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6 Presses de l Université du Québec Le Delta I, 2875, boulevard Laurier, bureau 450 Québec (Québec) G1V 2M2 Telephone : (418) Fax : (418) Website : Diffusion / Distribution : CANADA and other countries Prologue inc. 1650, boulevard Lionel-Bertrand Boisbriand (Québec) J7H 1N7 Téléphone : (450) / FRANCE AFPU-Diffusion Sodis BelgiquE Patrimoine SPRL 168, rue du Noyer 1030 Bruxelles Belgique SUISSE Servidis SA Chemin des Chalets 1279 Chavannes-de-Bogis Suisse WARNING UNAUTHORIZED PHOTOCOPYING KILLS BOOKS The Copyright Act forbids the reproduction of works without the permission of rights holders. Unauthorized photocopying has become widespread, causing a decline in book sales and compromising the production of new works by professionals. The goal of the logo is to alert readers to the threat that massive unauthorized photocopying poses to the future of the written work.

7 Luc-Normand Tellier URBAN WORLD HISTORY An economic and geographical perspective 2009 Presses de l Université du Québec Le Delta I, 2875, boul. Laurier, bur. 450 Québec (Québec) Canada G1V 2M2

8 Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec and Library and Archives Canada cataloguing in publication Tellier, Luc-Normand Urban World History : an economic and geographical perspective Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN Cities and towns - History. 2. Sociology, Urban. 3. Polarization (Social sciences). 4. Space in economics. 5. World history. 6. Economic history. I. Title. HT111.T C We are grateful for the financial assistance received from the Government of Canada under the Book Publishing Industry Development Program (BPIDP). Publication of this book was made possible through the financial support of Société de développement des entreprises culturelles (SODEC). This book has been published with the help of a grant from the Canadian Federation for the Humanities and Social Sciences, through the Aid to Scholarly Publications Programme, using funds provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Layout : Alphatek Cartographer : Camille Ouellet-Dallaire Cover : Richard Hodgson PUQ All rights reserved. No reproduction, translation, or adaptation without authorization Presses de l Université du Québec Legal deposit 1st quarter 2009 Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec / Bibliothèque et Archives Canada Printed in Canada

9 Table of Contents Lisf of Figures XIII List of Maps XV INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 FROM THE BEGINNINGS OF AGRICULTURE AND URBANIZATION TO THE FIRST URBEXPLOSIONS The Origins and Beginning of Humankind The Beginnings of Agriculture Agriculture and Topodynamic Corridors Agriculture, Mobility, and Urbanization Emergence of Urbanization in the Great Corridor Appearance of Pre-urban Cities

10 VIII Urban World History Appearance of Urban Cities in the Sumer Region Appearance of Urbanization in Egypt The Strategic Role of the Phoenician Cities The Strategic Role of the Persian Gulf The Babylonian Urbexplosion The Assyrians and the Tigris Axis The Expansion of the Babylonian Urbexplosion The Greek Challenge Urbanization in the Asian Corridor The Indus Valley The Appearance of Urbanization on the Loess Plateau of China The Emergence of Urbanization in America Agriculture and Pre-Columbian Pottery Urbanization in the Northern Pre-Columbian Corridor Urbanization in the Southern Pre-Columbian Corridor CHAPTER 2 UNDERSTANDING THE FIRST URBAN REVOLUTION The First Urban Revolution and Networks Critical Points The First Urban Revolution and Breaking Points The Interface Case The Transshipment Case The First Urban Revolution and Central Places The First Urban Revolution and Network Systems The First Urban Revolution and Agglomeration Economies CHAPTER 3 THE TWO FIRST ECONOMY-WORLDS: THE ROMAN AND CHINESE EMPIRES The Emergence of the Roman Economy-World The Rise of Rome The Consolidation of the Roman Empire The Triumph of Christianity and the Decline of the Western Roman Empire The Fall of the Western Roman Empire The Emergence of the Chinese Economy-World From the Loess Plateau to the Great Plain of China The Cities of the Great Plain of China The Cities of the Red Basin The Greatness of the Chinese Economy-World CHAPTER 4 UNDERSTANDING THE DYNAMICS OF URBAN EVOLUTION Topodynamic Evolution and Spatial Competition Topodynamic Evolution and Management of Municipal Services Topodynamic Evolution and Multiplier Effects Topodynamic Evolution and Repulsive Forces

11 Table of Contents IX Repulsive Forces and the Aging of Urban Structures Repulsive Forces and Polarization Repulsive Forces and Geography CHAPTER 5 THE GREAT EBB: ISLAM OUT TO CONQUER THE GREAT AND ASIAN CORRIDORS From the Fall of Rome to the Advent of Islam The Rise of Islam The Baghdad Urbexplosion The Moorish Outpost South of the Sahara The Eastern Outposts Islam Re-Launched by the Turko-Mongol Invasions The Non-Military Progression of Islam in the Asian Corridor The Great Ebb in Southeast Asia and the Far East CHAPTER 6 UNDERSTANDING TOPODYNAMIC INERTIA Topodynamic Inertia and Agriculture Topodynamic Inertia and Industrialization Topodynamic Inertia and Evolution of Socio-Economic Inequalities Topodynamic Inertia and Cumulative Process of Location Choices The Interaction Between Potentiality and Reality, a Possible Explanation of Topodynamic Inertia A Deterministic Case of Topodynamic Inertia The Role of Topodynamic Inertia in Metropolitan and City Development Topodynamic Inertia in Urbexplosion Development Topodynamic Inertia at the World Level Reversibility of Topodynamic Movements CHAPTER 7 THE GREAT EBB: EUROPE S FIGHT FOR SURVIVAL The Byzantine Empire Russia The Spanish Reconquista The Resurrection of the West European Urbexplosion The Forming of France, a Territorial State The Expansion of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire The Gestation of the Northern Europe Urbexplosion CHAPTER 8 THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA AND THE RETURN IN STRENGTH OF THE OCCIDENT Building a Bridge Between Europe and America The Re-Alignment of the European Economy

12 X Urban World History The Rhône, the Rhine, and the St. Gotthard Pass The New Pole of Northern Europe: Amsterdam and London Three Territorial States The American Periphery of the New European Economy-World CHAPTER 9 THE ADVENT OF MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION AND THE SECOND URBAN REVOLUTION Liberalism, Prelude to the Industrial Revolution The Impact of Motorized Transportation on Urban Systems The Southeastward Movement in the European Section of the Great Corridor The Wave of Colonization that Overwhelmed Africa The European Expansion in Asia CHAPTER 10 UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF MOTORIZED TRANSPORTATION The Impact on Polarization of Evolving from Animal to Motorized Transportation Reference, Attraction, and Repulsion Points The Case of a Single Reference Point The Case of Two Reference Points The Case of Animal Transportation The Case of Relay The Case of Motorized Transportation The Case of Three Reference Points, or Triangle Case The Case of More Than Three Reference Points Explaining the Basic Paradox of Space-Economy Motors and Networks Interdependence of Location Decisions Information Spatial Competition The Biased Reductions of Space-Friction Larger Cities Made Possible Loading/Unloading Costs and Absolute Advantages CHAPTER 11 THE AGE OF AUTOMOBILE AND THE TRIUMPH OF THE AMERICAN CORRIDOR From London to the Trans-Siberian The Emergence of the American Corridor in North America The Impact of the American Corridor on Latin America From America to Japan and Asia in the American Corridor CHAPTER 12 UNDERSTANDING TOPODYNAMIC CORRIDORS The Creation and Spread of Innovations in the Geographical Space The True Meaning of Topodynamic Corridors

13 Table of Contents XI CHAPTER 13 POLES AND ROUTES THROUGH HISTORY The Evolution of City Locations The Evolution in the Form of Cities The Evolution of the Form of Communication Networks The Main Categories of Cities The Evolution of Centrality Transportation and the Relocation of Activities in the City Are European and Canado-American Cities as Different as It Is Usually Said? Developed and developing cities CONCLUSION THE BROAD PATTERNS OF HISTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX TABLES OF DEMOGRAPHIC EVOLUTION Demographic Evolution of Çatalhüyük, Jericho, Jarmo, Eridu, Ur, and Uruk, BC Demographic Evolution of Memphis, Thebes, Byblos, Ugarit, and Tyre, BC Demographic Evolution of Babylon, Ashur, Nimrud, and Nineveh, BC Demographic Evolution of Hattusa, Damascus, Jerusalem, Petra, Susa, and Persepolis, BC Demographic Evolution of Mycenae, Troy, Syracuse, Catania, Taranto, and Ephesus, BC Demographic Evolution of Athens, Sparta, Thebes, Byzantium, Marseille, and Alexandria, BC Demographic Evolution of Ai Khanum, Khotan-Hotian, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, and Kalibangan, 2200 BC AD Demographic Evolution of Changan-Xi an, Kaifeng, Luoyang, Beijing, Zhengzhou, Nanking, and Chengdu, 2200 BC AD Demographic Evolution of Mexico, Cuzco, Chan Chan, Teotihuacan, Machu Picchu, Uxmal, Tikal, and Palenque, Demographic Evolution of Constantinople, Rome, Carthage, Lyon, Caesarea, and Nisa, 400 BC AD Demographic Evolution of Baghdad, Constantinople, Córdoba, Cairo, Paris, Fes, Antioch, and Marrakech, Demographic Evolution of Palermo, Seville, Granada, Adrianople, Sarai, Milan, and Venice, Demographic Evolution of Isfahan, Kairouan, Thessaloniki, Bruges, Mecca, Prague, and Benin,

14 XII Urban World History Demographic Evolution of Preslav, Ghent, Cologne, Bologna, M banza Congo, Kiev, and Amalfi, Demographic Evolution of Lisbon, Great Zimbabwe, Timbuktu, Ratisbon, Budapest, and Hamburg, Demographic Evolution of Vijayanagar, Delhi, Agra, Ahmadabad, and Surat, Demographic Evolution of Peking-Beijing, Hangzhou, Lahore, Zayton, and Panaji-Goa, Demographic Evolution of Manila, Jakarta, Samarkand, Malacca, Colombo, and Macau, Demographic Evolution of Canton-Guangzhou, Tokyo, Kyoto, Pegu-Bago, Ningbo, Nara, and Angkor, Demographic Evolution of Vienna, Naples, Amsterdam, Madrid, Brussels, Rome, and Bordeaux, Demographic Evolution of Genoa, Florence, Antwerp, Norwich, Cádiz, Versailles, and Basel, Demographic Evolution of Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, Lima, Bogotá, Caracas, and Potosi, Demographic Evolution of New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, and Quebec City, Demographic Evolution of London, Paris, Manchester, Birmingham, Lille, Leeds, Glasgow, and Liverpool, Demographic Evolution of Bombay, Shanghai, Calcutta, Bangkok, Karachi, Tehran, Hong Kong, Lagos, and Kinshasa, Demographic Evolution of Barcelona, Hanoi, Addis Ababa, Cape Town, Algiers, Johannesburg, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam, Demographic Evolution of Dakar, Belgrade, Ibadan, Tunis, Khartoum, Rotterdam, Zurich, and Kigali, Demographic Evolution of Madras, Sydney, and Singapore, Demographic Evolution of Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Berlin, Copenhagen, Warsaw, Stockholm, and Essen, Demographic Evolution of Tokyo, Mexico City, São Paulo, New York, Los Angeles, and Osaka, Demographic Evolution of Buenos Aires, Peking-Beijing, Chicago, Tianjin, Washington, San Francisco, and Mukden-Shenyang, Demographic Evolution of Santiago, Dallas, Toronto, Detroit, Houston, and Minneapolis, Demographic Evolution of Atlanta, Seattle, Montreal, Vancouver, Pinkiang-Harbin, and Montevideo, APPENDIX 2 CITIES BY TYPES APPENDIX 3 SILK ROAD NETWORK SYNTHESIS INDEX

15 List of Figures Figure 1: Evolution of the World Rate of Urbanization (cities having at least two thousand inhabitants) Figure 2: Braudel s Scheme Figure 10.1: Transportation Cost Functions Corresponding to Animal, Relay, and Motorized Transportation Figure 10.2: Finding the Optimal Location: Animal Transportation with Two Attraction Points Figure 10.3: Finding the Optimal Location: Relay Transportation with Two Attraction Points Figure 10.4: Finding the Optimal Location: Motorized Transportation with Two Attraction Points


17 List of Maps Map 1: The Three Topodynamic Corridors Map 2: The Beginnings of Urbanization Map 3: The World of Phoenicians and Greeks Map 4: The Assyrian Empire, the New Babylonian Empire, the Persian Empire, and the Empire of Alexander the Great Map 5: The Silk Road, the Straight Road, and the Asian Corridor Map 6: The Two Pre-Columbian Corridors Map 7: The Roman Empire at Its Peak (around AD 100) Map 8: The Great Ebb and the Fusion of the Great and Asian Corridors Map 9: The Great Ebb West of the Persian Gulf Map 10: The Great Ebb West in the Indian Section of the Great Corridor Map 11: The Great Ebb in the Asian Corridor Map 12: The Great Ebb in Southeast Asia and the Far East

18 XVI Urban World History Map 13: The Venetian Empire from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century Map 14: The New Westward Movement in Europe Map 15: The Five Main Passes of the Alps Map 16: The Americas between 1492 and Map 17: The Epicenter of the Industrial Revolution Map 18: The Spreading of European Colonialism through the Great Corridor Map 19: The Spreading of European Colonialism through the Asian Corridor Map 20: The European Section of the American Corridor Map 21: Moscow at a Crossroads of the Network Linking the Saracen Route and the Route from the Varangians to the Greeks Map 22: The American Section of the American Corridor

19 Introduction There really are broad patterns to history, and the search for their explanation is as productive as it is fascinating. Jared Diamond Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997), 32