The Charter of Athens, From heritage preservation to integrated conservation. Charter of Athens Venice charter 1964

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1 From heritage preservation to integrated conservation Charter of Athens 1931 Venice charter 1964 Recognition of the importance of cultural heritage and its conservation. Importance of training Definition of the concept of integral conservation Amsterdam Declaration 1975 Definition of the overall concept of integrated conservation. Importance of training The Charter of Athens, 1931 The role of education in the respect of monuments. The Conference, firmly convinced that the best guarantee in the matter of the preservation of monuments and works of art derives from the respect and attachment of the peoples themselves; Considering that these feelings can very largely be promoted by appropriate action on the part of public authorities; Recommends that educators should urge children and young people to abstain from disfiguring monuments of every description and that they should teach them to take a greater and more general interest in the protection of these concrete testimonies of all ages of civilisation. 1

2 The Venice Charter, 1964 Article 6. The conservation of a monument implies preserving a setting which is not out of scale. Wherever the traditional setting exists, it must be kept. No new construction, demolition or modification which would alter the relations of mass and colour must be allowed. Article 7. A monument is inseparable from the history to which it bears witness and from the setting in which it occurs. The moving of all or part of a monument cannot be allowed except where the safeguarding of that monument demands it or where it is justified by national or international interest of paramount importance. Amsterdam Declaration, 1975 The conservation of the architectural heritage : one of the major objectives of urban and regional planning The conservation of the architectural heritage should become an integral part of urban and regional planning, instead of being treated as a secondary consideration or one requiring action here and there as has so often been the case in the recent past. A permanent dialogue between conservationists and those responsible for planning is thus indispensable. Planners should recognize that not all areas are the same and that they should therefore be dealt with according to their individual characteristics. The recognition of the claims of the aesthetic and cultural values of the architectural heritage should lead to the adoption of specific aims and planning rules for old architectural complexes. It is not enough to simply superimpose, although co-ordinating them, ordinary planning regulations and specific rules for protecting historic buildings. 2

3 Amsterdam Declaration, 1975 Integrated conservation requires the promotion of methods, techniques and skills for restoration and rehabilitation. There is a fundamental need for better training programme to produce qualified personnel. These programmes should be flexible, multi-disciplinary and should include courses where on-site practical experience can be gained. International exchange of knowledge, experience and trainees an essential element in the training of all personnel concerned. This should help to create the required pool of qualified planners, architects, technicians and craftsmen to prepare conservation programmes and help to ensure that particular crafts for restoration work, that are in danger of dying out, will be fostered. Furthermore, the authorities responsible for educational programmes at all levels should endeavour to promote the interest of young people in conservation disciplines Convention for the Protection of the Architectural Heritage of Europe, Granada, 3.X.1985 Information and training, Article 15 to develop public awareness of the value of conserving the architectural heritage, both as an element of cultural identity and as a source of inspiration and creativity for present and future generations; to this end, to promote policies for disseminating information and fostering increased awareness, especially by the use of modern communication and promotion techniques, aimed in particular: at awakening or increasing public interest, as from school-age, in the protection of the heritage, the quality of the built environment and architecture; at demonstrating the unity of the cultural heritage and the links that exist between architecture, the arts, popular traditions and ways of life at European, national and regional levels alike. 3

4 European Convention on the Protection of the Archaelogical Heritage (Revised), 1992 Promotion of public awareness, Article 9 to conduct educational actions with a view to rousing and developing an awareness in public opinion of the value of the archaeological heritage for understanding the past and of the threats to this heritage; to promote public access to important elements of its archaeological heritage, especially sites, and encourage the display to the public of suitable selections of archaeological objects. Mutual technical and scientific assistance, Article 12 to afford mutual technical and scientific assistance through the pooling of experience and exchanges of experts in matters concerning the archaeological heritage; to encourage, under the relevant national legislation or international agreements binding them, exchanges of specialists in the preservation of the archaeological heritage, including those responsible for further training. Guidelines for Education and Training in the Conservation of Monuments, Ensembles and Sites, 1993 EDUCATIONAL AND TRAINING PROGRAMMES AND COURSES 4. There is a need to develop a holistic approach to our heritage on the basis of cultural pluralism and diversity, respected by professionals, craftspersons and administrators. Conservation requires the ability to observe, analyse and synthesise. The conservationist should have a flexible yet pragmatic approach based on cultural consciousness which should penetrate all practical work, proper education and training, sound judgement and a sense of proportion with an understanding of the community's needs. Many professional and craft skills are involved in this interdisciplinary activity. 15. Every country or regional group should be encouraged to develop at least one comprehensively organised institute giving education and training and specialist courses. It may take decades to establish a fully competent conservation service. Special short-term measures may therefore be required, including the grafting of new initiatives onto existing programmes in order to lead to fully developed new programmes. National, regional and international exchange of teachers, experts and students should be encouraged. Regular evaluation of conservation training programmes by peers is a necessity. (See document distributed ) 4

5 Managing cultural heritage. What does it mean? Heritage conservation management is a multidisciplinary process that aims at the conservation of a site based on its significance or values and how that significance will be retained in any future use, alteration, repair, or development. The management development process usually involves several stages, which include: Understanding the site Assessing values Looking at issues or vulnerability (e.g., condition) Identifying policies and strategies for conservation and valorisation This process involves a wide understanding of a site and its environment, including economic, social and cultural conditions Managing cultural heritage Not only conservation The ad-hoc conservation is one, important component of a heritage management process. However: A clear strategy on the future destination, based on complete impact analyses of potentialities of the site is also essential. The conservation process must respect the social condition of the site It is expected that the conservation of heritage generates positive impacts on its environment The conservation process should be part of an overall strategy of sustainable development A careful utilisation of economic and social resources is a must The local economy should take advantage from the conservation process Long term strategies of valorisation should prevail on short-term positive interventions 5

6 Managers of heritage sites should be aware of The multiple threats affecting cultural and environmental heritage preservation The multiple values characterising the cultural heritage The numerous disciplines rotating around cultural heritage preservation and management The importance of cultural heritage or resource for sustainable development Threats to Cultural and Environmental Heritage Cultural and Environmental heritage are threatened by various causes Natural decay: it comprehends all phenomena as rain, wind, biological attacks, sun, water erosion, etc. that are part of the normal life cycle of each object. Present techniques in the field of conservation permit valuables remedies. Natural disasters: it comprehends earthquakes, flooding, tsunamis, etc. which cannot be foreseen by men. They often depend on human incapacity to manage resources Urban development and tourism: the urban pressure and population growing, as well as unbalanced tourism development, linked to a scarce capability of regulation, can reduce heritage values and maintenance. Inappropriate maintenance: bad previous conservation or maintenance interventions could irremediably affect the integrity of cultural and environmental heritage Intentional destruction: recent events world-wide confirmed the human tendency of destruction of cultural heritage. This can manifest through physical demolition, looting, cultural humiliation, etc. 6

7 Cultural Heritage Values The International community of experts recognise the multiple values of the cultural heritage Economic value: the cultural and environmental heritage often need to be quantified for the relationship with markets Use value: cultural and environmental heritage possess use potentialities which allow authorities and communities to shape strategies of development Cultural value: heritage represents tangible and intangible representation of communities cultures through times Social value: through cultural and environmental heritage communities recognise common roots and sense of belonging Educational value: cultural and environmental heritage stand as witnesses of works of art, craft, showing trends, techniques, materials and ideas to be captured by coming generations Artistic value: the importance from the artistic viewpoint of a monument or part of it. Historic value: heritage also represents an historic moment, a period, an era, as valuable as written documents Emotional value: linked to personal associations of people with their lives, relationships, memories, etc. Professionals and Cultural Environmental Heritage Conservation Conservation techniques Cultural economics Administration Techniques Technologies Materials History Styles Products Craftsmanship Tolls and instruments Manpower Recording Evaluation techniques Regional economics Marketing Tourism revenues Implementation costs Impact analyses Logistics Legislation Procedures Partnerships Fund raising Manpower Strategic networks Development vision National/Urban policies 7

8 Components for sustainable development through heritage conservation Cultural and Environmental Heritage and their conservation can be part of a process of integrated, sustainable development (recalling the concept of integrated conservation and the concepts of the Agenda 21) Economic dimension Social dimension Integrated sustainable development Culture Environmental dimension Components for sustainable development through heritage conservation Cultural and Environmental Heritage and their conservation can be part of a process of integrated, sustainable development (recalling the concept of integrated conservation and the concepts of the Agenda 21) Economics Legislation Components of heritage conservation: Tourism Urban/national policies Managers of Heritage Conservation GIS and monitoring Techniques Technologies Methodology Procedures materials Products Objectives Recording 8

9 Importance of Training The cultural and environmental heritage need specialized professionals dealing with each single discipline concerned, namely conservators, urban planners, technicians, jurists, economists, sociologists, etc. In addition, managers of cultural and environmental heritage are essential for multidisciplinary approaches and strategies of heritage valorisation They must be aware of the importance of the above stated professionals, of their skills, and be able to communicate with them comfortably with their own specialised language, guaranteeing the most suitable utilisation of resources and reduction of efforts. Importance of Education Professionals should be conscious of the multidisciplinary approaches to cultural heritage conservation and management Education then involves a wider plateau of people involved: it in fact includes the sensibilization of the importance of heritage conservation and on its potential, positive impact on sustainable integrated development Not only professionals are expected to be educated, but also the local communities, mainly future generations 9

10 Added value of a good management A well calibrated heritage management, with a good strategy would allow the conservation of a site and the enhancement of its environmental conditions Key actions with key professionals are essential This could reflect on the sustainable development of the site and the region 10

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