1 The 2005 World Sustainable Building Conference, ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT OF ARCHITECTURE Seiki TAGAWA Ph.D 1 1 Department of Design and ure, Hokkaido Tokai University, 224 Chuwa Kamui, Asahikawa, Hokkaido , Japan, Keywords: environmental ethics, project management, environmental management, management system, project design process, decision-making, environmental performance evaluation, environmental review Summary The decision-making policy based on environmental ethics through out the entire project design process is fundamentally important to realize the sustainability of architecture. The project manager supports the client s decision-making and coordinates the task of architects, consultants, construction managers and other related professionals to meet the project s objective. Therefore, the role of project manager in relation to environment is necessary from early phases of the project. The project manager needs to have environmental ethics in addition to proper knowledge and experience concerning environmental management. Following agendas strategically need to be considered to promote the profession of the project manager who has environmental ethics. (1) Educational programs of environmental ethics in the fields of architectural engineering are fundamental. (2) Social system such as environmental performance evaluation, environmental labeling and environmental review needs to be organized to raise the necessity of environmental management with proper environmental ethics. (3) Public certification of environmental management in relation to architecture should be considered. (4) CPD program of the certification needs to reflect the latest environmental management skills and environmental ethics. (5) Qualification of project manager who have enough ability and skill of environmental management needs to be done for major projects especially in public sectors. 1. Introduction In the global environment age, project management (PM) based on environmental ethics is fundamentally important concerning architectural projects. Consideration for the environment is very important from early phase of the project. However, before designing architecture by architect, various important decisionmakings in relation to sustainability might be executed such as site selection, programming of the facility, construction period, way of organizing the project team and so on. Therefore it is difficult to have continuous environmental policy through out all the design process without the proper concept of PM. The role of project manager (PMr) of architecture is still ambiguous in actual projects. In Japan, the role of PMr is not clear except for large developers and organizations, which have in-house architectural section. or planning section of general contractor sometimes performs the similar role. But the role of management based on environmental ethics is important in any case. If the PMr do not have enough knowledge and experience about the environment, decision maker such as a director cannot get accurate information to lead better strategy to promote the corporate environmental strategy. Since social responsibility concerning environment is increasing, proper prospect about the environmental issues is also important as a part of risk management. Because of the above reasons, the purpose of this study is to figure out the way of promoting the role of PMr who have environmental ethics. 2. Research methodologies Though the analysis of project design process in Japan, this study shows a practical agenda to maintain the importance of environmental ethics. Research and analysis were executed as follows. (1) Analysis of work scope of major PM consultants in Japan (Section 3)
2 (2) Analysis of various understandings about environmental management (Section 4). (3) Analysis of practical relation between PM and environmental management in the project design process of architecture (Section 5 and 6). (4) Consideration about the way of maintaining the environmental ethics through the management of architectural project (Section 7). ural Institute of Japan (AIJ) started the research committee on PM in 1994, and issued the journal about PM/CM in PM and CM were not so popular words at that time. But the application examples have continued to increase mainly around the projects of foreign companies. As major PM consultants in Japan, I analyzed 8 companies in this study. Fundamental information is based on their corporate profile announcements. In addition, the findings from the projects that I had experienced were considered. 3. Recognition of project management concerning architecture 3.1 Typical work scope of project management in Japan This section shows the typical work scope of PM in construction sector in Japan through the analysis of corporate profile announcements of major PM consultants. Table 1 shows the comparison of proposed work scope of the major PM consultants. There are 4 types of PM consultants. A, B and C is an affiliated company or a section of architects and engineers company. D and E are independent construction management companies. F and G have close tie with general contractor. F is an affiliated company and G is a department of major general contractor. H and I are branch office of multinational company, which have construction sector. All of them use the word CM in addition to PM in their introduction of the business, and there are a lot of overlapping service portion between PM and CM. PM usually starts the service from early programming phase of the projects. Table 1 Comparison of work scope of project management Work scope shown as major service Work scope shown as additional or incidental service Work Scope of PM A B C D E F G H I Affiliate company s and Pure CM General Foreign engineers company company contractor capital 1. Integration and evaluation of projects Fund consulting 2. Information management 3. Schedule management 4. Cost management Guarantee of maximum construction cost 5. Management of biding and order 6. Quality management 7. Environmental management 8. Facility management In spite of the differences of affiliate company, major work scope are similar. Actually there are a lot of restrictions in the content of work in Japan, because of the severity of the business practice and the regulations concerning the way of proceeding the construction. All the PM consultants insist the high ability of cost management by the value engineering method, which bring a lot of merit for the client. However all of them except F and G, can not show the ability of the guarantee of the maximum construction cost. An important aspect in this study is the environmental management. Major work contents of the environmental management is the suggestion and check of the environmental effect for surroundings, safety of soil, analysis of existing structure and materials, selection of environment friendly material, negotiation with environmental section of the local government and so on. However, most of PM consultants except C and G do not insist the importance of environmental management in their work scope. Half of the PM consultants do not show environmental management in their work scope. C and G insist their high ability of environmental management including operation of environmental performance evaluation and producing various types of environmental assessment. As Table 1 shows it is understood that environmental management is not always an important portion in the whole services. It is the reality that many PM consultants of architecture do not recognize environmental management as strategically important in expanding their business in Japan.
3 3.2 International recognition of profession of PM Internationally recognized organization such as Project Management Institute (PMI) in the U.S. or Association for Project Management (APM) in the Europe, have made the profession of PM clear through the activities and organized the registration. The work fields of the profession cover many industries such as aerospace, automotive, construction, financial services, information technology, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, and telecommunications and so on. PM is also recognized as one of the academic degree. However the definition of the profession of PM is rather ambiguous in Japan. Concerning architectural projects, there is a tendency that many related profession such as planners, architects, engineers and construction managers play the role of PMr. Large developers or organizations, which have construction section sometimes have in house PMr. PM consulting service concerning architectural projects started as a new business field of architectural related companies. 4. Recognition of environmental management concerning architecture 4.1 Recognition of environmental management in Japan The definition of environmental management and environmental manager is not generally established in Japan. Understandings and recognition of them is up to the organizations in the private and public sectors. Environmental management in the requirement book on ISO14000 series could be a word that is known best in many industries in Japan. Lots of major companies and organizations got the qualification of ISO14000 series. In addition, there are various existing certifications for the individual who measures and manages pollution. Profession of environmental manager is not clearly recognized by the society, and various companies and organizations are using the word by an original interpretation. Local government such like Ichikawa-city in Chiba prefecture started to call the responsible officer of every department environmental manager. In Japan, we do not have the organized social activity, which promote the profession of environmental manager. Therefore logical consideration of relation between environmental management and PM is necessary to promote the importance of those professions. 4.2 International recognition of environmental management National Registry of Environmental Professionals (NREP) in the U.S. promotes professional recognition of individuals processing education, training and experiences as environmental manager, engineers, technologist and scientists who operate and manage environmental activities. NREP issues certification of environmental manager as well as other environmental certification. Environmental management is recognized partially of PM. The Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services (AGCAS) in the U.K. also promotes the importance of environmental management. AGCAS describes that important role of the environmental manager is to provide training to staff at all levels to ensure that the entire workforce recognizes their own contribution to improved environmental performance. AGCAS describes that organizations in the private, public and voluntary sectors are employing specialists to co-ordinate the management of their environmental performance, and environmental manager will be expected to act as an specialist within organizations. Both organization have promoted the importance of profession of environmental manager and prepared the various information of job application. However, I think promotion of the necessity of a strong tie between environmental management and PM concerning architectural projects is not good enough. 5. Continuity and Mutual supplementation of PM and environmental management 5.1 Related work contents of PM and environmental management concerning architectural projects The relation between PM and environmental manager in the project design process of architecture is considered in this section. Table 2 is consideration of the relation between work scopes of project manager concerning architectural project and one of environmental manager. Work scope of environmental manager is based on the work descriptions of AGCAS (The Association of Graduate Careers Advisory Services in UK.). Therefore, the work contents doesn't limit to architecture, and are the one to all business
4 Table 2 Relation of work scope of PMr and environmental manager Relation Sub relation Work scope of project manager (1) Integration and evaluation of projects Suggestion for planning and budget of project Research and analysis for examination of business Coordination of decision-making and approval process Coordination of team organization and responsibility Coordination of meeting with related sections Risk management (2) Information management Monitoring and Reporting of progress of project Transmission of direction Coordination of meetings Recording and delivery of information (3) Schedule management (4) Cost management Making master schedule Coordination of detailed schedule Adjustment and updating the schedule Coordination of budget allotment Assessment of cost estimation Management of increase and decrease of cost (5) Management of biding and order Suggestion and management of bidding and order Check on contract and agreement Evaluation of contractor (6) Quality Management Review and confirmation of design drawings Review of construction plan Attendance of examination and inspection (7) Environmental management Check on environmental impact to the vicinity Investigation of ground pollution and waste Confirmation of environmental performance Coordination of meeting with local government (8) Facility management Coordination of facility condition Planning of way of maintenance Life cycle management Work scope of environmental manager (a) Developing environmental strategies that ensure corporate sustainable development (b) Leading the implementation of environmental policies and practices (c) Co-ordinating all aspects of resource use, pollution reduction and waste management, environmental health, risk assessment and employee involvement (d) Developing pollution control, pollution prevention and recycling programmers (e) Reporting to government regulatory bodies on your success in following environmental regulations (f) Coordinating public hearings and consultations on environmental matters (g) Directing public relations activities, communications and education plans involving environmental issues (h) Managing relations with the board of directors, senior management and internal staff (i) Training staff at all levels in environmental issues and responsibilities (j) Participating in environmental education and research (k) Developing and implementing marketing and sales strategies for environmental goods and services (l) Developing business opportunities for your environmental company (m) Managing a diverse group of engineers, scientists and technologists (n) Negotiating environmental service agreements and managing associated costs and revenues (o) Writing your organization s environmental report (p) Leading on corporate social responsibility issues and action (q) Combining your environmental management responsibilities, possibly with other regulatory responsibilities such as quality and safety. The relation between work scopes of PMr concerning architectural project and one of environmental manager is considered from Table 2 as follows. A lot of items concerning the work contents of environmental manager are related to (1) Integration and evaluation of projects. It shows that the work contents of environmental manager are deeply connected with orienting the project. The team composition and the decision-making process are important matters of concerning orienting the project. The project is mainly evaluated from the viewpoint on the business at this stage. It is necessary for PMr to suggest so that the evaluation concerning environment is properly done and organize the proper team, which have enough ability for developing the sustainable architecture. Since technical knowledge and the experience are important for appropriate evaluation of the project at the early
5 stage of architectural project, the role of PMr is extremely important. It is obvious that lack of environmental ethics of PMr cause embarrassed problem. If PMr lacks ethics and the latest knowledge about environment, the director also lacks the information for appropriate decision-making. In addition, Table2 shows that typical work contents of PMr such as (7), don t cover all necessary work on the environment management. (7)Environmental management mainly concerns with pollution control, adjustment with environmental regulation and measures against the vicinity resident such as (c) (d) (e) (f) (g). These are typical work that is so far, and the architect and the general contractor often bear them in Japan. It is obvious from the above-mentioned that role of PMr who has environmental ethics, must be emphasized. Possibility of participating in the project in early stage is high for PMr rather than architects or other consultants. Therefore it is possible to lead a project more effectively from environmental point of view, if PMr has more ethics and knowledge about environment. It is true that most of architectural project is not leaded by professional PMr in Japan. it is usual that architect perform similar work especially for small projects. Even if architect do similar work as PMr, importance of the environmental ethics and early involvement in the project is the same. 5.2 Difference of work contents between PMr and environmental manager The following things are understood from Table 2. (3) Schedule management, (4) Cost management, (5) Management of biding and order and (8) Facility management have comparatively low relation with environmental management. One of the reasons is because work contents of environmental manager based on the work description of AGCAS don't focus specific industrial sector. This means that PMr needs more specific knowledge rather than environmental manager. Schedule management and cost control are basic task of PMr of architecture. As many people participate in an architectural project, and unexpected matters usually happen during the construction, schedule management requires specific experience. As for the cost, the unexpected matters, additional requirement from the director and changes of detail design by architect often cause increase and decrease of cost. Most of them needs prompt response and needs coordination of schedule adjustment. It may be said that only the PMr can understand them overall. In addition, PMr can have influence on the project through the budget allotment. If PMr lacks environmental ethics, it would be difficult for architects and engineers to create environmental value. Therefore, environmental ethics of PMr is fundamentally important as well as environmental manager. 6. Relation between PMr and environmental manager in the project design process 6.1 Role of PMr and environmental manager in the team organization of project The relation between PM and environmental manager in the team organization of architectural project is considered in this section. Figure 1 shows the team organization of 3 projects which Tagawa was involved as an architect. Executive Directors Executive Directors Executive Directors Section Director A hi Section Director PMr Section Director (PMr) EMr Engineering Consultants (PMr) General Contractor Sub Contractors Engineering Consultants General Contractor Sub Contractors Engineering Consultants General Contractor Sub Contractors Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 : Decision-making Body PMr: Project manager EMr: Environmental manager Figure 1 Comparison of the role of PMr and environmental manager in the team organization of projects
6 Case1 is an academic facility project completed in 2000 at Chiba prefecture in Japan, for which the architect played the role of project manager. It shows the usual team organization for medium scale architectural projects in Japan. participated in the project from programming phase of the project. Case 2 is an office-building project completed in 2001 at Tokyo in Japan, for which PM consultant company delivered the professional service. Client was a multinational IT company. was nominated through the qualification. Case 3 is an academic facility project completed in 1993 at California State in the U.S. which required environmental review. Environmental Review is a kind of environmental assessment, and it is applied widely to various architectures in the State. was nominated through the proposal competition. As I showed from my experiences, these 3 types are not the all types of team origination. However they are suitable examples to compare the role of PMr, as the position of PMr in the project team was extremely different. In Case 1, the range of the discretion of the architect is comparatively wide. Therefore, environmental attitude of architect have great influence for other team members. In Case 2, PMr integrated the project and mainly had responsibility about cost and schedule. As the PMr did not have enough prospect of environmental management, architect and engineers supported the portion. In Case3, environmental manager managed both environmental issues and the disclosure process. Environmental manager figured out what were the sensitive issues from the view point of environment and made them clear. As PMr could get the professional support from the environmental manager, environmental evaluation of the project was reported effectively. It is obvious that the idea of decision maker such as executive directors to be given priority. Decision maker needs the support from PMr for information gathering and detailed coordination of the project. Therefore, PMr is the position to influence the orienting the project. These 3 examples have different types of team organization. However, there is no change in the importance of the PMr. 6.2 Role of PMr and environmental manager in the project design process The relation between PM and environmental manager in the project design process of architecture is considered in this section. Figure 2 shows the term when each professional takes part in the project. Case 1 : ural project for which architect also played the role of PMr. BUSINESS PLANNING SCHEMATIC DESIGN - DESIGN DRAWING BIDDING CONSTRUCTION OPERATION PMr () Engineering Consultant General Contractor Sub Contractor Case 2 : ural project for which PM consultant company delivered the professional service. BUSINESS PLANNING SCHEMATIC DESIGN - DESIGN DRAWING BIDDING CONSTRUCTION OPERATION PMr Reporting Reporting Engineering Consultant General Contractor Sub Contractor Case 3 : ural project which was jointly managed by PMr and environmental manager. BUSINESS PLANNING SCHEMATIC DESIGN - DESIGN DRAWING BIDDING CONSTRUCTION OPERATION PMr Reporting Reporting EMr Environmental Review Environmental Monitoring Engineering Consultant General Contractor Sub Contractor Figure 2 Engagement of PMr and environmental manager in the project design process
7 In Case 3, since PMr and environmental manager belong to the same office of planning and construction at the university, maintaining the continuous environmental policy through out the entire project process is not difficult. In this case, the board of directors nominated architect through the qualification of proposal. PMr made programming of architecture with the suggestion from environmental manager prior to the proposal competition. Since environmental manager also have the responsibility of disclosure process, a moderate tension and mutual supplementation are kept during the project process. The policy of environmental management is open to public through the environmental review process. The assessment include the research and analysis of environmental impact concerning 1) Geology, Soils and Seismicity, 2) Historical and Archaeological Resources, 3) Visual Quality, 4) Land Use, 5) Traffic and Circulation, 6) Noise, 7) Public Services and, 8)Utilities. Since the role and responsibility of environmental manager was clear in the project process, environmental management policy was well understood among all the member of the team. In my experiences, Case 3 is one of the good examples of team organization from the viewpoint of environmental management. This project was completed in In addition to the environmental review, rating by LEED is usually done now. On the other hand, such relation between PMr and environmental management is difficult in Case 1 and Case 2. Relation between PM and environmental management is not clear. An objective check doesn't work easily. So the attitude of PMr or architect for environment is definitely important. Balancing of the cost, schedule, and raising environmental value is a sensitive issue in these cases. The accountability to the client is given to priority more than public benefit. Environmental performance evaluation such as CASBEE, LEED and BREEAM must have important role to balance them. In addition, having proper ethics and knowledge concerning environmental management is necessary for the PMr. It might be general to have these cases of team organizations in many countries. Therefore, the strategy to raise environmental ethics and knowledge is indispensable for the PMr. As the strategy, promoting the profession of PMr with proper environmental management method is effective. 7. Conclusion Though the analysis and consideration of this study, importance of the role of PMr with environmental ethics is obvious. Under the circumstance where profession of PMr is not recognized enough in the society, the practical strategy to promote the importance is necessary as follows. (1) Educational programs concerning environmental ethics in the fields of architectural engineering are fundamentally important. (2) Social system and regulation which are important to realize sustainability of architecture, such as environmental performance evaluation, environmental labeling and environmental review needs to be organized to raise the necessity of environmental management with proper environmental ethics. (3) Public certification of environmental management in relation to the work scope of PMr need be considered. (4) CPD program of the certification needs to reflect the latest environmental management skill and environmental ethics. (5) Qualification of project manager who have enough ability and skills of environmental management needs to be done for major projects especially in public sectors. (1) is a long term but very basic strategy. (2),(3)and (4) are practical strategy to promote the profession. As for (2), mutual relation between these systems needs to be clear at first. Then PMr needs to study the importance of environmental ethics and knowledge of environmental management to progress the project effectively. As for (3), the certificate of environmental manager concerning architectural project needs to have flexibility to work effectively for many types of projects. In actual projects, different types of professional such as professional PMr, architect, engineers and construction manager play the role of PMr. The certification can be added onto the existing related licenses. As for (4), CPD (Continuing Professional Development) is necessary to update the skill. In addition environmental ethics also might change a little by the situation of society. (5) is a way of the effect's becoming visible early. It is obvious that environmental ethics is important for not only PMr but also decision maker, architect, engineers and all the members who are involved in the project. This study showed that promoting the profession of PMr who also had environmental management method was very effective way to keep environmental ethics in architectural project. The condition of architectural profession is different in many countries, but PM based on environmental ethics is essential in the global environment age.
8 References Special issue on PM/CM, 1997, Journal of ural and Building Sciences, ural Institute of Japan, pp JIA-PM Guideline, 2000, Japanese Institute of Tagawa, S. Majima, J. and Noguchi, T. 2003, A study on environmental reviews, which are site context oriented at University of California, Riverside, based on California Environmental Quality Act. Journal of ure, Planning and Environmental Engineering, ural Institute of Japan, pp Tagawa, S. Funaoka, Y. and Tsukaharai, T. 2001, Procedure and planning issues in redevelopment of a middle size college where academic activities are taking place, Journal of Technology and Design, ural Institute of Japan, pp