Teb obrpb lc fnarptofai BrfiafNdpI AN bmbodbncy clo Teb matofmlny moltbctfln fn Teb BANAT obdfln lc olmanfa

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Teb obrpb lc fnarptofai BrfiafNdpI AN bmbodbncy clo Teb matofmlny moltbctfln fn Teb BANAT obdfln lc olmanfa"

Transcription

1 Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions Jerzy Jasieńko (ed) 2012 DWE, Wrocław, Poland, ISSN , ISBN Teb obrpb lc fnarptofai BrfiafNdpI AN bmbodbncy clo Teb matofmlny moltbctfln fn Teb BANAT obdfln lc olmanfa Liliana Roşiu 1, Smaranda Bica 2 ABpToACT Much of the industrial historical patrimony of Romania was in use till 1990 and some years after the change of political regime. In the new conditions, in a short time, the buildings and the existing equipment were abandoned. Most of the mobile parimony disappeared, but the buildings, even if in bad condition, are still standing and offer multiple possibilities of reuse. The Banat region was one of the first parts of Romania in which industry developed, even as early as the end of the 18th century. The original destination of the industrial historical heritage is varied: mines and mining equipment, syderurgy and metallurgy, brick factories, water and stream mills in the mountains. In the important cities in the north of the region both heavy and light industry flourished. Some of the most remarcable industrial heritage exemples of Timişoara, the main city of the region, are the beer, tobacco and chemical factories, the water supply system and water towers, the power station and the sloughter house etc. These are far from being the only interesting objectives of the region. The reuse of this industrial patrimony can save the buildings and bring in places having suffered from the lost of its traditional economic activities a new life. The article aims to perform an analysis of some of the most remarcable industrial buildings and ensembles and consider alternative uses and rehabilitation possibilities for them. Keywords: Industrial heritage, Reuse, Protection, Endangered patrimony NK efptlofcai lrtillhw fnarptofai AoCeAblildY fn olmanfa NKNK deneral information Till 1989, when the changes of political regime occurred in Central and Eastern Europe, one can not speak about extensive losses in the industrial historical patrimony in Romania, but neither was its historical value recognized. The communist regime had a policy of industrialization in a country having been till WWII mainly a source for agricultural products. But agriculture was not the main economic field in all Romanian regions. One of the most developed industrial regions, already since the 18 th century, was Banat. These being the economic conditions, the communist regime introduced new industries first of all the less developed regions, the already industrial cities continuing in the 50-ties to produce with existing technological means. Extension of the old factories only took place after Even if some of the technological means were dismantled, the buildings were maintained. In the 80-ties, a period of financial difficulties due to the repayment of external debts, the acquisition of new industrial equipment was drastically diminished. All these factors had as effect the maintenance of an extensive and varied stock of industrial archaeology. After 1990, in a short time, the buildings and the existing industrial equipment were abandoned. Most of the mobile patrimony disappeared, but the buildings, even if in bad condition, are still standing and offer multiple possibilities of reuse. 1 Associate Professor, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2 Professor, Politehnica University of Timişoara, 2769

2 NKOK aangers for the industrial historical patrimony The causes of the main dangers the industrial historical buildings are facing are varied and are linked to the profound economical and social changes, often lacking sufficient control. The most important problems are due to the property regime, the privatization legislation having been incomplete and far from perfect. In the lack of capital and financial instruments, the existing factories and enterprises were sold at low prices to entities using trade of influence. They became subject for speculation. In the two decades there were frequent changes of ownership. In the 90-ties, industrial buildings and technological equipment were not considered as representing cultural values, neither in the view of the population nor in the focus of authorities. The effect was a fast degradation of the industrial patrimony: The technological equipment was sold at the price of irons value or plundered for the same aim. Demolition occurred because the position of the industries in cities made the land more valuable then the buildings. The industrial enterprises were left year long unused, the owners having often no financial means to exploit them and no business plans. Sometimes the owners did not accept to respect the regulations concerning the functional use, the architectural form and the urban plans and preferred not to invest in the acquired property. OK fnarptoy lc Teb BANAT obdfln OKNK The beginnings of the Banat industrial patrimony This general overview of the destiny of the Romanian industrial patrimony appeared also in the Banat region. Situated in the south western part of today s Romania, the Banat region has a mountainous relief in the south, the so called Mountainous Banat, rich in coal, ferrous and non-ferrous metals. This caused the development, already since the 18 th century, of mining activities, siderurgy and metallurgy. In the north of the region, the low plain was exploited for agriculture and the cities became centres for food, leather and textile industry. The economical development begun when the western part of Romania, and thus the Banat region, became part of the Austrian Empire. OKOK fndustrial patrimony in the Mountainous Banat The detection of iron ore in the Mountainous Banat determined the Austrian administration to open several mines and to install industrial equipment for metallurgy in Resita, Bocsa, Oraviţa, Ciclova and Sasca. In 1723 the Superior Banat Mining Office having its headquarter in Oraviţa replaced the former Commission for the Installation of Mining in Banat [1]. At the time one used for the metallurgical industry wood and charcoal. The production technology of charcoal was introduced by German colonists, brought in the region with that aim. The German colonists also participated to the erection and exploitation of several iron factories and of the first furnace of Resita, inaugurated in cigk N Mine of Anina 2770

3 An effect of the industrial development was the creation of new settlements, like Anina (Steierdorf) in In 1790 huila deposits were discovered in the neighbourhood and in 1792 the Anina coal mines were opened. The Anina mines became in time the deepest in Europe. The siderurgic and metallurgic industry knew an important development in the 19 th century. Resita became the most important centre of the Mountainous Banat. The technologies introduced here beginning with the middle of the 19 th century were rolling, the Bessemer and Siemens-Martin proceedings for the production of rails, stream engines and iron bridges. The need to link exploitations and factories, along with the export of huila, conducted to the construction of the first railway on the territory of today s Romania. The Oraviţa Anina railway was inaugurated in 15 th of December 1863 and is still in use today. It has 7 stations, 14 tunnels, 10 viaducts and goes up m on the 34 km of the track. It is one of the most beautiful railways of the Eastern part of the EU an was called the Banat Semmering. OKPK fndustrial patrimony in the Northern Banat The Banat northern plain had quite different characteristics and, as a result, a different economical evolution. Some of the most important factories were the Margina charcoal and vinegar factory (1910) and the Lugoj Muschong (1888) and Jimbolia Bohn (1864) tiles and bricks factories and the glass factory of Tomeşti (1820). cigk O Tobacco Factory Timisoara But the most important industrial centre of the area was (and is) the city of Timisoara. The oldest industrial investment was the beer factory, funded by Eugene of Savoy in 1718, two years after the Austrian conquest of Timisoara. Many other enterprises follow, giving the eastern district of the city its name of Fabric. The factories of tobacco (1846), aerial gas (1858), alcohol (1869), textile (1894), hats (1899) and leather shoes (1901) were some of the best known. This economic development, consistently aided by the possibility of water transport on the Tisa Danube Rhine corridor, made Timişoara one of the pioneering European cities concerning the introduction of technical novelties like gas (1857) and electrical urban lighting (1884, the first European city with public electrical lighting), horse (1869) and electrical tramway (1899), telephone (1881), telegraph etc [2]. If the buildings of the19 th century factories were essentially utilitarian, with an austere architecture, the industrial constructions of the beginning of the 20 th century were the object of careful architectural design. Some examples are the slaughterhouse (1905) and the electrical ( ), purge ( ) and water plants ( ). 2771

4 PK bnaandboba fnarptofai pftbp ANa molmlpaip fn BANAT PKNK Attitude towards the industrial heritage Although the Banat region has a rich inheritance in industrial patrimony, this was not perceived as valuable in the 20 th century. Monuments were appreciated in relation to their age, historical value and their rarity, but most of all related to the architectural quality [3]. Not being perceived as valuable patrimony, industrial historical buildings and equipment were exposed to unchecked transformations and demolition. In spite of that, many industrial sites were preserved, due to the slow economical growth. It happened especially in Banat, because most of the investments were directed towards less developed regions. The tendency to preserve industrial heritage, having appeared around 1950 in Western Europe, penetrated later and slowly in Romania. The industrial patrimony appears only incidentally on the list of historical monuments. The attitude toward vernacular rural technical equipment was quite different: these were considered for protection already at the beginning of the 20 th century, long before any idea to rehabilitate the industrial patrimony was even contemplated. The rehabilitation of the industrial sites was neglected by the administration and by the professional community (architects, historians, patrimonial offices and persons working in the industrial sector). The extensive destructions occurring after 1990 because of the profound reformation of the economical sector attracted the attention of some parts of the society and triggered actions aiming the protection and rehabilitation of industrial archaeology. PKOK pome industrial sites and their problems The Slaughterhouse of Timisoara The slaughter house of Timişoara, was one of the first industrial ensembles to loose its function, and remained out of use since the late 90-ties, although it is a protected monument. Designed by one of the most important local architects, Szekely Laszlo in Sezession style, it is may be the most significant industrial historical building of the city. It became the object of greed because of the valuable land due to its central position and its dimensions. The most visible elements, considered to deserve preservation, were the monumental central tower and the administration buildings with two remarkable statues framing the entrance. From the industrial archaeological point of view, the production halls were more important technologically. They were neglected and partially destroyed. cigk P The Slaughterhouse of Timisoara original and present central pavilion Several proposals to rehabilitate the most visible mentioned elements and to place a commercial mall behind the still existing facades of the production halls were successively abandoned due to the 2772

5 frequent change çf çwnershipk qhe result is a cçntinuçus degradatiçn and lçss çf çriginal materialk ff nç interventiçn is perfçrmed in the near future the danger is tç have the same fate as the pçlventul fçrmer alcçhçl factçry ENUSVFI demçlished in OMNO suddenly and unexpectedlyk PK2K2K The sinegar cactory of Margina qhe charcçal and vinegar factçry çf jarginai çne çf the biggest in oçmania and pçuth bastern burçpe between the twç wçrld warsi is nçw çut çf usek qhe building and çne çf the prçductiçn lines still existsk qhe mçnumental prçductiçn space having brick walls and a steel truss rççf has areas differing as height and creating a well balanced vçlumetric variatiçnk qhe ensemble is cçunterbalanced by the vertical silhçuette çf the high chimney with cççling water reservçirk qhe architectural value is enhanced by the carefully designed pattern çf the brick layçutk qhe still existing equipment was destined tç the fabricatiçn çf vinegar by the crings prçcedurei cçnsisting çf fermentatiçn in big cylinders çf eçlland pine tree wççdi cççled water passing thrçugh exteriçr serpentine pipesk cigk 4 qhe sinegar cactçry çf jargina façade and wççden barrels diving a new life and an adequate functiçn tç the jargina factçry wçuld nçt çnly be a way tç preserve this valuable industrial building but alsç a mean tç give an impulse fçr the sçcial and cultural develçpment çf the rural settlements çf the neighbçurhççdk cigk R tater supply system çf qimisçaraw qhe well çf the water treatment plant pçme ideas fçr the reuse çf the prçductiçn space resulted frçm a study at the qimisçara caculty çf Architecture arew spçrts halli climbing and extreme spçrts facilityi riding hçusei wellness ensemblei OTTP

6 cultural centre çr winery and vinegar stçragei the last having the additiçnal advantage çf keeping in the cçllective memçry the çriginal usek PK2KPK The water supply and sewage systems of Timisoara qhe water supply and sewage systems çf qimişçarai designed by the engineer ptan sidrighin and the architect pzekely iaszlç Ewhç intrçduced valuable architectural elements specific fçr the turn çf the century in his prçjectsfi was realized between NVNO and NVN4I initially fçr 4SKMMM users x4zk ft included five paviliçn ensembles çf industrial buildings and the net çf undergrçund pipesk qhe first plant fçr water supply ES wellsi O filter statiçnsi the building fçr pumps and the dwellings fçr the persçnnelf is in cçnservatiçn and became a water museum fçr çccasiçnal visitingi thus being tempçrarily savedk qhe water purificatiçn statiçn built between NVMV and NVNO Edecantatiçn pççlsi pump rççmi mechanical wçrkshçp and dwellings fçr persçnnelf is still wçrkingk qhe industrial water plant and the twç water tçwers are çut çf usek qhe rejuse çf the water tçwers which are impçrtant elements in the city silhçuettei was the çbject çf several prçjects xrzk fn the VMJties the suggestiçn tç transfçrm çne çf the tçwers in a city museum appearedk qhe caculty çf Architecture çf qimisçara had the latest prçpçsals in OMNO fçr the gçsefin water tçwer build between NVNO and NVN4K qhe reservçiri with a RMM cubic meters capacityi is placed at PMIR m heighti the tçtal height being çf RR mk qhe metallic reservçir is suppçrted by a cçncrete cylinder çf NMIR m diameter in which a spiral stair assured the access tç the upper levelk qhe maximum diameteri where the reservçir is placedi is N4 mk qhe prçpçsed functiçnsi adapted tç the particulars çf the rçund spacesi werew exhibitiçns çn the tçpic çf wateri art museumi restauranti cultural centrei belvederei climbing walli literary cafe etck then bringing a new functiçn tç the gçsefin water tçwer çne wçuld alsç bring life tç an area çtherwise mainly residential and lacking the sentiment çf cçmmunityk cigk S tater supply system çf qimisçaraw gçsefin tater qçwer and the sewage plant 4K ClNCirpflNp qhe reuse çf the Banat industrial patrimçny can save the buildings and bring in places having suffered frçm the lçst çf their traditiçnal ecçnçmic activities a new lifek qhe cçntinuçus çffer çf prçpçsals fçr reuse çf the existing industrial patrimçny is aiming tç rise awareness in lçcal administratiçn and in the interest çf the cçmmunityk OTT4

7 It can also attract potential investors. These are naturally interested in the success of an investment and in financial gain. A demonstration of the fact that a reused building can bring a special atmosphere and charm to the ambience for a certain function and can even be less expensive than the erection of a new building can make the investors find out benefits they normally do not imagine. It should be stresses that the main danger for the industrial patrimony and the most important impediment in its protection and reuse has as source the general mentality. The finding of the appropriate solution is essential, because the timid attempts performed till now did not have the expected results yet. AChNltibadbMbNTp We thank the water supply company of Timisoara, Aquatim, for facilitating the access to the Josefin water tower and for having offered the space for a project exhibition. obcbobncbp [1] Hromadka G. (1993) Kleine Chronik des Banater Berglands. Munchen, Verlag Sudostdeutsches Kulturwerk. [2] Opriş, M. (1987) Timişoara. Mică monografie urbanistică, Bucureşti, Ed. Tehnică. [3] Wollmann V. (2003) Arheologie industrială, Alba Iulia, Ed. Ulise. [4] Zănescu A. (1974) Pagini din istoria alimentării cu apă a oraşului Timişoara. Tibiscus 3: [5] Roşiu L. (2006) Componente de interes arhitectural din sistemul de alimentare cu apă al Timisoarei. Patrimonium Banaticum IV: