tubers cut sown at a density of plants (19.36 to mg/100g fresh ) Analyzing the influence of size of seed tubers on the nutritional quality of the tubers(table 4), the best results were obtained in the variant in which were used for planting tubers cut. Influence of tuber size used in planting,on the nutritional quality of potato tubers Table 4 Tuber size Total soluble Water Dry matter soluble Acidity C Vitamin mg/100g fresh Small 16,75 83,25 4,82 0,15 11,88 Large 16,58 83,42 4,98 0,16 13,49 Cut 17,23 82,77 5,08 0,17 13,56 Analyzing the influence of planting density on the nutritional quality of the tubers(table 5), the results obtained and presented it can be observed a decrease in the main biochemical components analyzed by increasing the number of plants / ha. By increasing density culture can ensure from the outset greater leaf area and photosynthetic efficiency high. The advancement in vegetation and plant growth, occurs but overlapping floors foliar shading occurs as a consequence of its initial positive effect of density becomes negative. In these cases the plants with a high density elongate in their search light is shadow and foliar device is not fully utilized.[5] Influence of planting density on the nutritional quality of potato tubers Table 5 The density of planting Total soluble Water Dry matter soluble Acidity C Vitamin mg/100g fresh ,54 82,46 5,28 0,14 14, ,16 83,84 4,63 0,18 11,14 Conclusions 1. Planting density should be correlated with the size of seed tubers. Small tubers are planted at high density while large tubers are planted at low densities. 2. Tuber production increased progressively with increasing planting density. 3. In terms of size planting both large and small tubers and cut the production ensured similar levels. 4. The results showed that the highest tuber yields were obtained when we used to planting tubers large and small. 5. Analyzing the influence of planting density on the nutritional quality of the tubers, the results obtained and presented it can be observed a decrease in the main biochemical components analyzed by increasing the number of plants / ha. References 1. Berindei M. et al., Planting density and distance from potato farming issues no.3, p Berindei M. et al., Contributions to establish the influence of seed tuber size and planting density on the yield of potato, Anal ICCS Potato, vol.iii. 3. Bleasdale IKA, Relationships between Set Characterers and Yield in Maincrop Potatoes, J.agric. Sci Bireţki M, Roztropowicz S., Krojenie Sadjeniakowswitle Badan Ziemniac, I. 109

6 5. Chichea I., Early potato and summer, Ed Alma Craiova 6. Ana Crăciun, 1994, Optimal planting density depending on variety and phyto measures potato, Scientific (Annals of the Institute for Potato Research and Production, Volume XXI, Brasov. 7. Neguţi I, Contributions to the potato crop establishment irrigation technology in Dobrogea. Valu lui Traian papers 8. Neguti I., Influence of seed tuber size, distance and density planting of potato production. SCCI papers Dobrogea, VI. 9. Van der Zaag DE, Potato and its cultivation in the Netherlands. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries of the Netherlands, Haga. 110

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