1 Broadband System - H Satellites are spaced every 2nd degrees above earth "C" Band Toward satellite 6.0 GHz Toward earth 4.0 GHz "L" Band Toward satellite 14.0 GHz Toward earth 12.0 GHz TV TRANSMITTER Headend Cable area Fiber Optic Testing.
2 Welcome to the Fiber Optic Topics & Testing Seminar
3 Topics to be Covered during this seminar. Fiber Optics Systems Nature of Light Optical Fiber Characteristics Optical Measurements Light Sources & Meters OTDR
4 Fiber Optic Milestones. You will see a short movie on fiber optic technology. 4
5 Fiber Optic Milestones John Tyndall demonstrated the optical waveguide principle Theodore Maiman developed the first laser db 4 db/km loss fiber fabricated Single mode fiber optic first reported SONET telecommunications standards created DWDM deployment began > 1 Tbps demonstrated on one fiber L-Band System and 40 Gbps transport system demonstrated. 5
6 Optical Scale of Measurements. Fiber & Associated components are microscopic. Distances covered are over 50 Kilometers! Time Time = billionths of a second: nanoseconds (ns) Size = millionths & billionths of a meter: microns & nanometers (um & nm) Lengths Lengths = thousands of meters: kilometers (km)
7 Optical Scale of Measurements. Data Powers of Ten. Bit Single character ( 0 or 1) Byte 8 bits (Single word) Kilobyte Kilobyte 1000 bytes (A( A low-revolution photograph) Megabyte Megabyte 1,000,000 bytes (A( A small novel Diskette) Gigabyte Gigabyte 1,000,000,000 bytes (A( A movie at TV quality) Terabyte 1,000,000,000,000 bytes (X-ray( film in hospital) Petabyte Petabyte 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes (3( 3 years of ESO data) Exabyte Zettabyte Yoattabyte EOS = Earth Observing System. 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes (All words ever spoken by human) 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes 7
8 Optical Overview. Fiber Optics Transmission System All Fiber Optic Systems have: Transmitter (E > O) Optical Waveguide Receiver (O > E)
9 Optical Transmitter. Electrical to Optical (E-O) Converter Electrical In - + Light Out Variable Intensity = Analog Blink On & Off = Digital
10 Optical Waveguide. Silica-Glass Optical Fiber Light In Light Out
11 Optical Receiver. Optical to Electrical (O-E) Converter Light Out Photodiode + (original signal) - Electrical Out
12 Classifying Light. Power (Watts or Decibels) dbm is typical measurement unit of optical power It is measured with a: Optical Power Meter It is measured with a: Optical Power Meter Color (Wavelength) 300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible to humans eyes. FiberOptic systems use ONLY Infrared (850, 1310, & 1550nm) UV 300nm Visible Light Spectrum 700nm IR
13 Optical Power. Like a light bulb: more wattage = brighter light 100 W FO transmitters: about 1mw to 40 mw (00 to 16 dbm) Power ranges: +20 dbm to -70 dbm
14 Optical Wavelength. Measure of Color of light Units in nanometers (nm) or microns (um) Different colors (wavelengths) exhibit different characteristics: ex: red & orange sunsets; yellow fog lights UV 300nm Visible Light Spectrum 700nm IR
15 Optical Reflection & Refraction. Reflection is a light ray BOUNCING off of the interface of two materials Refraction is the BENDING of the light ray as it changes speed going from one material to another
16 Optical Reflection. Reflection Some or all of the light that strikes a surface is reflected off at the same angle. air glass
17 Optical Refraction. Refraction If the angle the ray hits the surface is steep enough, most of the light passes through and is refracted (bent). The rest is reflected off the surface. air glass Refraction Angle of Refraction
18 Optical Critical Angle. The Critical Angle At an angle shallower than the Critical Angle, the light is Reflected back into the fiber. This condition is known as Total Internal Reflection. At an angle that is steeper than the Critical Angle, the light will penetrate the glass/air boundary and exit the fiber. air glass
19 Optical Reflection & Refraction. The fisherman s eyes only receive light reflected off the fish that escapes the water. Refracted Light Reflected Light Light rays reflecting off the fish that strike the surface of the e water at an angle outside that defined by the circle do not escape but are reflected back into the water.
20 Optical Reflection & Refraction. air glass As long as the light ray stays at the Critical Angle or less as it hits the air- glass interface, it will remain in the fiber until it reaches the e other end.
21 Optical Reflection at the Ends of Fiber. Up to 4% of Light Is Reflected at Each End Face air glass
22 Optical Raleigh Scattering. Backscatter light is weaker after scattering As light passes through a particle part of it is scattered in all directions. The part that returns to the source (about %) is called BACKSCATTER.
23 Optical Fiber Parameters. Buffer/Coating (w/color) Cladding (glass) Core (glass) The denser Core is centered within the Cladding. Light travels in the Core only. The Buffer protects the glass fiber.
24 Optical Fiber Types. Multimode fiber has a large core relative to the cladding diameter. 50, 62.5, 100 um are typical core sizes centered in a cladding of 125/ 250 um. Singlemode fiber has a smaller core relative to the cladding diameter. 8-9 um is a typical core size centered in a cladding of 125 um.
25 Optical Multimode vs. Singlemode Fiber. Multimode allows many paths ( modes ) for the light Singlemode allows only one single path for the light
26 Fiber Geometry Problems. Off Center Different Size Non-Circular All fibers are allowed a certain tolerance in the core/cladding geometry. This can cause light loss at joints between fibers.
27 Fiber Index of Refraction (n). Speed of Light in a Vacuum is: 299,792,460 k/mt per second. Speed of Light in a Vacuum is: 186,287.5 miles per second. Speed of Light in a Vacuum is: Speed of Light in a Vacuum is: In fiber optic the speed of light will be less, it should be around of that or: 204,778,157 kmt/sec or 127,158,703 miles/sec. Different fiber manufacturers will vary slightly from the above. n = c (velocity in a vacuum) v (velocity in glass) C is a constant. V depends on the density of the glass. The denser the glass the slower the light travels. (smaller V => larger n )
29 Raleigh Loss in Fiber db/km at 850 nm 1.0 db/km at 1300 nm 0.33 db/km at 1310 nm 0.19 db/km at 1550 nm Multimode Multimode Singlemode Singlemode
30 Attenuation in Fiber. Macrobending Loss Absorption Loss Microbending Loss Note: Only the fiber core is shown.
31 Type of Fiber. For long and standard distance, metro access, with a 9.2 um centre. For long and standard distance, metro access, with a 8.8 um centre. Designed for optimum performance with water peak removed at 1400 nm. The world first Non-Zero Dispersion optimized for long distance. The latest innovation, designed for very long transoceanic networks. 31
32 Fiber Specifications. 32
33 Polarisation Mode Dispersion in Fiber. PMD = Polarization Mode Dispersion PMD affects FO transmission by spreading light pulse over a distance Digital effects: PMD increases BER and therefore limits system bandwidthb Analog effects: PMD creates distortion (CSO) and therefore limits s the numbers of channels. 33
34 Transmitting Two Wavelengths in Fiber. WDM technology It is possible to transmit Two wavelengths on the same finer, using a WDM at each end TX 1310 RX 1550 RX WDM Single Fiber WDM 1550 TX 34
35 Using C and L Band in Fiber. 35
36 DWDM Technology in Fiber. Above is a 32 wavelengths for the DWDM technology. 36
37 Type of Fiber Optic Available. Loose Tube Fiber Ribbon Fiber This type of fiber cable is better suited for HFC system, where it is easier to get in the cable again. This type of fiber cable is better suited for long distance transport. 37
38 Preparation of Single Fiber Optic. Coating Cladding 250 mc 8.5 to 9.0 mc Bare fiber This coating is removed by a stripper 38
39 Preparation of Single Fiber Optic. Coating Cladding 250 mc 8.5 to 9.0 mc Bare fiber This is then cut to proper length for fusing. 39
40 Fusing Single Fiber Optic. 40
41 Fusing Single Fiber Optic. High Electrical Heat Held for a Certain Time by the Fusing Machine. 41
42 Fusing Single Fiber Optic. Depending on the customer, the signal lost accepted after the fusion can be as much as 0.02 db and as little as 0.03 db. This measurement can done by the splicing machine. This measurement can also can be measured with an OTDR. 42
43 Fusing Single Fiber Optic. Fiber optic been fused. 43
44 Fusing Single Fiber Optic. Fiber optic been fused. 44
45 Fusing Single Fiber Optic. Mechanical splice 45
46 Mass Fusing Single Fiber Optic. 46
47 Mass Fusing Single Fiber Optic. Multi Fiber optic been fused. 47
48 Mechanical Splicing Single Fiber Optic. 48
49 Splicing Closure for Fiber Optic. Splicing Closures 49
50 Protecting the Fiber Optic after the Fusion. Splicing Closures 50
51 Typical Splice Loss Values in Fiber. Fusion: 0.02 to 0.20 db Mechanical: 0.10 to 0.50 db Splice Loss Depends on: Quality of Fiber Craftsmanship Splicing Device Quality
52 Splice Loss Due to Core Mismatch in Fiber. Off-center core in second fiber does not receive all the light from the first fiber. The amount of light lost is the Splice Loss.
53 Cause of Connectors Loss in Fiber. Typical Loss = 0.15 to 0.25 db End-Face Separation Angular Separation Core Misalignment
54 Testing Fiber Why?. Verify specs Check handling Measure work Record best condition Detect defects Locates faults Troubleshoot problems
55 Testing Fiber When?. At Factory When Received After Placed After/During Splicing System Acceptance Periodic (Annual) Troubleshooting
56 Testing Fiber What?. Continuity Average Loss (db/km) Splice Loss & Location Reflectance / ORL End-to to-end Attenuation Overall Length
57 Reel of Fiber Optic Birth Certificate. 57
58 Testing Fiber How?. Optical Power Meter Optical Source OTDR
60 Optical Power Meter Applications. Measure TX Output Measure Fiber Loss Optimize Splices ID Active Fibers
61 Optical Power Calculations. Step 1 - Take Reference (P1) ON OFF dbm ON OFF dbm dbm
62 Optical Power Calculations. Step 2 - Read Fiber Output (P2) ON OFF dbm dbm dbm ON OFF
63 Optical Power Calculations. Step 3 - Calculate Loss End-End Loss = P 1 - P 2 Loss = (-23.4) = 13.4 db
64 The OTDR. Creates a graph of DISTANCE vs. RETURN SIGNAL LEVEL along fiber. Produces Trace or profile of signal level loss throughout the fiber. Uses radar principle to measure faults, return loss and distance.
65 The OTDR Measurements. Locate End of Fiber (Fault Locate) Measure End-to to-end Loss Locate Splices & Defects Measure Splice & Defect Loss Measure Splice & Connector Reflectance Calculate Optical Return Loss
66 The OTDR. CONTROLLER CRT or LCD DISPLAY Coupler/Splitter LASER(S) DETECTOR Fiber Under Test
67 The OTDR. t C d = t C 2 n C = speed of light n = Index If n is incorrect, then the distance measured will also be wrong!! d t 0 t 1 t = t 1 - t 0 Speed of Light in a Vacuum is: 299,792,460 meters per second. Speed of Light in a Vacuum is: 186,287.5 miles per second.
68 The Index of Refraction (IOR) Table. Manufacturer AT&T 1310nm 1550nm Corning Normal Disp.Shifted SMF SMF Disp.Shifted
69 The OTDR Distance Measurements. Index of Refraction set correctly for fiber being tested Fiber length versus sheath length (approx. 2%) - Helix factor Sheath length versus ground distance need to compensate for loops & slack in fiber & cable Measure from closest known event on fiber to break Set OTDR s resolution as high as possible CO Fiber is loose within cable sheath Splice Point Break
70 The OTDR Loss Measurements. OTDR measures BACKSCATTER and REFLECTIONS. Compares BACKSCATTER levels to determine loss between points in fiber. Splice losses determined by amount of shift in backscatter. Reflection & ORL measurements determine the reflective quality of link components and connectors.
71 The OTDR Loss Measurements. A Test pulse B Backscatter Backscatter is directly related to the level of light in the test pulse. As the level of light in the pulse width decreases with distance,, so does the backscatter it produces.
72 Gathering Data on a OTDR. Connect Fiber to Test Port Press TEST or REAL TIME K or Press FAULT LOCATE Key
74 OTDR Locating the End of Fiber. End of fiber causes reflection of light. After light leaves fiber end, only internal electronic noise shows up on OTDR screen.
75 OTDR Locating & Measuring Non-Reflective Even. Misaligned cores is one cause of loss of light at the splice point. Splice Loss
76 OTDR Gainers & Losers. W1 - field radii of initial fiber W2 - field radii of following fiber
77 OTDR Reflection Magnitude Factors What Creates a Big Reflection. Maximum Reduced 90 o or Angled End Face cleaved or crushed Smooth or Rough Surface polished or scratched Clean or Dirty End Face Glass-Air or Glass-xxx connectorized or in water/oil
78 OTDR Reflection Are Negative. -16dB -47dB Rayleigh Scattering Bad Good Reflections are measured from the receiver s point of view. Reflected ected light is power lost to the receiver and is therefore a negative number.
79 OTDR Views. Scattering Loss Difference 1550nm Trace approx.. 10dB Loss 1310nm Trace approx.. 18dB Loss
80 OTDR Dynamic Range. Measured in db. Typical range is between db Describes how much loss an OTDR can measure in a fiber, which in turn describes how long of a fiber can be measured Directly related to Pulse Width: larger pulse widths provide larger dynamic range Increase by using longer PW and by decreasing noise through averaging
81 OTDR Fiber Analysis Software - Operations. Event Types Non-Reflective = fusion splice, defect, or macrobend in fiber Reflective = mechanical splice Grouped = two or more NR or R events very close together Cable End = point in fiber where signal level drops off. Means Out of Range or Out of Distance.
82 NetTest OTDR CMA The world s fastest OTDR Shortest Deadzones 50 db Optics Quad Wavelengths Color Display Built-in in Keyboard 1 Meg RAM 540 MB Hard Drive
83 NetTest OTDR CMA 40 FiberHawk. Light Weight and Portable Fast - Locates a fiber break typically in less than 60 seconds. 1310nm, 1550nm and dual 1310/1550nm singlemode models. 110km fault locate distance range at 1550 nm. Available floppy drive for storing fiber trace data.
84 NetTest OTDR CMA
85 Test! 85
86 What are the two optical frequencies used in a HFC system? What is the main component used in fiber optic glass? What is a figure-8 8 fiber optic cable? What do we measure a break with in a fiber optic link? What does a optical source do? What is the proper light level required at a NODE? What does backscatter do in fiber optic transmission? 86
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