Energy Upgrade Guides

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1 Energy Upgrade Guides pg 2 pg 4 pg 6 pg 8 Air Sealing Appliances/ Electronics Attic Insulation Duct Sealing pg 10 pg 12 pg 14 pg 15 HVAC Replacement Lighting Refrigerator Wall Insulation pg 17 pg 19 Electric Water Heater Windows and Doors

2 Air Sealing Air sealing with caulk, weather stripping and other appropriate materials is a fundamental step in making your home more energy efficient. Individual gaps may appear minor, but collectively they can have the same effect as leaving a window open all year long. According to the Department of Energy, proper air sealing of gaps and holes in the attic, crawlspace, and other breaks in the thermal boundary can save 10 percent or more on your energy bills. Why is air sealing important? Air sealing the envelope or shell of your home, including the exterior walls, ceiling, windows, doors and floors, is often one of the most cost effective ways to improve your home s energy efficiency and comfort. Air sealing should always be performed before any insulation is added. It can save 10 percent or more on your total annual energy bills. What does air sealing improve? Reduces energy bills Improves comfort, especially during winter and summer months Reduces noise from the outside Prevents allergens, dust, contaminants and insects from entering your home Improves indoor air quality Improves humidity control What areas should be air sealed? Many air leaks and drafts are easy to find because they are easy to feel, such as those around windows and doors. Holes hidden in attics, basements, and crawlspaces, however, are usually bigger problems. For example, penetrations in ceilings and floors for electrical wires, plumbing, ducts, chimneys, flue pipes, and recessed lights can be major sources of air leakage and are often not visible. Proper air sealing materials (e.g., caulk, expanding foam, rigid foam board, weather stripping, etc.) will vary depending on the nature of the leak and the surface to be sealed. Let your contractor know if there are any excessively drafty areas in your home. Windows By using proper air sealing methods, old windows usually can be made more energy efficient at a significantly lower cost than replacement windows. Jambs and trim must be adequately air sealed to optimize energy efficiency potential of both new and old windows. If new windows are installed, they should contain energy efficiency features, such as low-e coatings and gas filling. Look for the ENERGY STAR label on new windows. Subject to TVA Installation Requirements (see reverse side). Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to

3 TVA Installation Requirements for Air Sealing * General Standards Roof leaks and moisture issues shall be repaired before work begins. Major penetrations in the ceiling, basement, and crawlspace shall be sealed. If foundation perimeter is sealed, then the installation must meet all TVA Standards for Closed Crawlspaces. Non-airtight recessed lights, if accessible, shall be sealed with an airtight recessed baffle trim as long as the work does not require cosmetic ceiling repairs. Bath fan-light combo units should be sealed like a non-airtight recessed light. Attic access shall have an airtight cover. Minimum R-10 insulation is recommended. Seams, cracks, joints, penetrations, and connections shall have a continuous seal. Installing contractor shall ensure that there is enough fresh air in the home for the occupants. Exposed rigid foam or spray foam insulation shall have a fire barrier per local code requirements. Do not block or seal openings required for combustion ventilation. Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has any gas appliances or an attached garage. Caulking, Sealants, Backers, and Glazing Materials Surfaces shall be clean, dry, and repaired prior to installing caulk or glazing. Sealants shall be compatible with intended surfaces. No material shall be installed within 3 of a heat source (6 for single wall vent pipe) unless it is fireproof (fire-rated caulk, metal flashing, mineral wool). Depth of caulk shall not be greater than the width of the joint; use appropriate backer materials as needed to minimize hole size. Foam products shall be protected from direct sunlight. Support material shall be installed if air barrier spans wider than 24, or as rated. Excess caulk and sealants shall be removed from adjoining areas. Ineffective glazing shall be replaced; glazing points shall be no further than 12 apart and within 3 of each corner of glass. Weather Stripping and Thresholds Weather stripping shall be high quality with a minimum 20-year life expectancy. Weather stripping shall be permanently attached with approved hardware and caulk, and shall create an effective air seal. Sash locks, eye hooks, or other hardware may be necessary to achieve air seal. Threshold shall be metal with vinyl insert or metal saddle with door shoe. Threshold shall be secured with screws or bolts to achieve a good air seal. Door or window shall open and close properly. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES Also air seal attached garage, walls, windows, and doors. Caulk gaps smaller than ¼. Foam gaps ¼ to 1½. Use a backer for gaps larger than 1½. Maintain a continuous air barrier around building envelope. Sealants in visible areas should be limited to low sheen clear caulks or paintable caulks. Air seal perimeter of crawlspace or basement near water pipes at risk of freezing. If some areas are inaccessible, strategic densepack and/or foam insulation should be considered to reduce air leakage. Install mechanical ventilation if less than 0.35 ACH. Ensure combustion safety carbon monoxide (CO). MSDS sheets for air sealing materials should be on each job site eScore

4 Appliances/Electronics Appliances and electronics are responsible for about 21 percent of the typical home s energy usage. ENERGY STAR certified appliances use advanced technologies and premium features to save more energy than standard appliances. On average, ENERGY STAR certified home electronics use up to 50 percent less energy than standard models without compromising any features or functionality. Upgrade the following appliances and electronics: Clothes Washers ENERGY STAR certified clothes washers remove more water in the spin cycle, reducing the amount of time you need to run the dryer. Front loading washers use nearly 40 percent less water and 50 percent less energy than top loading machines. About 90 percent of the energy used when washing clothes is for water heating. Changing the setting from hot to warm can cut energy use by 50 percent, and switching to the cold water setting will save even more. Dishwashers ENERGY STAR certified dishwashers use advanced technology to wash more effectively and efficiently, saving water and energy with each cycle. Using the air dry feature instead of the heated dry function, and running the unit only when full, will save even more. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to Televisions Televisions that are larger and higher resolution consume more energy. ENERGY STAR certified televisions will use about 20 percent less energy than standard models. ENERGY STAR certified televisions that are 60 inches or larger can be 40 percent more energy efficient. Lowering the brightness on your television can reduce energy usage 18 percent to 30 percent more. Computers Depending on usage, an ENERGY STAR certified computer will use about 30 to 65 percent less energy than a standard computer. Make sure to enable the ENERGY STAR power management features on your computer to save the most energy.

5 Upgrade these electronics for even more savings: Pool Pumps Pool pumps are one of the top household energy users. If you have a pool, upgrade to an ENERGY STAR certified pool pump that is 30 percent to 72 percent more energy efficient than standard models, saving approximately $160 per year and paying for itself in less than three years. Set-Top Boxes Set-top boxes for cable or satellite signals use a lot of energy. For perspective, two set-top boxes use more energy than a new refrigerator. An ENERGY STAR certified set-top box will use about 45 percent less energy than a standard model. Make sure to ask your service provider for an ENERGY STAR certified set-top box. Home Theater Systems In addition to a television and a set-top box, a typical home theater also includes a DVD or Blu-Ray player, a receiver, and multiple speakers. Purchasing ENERGY STAR certified audio/video electronics can save up to 60 percent. TIPS TO SAVE EVEN MORE Use Power Strip Plug your electronics into a power strip with an on/off switch so you can easily turn off all electronics when not in use. Unplug Electronics Many electronics continue to use energy even after they are turned off, making up about 5 percent of the average electricity bill. If you are not using a power strip, unplug electronics like chargers and power adapters when they are finished charging. Microwave Oven Whenever possible, cook with the microwave oven which uses about 50 percent less energy than a conventional oven eScore

6 Attic Insulation Proper attic insulation is a key element for a more comfortable and energy efficient home. It is important to have a continuous boundary of insulation between the conditioned space and the unconditioned space. This boundary is referred to as the thermal envelope. Any gaps, voids, or uneven areas can cause major deficiencies in the effectiveness of your insulation. Why is attic insulation important? Heating and cooling accounts for approximately 45 percent of your home s energy usage. Inadequate insulation and air leakage are the leading cause of energy waste in most homes. Attics are often the easiest and most cost-effective place to insulate because most attics provide easy access for improvements. Attic insulation helps keep the home warm in the winter and cool in the summer. What does attic insulation improve? 1. Conserves energy by slowing down heat loss and heat gain 2. Enhances comfort inside the home 3. Reduces the size of heating and cooling equipment needed 4. Prevents condensation from occurring 5. Reduces electric and gas bills How much attic insulation should I add? Insulation levels are specified by R-values that measure the insulation s ability to resist heat flow. The higher the R-value, the better the thermal performance of the insulation. The recommended level for most attics is to insulate to approximately R-38 or about 10 inches to 14 inches, depending on insulation type. How much money could I save? Properly insulating your home can save up to 20 percent on your energy bills. Subject to TVA Installation Requirements (see reverse side). Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to

7 TVA Installation Requirements for Attic Insulation * Safety and preparation requirements before adding insulation: Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall complete all preparation work involving existing insulation, including insulation dams around heat-dissipating devices and enclosing unprotected electrical wiring. Customer is responsible for other preparation work, such as ceiling repairs, water leaks, vent leaks, removal of stored objects, etc. Live knob and tube wiring shall be replaced with new wiring by a licensed electrician. Existing kneewall insulation shall be adequately supported. Range hoods, clothes dryers, and bathroom exhaust fans shall be vented outside the building envelope. All insulation and insulation dams shall be kept at least 3 away from non-ic rated heat sources unless insulation dam is rated for contact; do not install insulation on top of non-ic rated heat sources. Insulation shall not block combustion air; allow minimum 3 clearance. Exposed rigid foam or spray foam insulation shall have a fire barrier or be rated for exposure without a fire barrier per local code requirements; foam shall not be exposed to any heat-producing device. QCN member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has any gas appliances or an attached garage. Insulation must be installed correctly, per the following requirements, in order to maintain an effective thermal boundary: Attic hatch or pulldown stairs shall have a cover with minimum R-10 insulation. Insulation shall be installed to a minimum R-38 (unless restricted by space) without gaps, voids, or compressions, and in direct contact with air barrier. Loose-fill insulation shall be installed to a level condition; QCN member shall leave one empty bag of insulation at the residence. If kneewall has less than R-11 or if adding insulation, then insulate kneewall to a composite R-18. Insulation shall be adequately supported. Insulation depth markers shall be installed every 300 square feet, facing the attic access, throughout the attic space. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES Air seal attic plane, including recessed lights, attic access openings, and other penetrations before adding insulation. Install rigid foam insulation on attic side of kneewall. Assume light fixture to be non-ic rated if it is not possible to determine fixture type. Use dense pack insulation if attic floor is decked. If loose-fill insulation is installed on top of existing insulation, use the same type of material as existing insulation. Install non-powered attic ventilation to remove moisture and heat from attic spaces. Ducts in attic should be sealed and insulated to R-8 before adding attic ventilation. MINIMUM REQUIRED R- VALUES R-38 Attic Floor R-18 Kneewalls R-10 Attic Access eScore

8 Duct Sealing Your duct system is responsible for efficiently distributing conditioned air throughout your home. Potential savings from a high efficiency HVAC unit can be negated if conditioned air is leaking into your attic and crawlspace through gaps in your ductwork or if your ducts are not insulated. ENERGY STAR estimates that the typical home loses 20 to 40 percent of the air that moves through the ductwork. Proper duct sealing and duct insulation is an important step in optimizing the performance of your HVAC system. Why is duct sealing important? Heating and cooling accounts for approximately 45 percent of your home s energy usage. Sealing your leaky air ducts may be the single most important thing you can do to improve your home s energy performance. What is the benefit of duct sealing? 1. Reduces summer and winter energy bills 2. Improves comfort in your home 3. Improves the quality of indoor air 4. Increases the life span of HVAC units 5. Reduces noise from the HVAC system 6. Reduces excessive dust How do you seal your ducts? Sealing your ducts does not require a lot of material, just time and special attention. The most important thing to remember when duct sealing is, Don t use duct tape. The adhesives in duct tape are not designed to withstand typical temperature and moisture variations that are present around ductwork. Duct mastic and mastic tape are designed for HVAC applications and are the preferred methods for a durable and long lasting seal. Duct mastic or mastic tape is applied directly to connections and seams on the internal duct, not to the insulation, liner or sleeve on the outside of the duct. How much money could I save? Studies have shown that a 30 percent reduction in duct leakage, on average, will reduce your annual energy consumption by as much as 16 percent. Subject to TVA Installation Requirements (see reverse side). Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. ENERGY SAVING TIPS Keep furniture from blocking registers. Keep interior doors and registers open. Check duct system quarterly for damage that needs repair or sealing. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to

9 TVA Installation Requirements for Duct Sealing * Duct sealing shall be performed in the following areas: 1. Largest leaks, including disconnected ducts, missing end caps, etc. 2. Areas of highest pressure, including air handler and plenums. 3. Entire return duct system, except hard pipe seams. 4. Panned joists, wood plenums, wall cavities, and/or other building cavities used as part of the duct system. 5. Supply take-offs, including starting collars. Proper duct sealing requires use of the following materials and procedures: Sheet metal and flexible ducts must be mechanically fastened. Ducts shall be sealed with UL 181 approved mastic or mastic tape before insulation is applied regular duct tape is not allowed. Apply mastic directly on the duct (not insulation or sleeve). Ensure that the mastic is installed on a clean and dry surface. Gaps larger than ¼ should be sealed with fiberglass mesh tape and mastic. Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has any gas appliances or an attached garage. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES Verify that the duct system is correctly sized prior to sealing. Duct leakage to the outside after sealing is no more than 10 percent of system fan capacity. Do not use panned joists, wood plenums, wall cavities and/or other building cavities as part of new or existing duct system. Do not turn air handler on until after mastic has had time to cure. Invoice specifies locations of duct sealing, materials used, labor hours and diagnostic readings (if available). Basic Steps to Duct Sealing Pull back outside sleeve and duct insulation to expose flexible duct Install tie-strap and apply fiberglass mesh tape Apply mastic directly on the duct Duct insulation requirements: New ducts must be vapor sealed, weatherproof, and have a minimum R-8 insulation. Existing ducts with less than R-4 insulation must be insulated to R-8. Duct repair and replacement requirements: New ducts must be mechanically fastened and sealed with mastic paste or mastic tape. New supply branch ducts must have a damper installed at each take-off and originate no less than 12 inches from the end of the trunk line. Each level of the home must have at least one return air grille. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards eScore

10 HVAC Replacement It may be time to replace your heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment if it is more than 10 years old, not keeping your home comfortable, or needs frequent repairs. Replacing existing equipment with a high efficiency system can save up to 20 percent on your heating and cooling costs. In addition, properly sizing new equipment may allow your home to use a smaller unit, which will save money on the cost of the unit and energy bills for years to come. A professional Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member can evaluate your equipment and offer solutions for your home. What size HVAC system do I need? HVAC equipment needs to be properly sized to perform at its best. An oversized heat pump or air conditioner wastes energy and costs you money. When replacing heating and cooling equipment, a trained QCN member will need to calculate your home s heating and cooling needs to determine the proper equipment size for your home. How is the energy efficiency of a heat pump rated? Heat pumps have two efficiency ratings: Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) for the cooling mode and Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) for the heating mode. Higher SEER and HSPF numbers equate to higher levels of energy efficiency. Higher efficiency heat pumps have a SEER of 14.0 or greater for packaged units and 14.5 or greater for split units, and a HSPF of 8.0 or greater for packaged units and 8.2 or greater for split units. Be aware that equipment efficiency degrades over time, so a 15-year-old unit rated SEER 12 easily could be operating like a SEER 10 unit. How is the energy efficiency of an air conditioner rated? Air conditioner efficiency is rated by SEER. Typical air conditioners manufactured today have a SEER ranging from 14 to 18, while a 12-year-old air conditioner might have a SEER of 10. Higher efficiency air conditioners have a SEER of 14.0 or greater for packaged units and 14.5 or greater for split units. In general, a SEER 16 air conditioner will use 33 percent less energy compared to an air conditioner rated SEER 12. What factors affect the performance of my new HVAC system? Heating and cooling accounts for approximately 45 percent of the energy used in a typical home. In order to optimize the performance of a new heat pump or air conditioner, it is important to first improve the overall energy efficiency of your home by insulating ceilings and walls to recommended R-values, sealing and insulating any ducts located in attics, crawlspaces, and unheated basements, and air sealing the home. These improvements may allow your home to use a smaller unit, saving you money on the cost of your new system and your energy bills. In addition, an improper installation can reduce system efficiency by up to 30 percent, so it s important to ensure that new equipment is properly installed. TVA INCENTIVES Subject to TVA Installation Requirements (see reverse side). Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. TVA offers the following rebates per home if the primary heat source is changing from nonelectric to electric or for new nonreplacement systems when gas is available at the home.*** Air Source Heat Pump replacement $1000/system (no limit)** Dual Fuel Heat Pump $500/system (no limit)** Mini-Split $400/system (no limit)** Rebates subject to change. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to

11 TVA Installation Requirements for HVAC Replacement * HVAC Replacement Moisture issues shall be resolved before work begins. Balance point shall not exceed 35 F (heat pump only). Contractor shall size, select, and install equipment according to Manual J and TVA requirements. Total cooling capacity shall be between 95 percent and 125 percent of total cooling load (sensible and latent) or the next largest nominal piece of equipment. Equipment operating capacity shall be within 10% of equipment rated capacity. All equipment shall be AHRI certified and meet TVA Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Heating and Cooling. Outdoor unit meets TVA clearances for air intake (18 ) and discharge (4 feet), and shall not be located within 4 feet of kitchen or laundry exhausts. Airflow shall be within the range recommended by manufacturer (normally 350 cubic feet per minute [cfm] to 450 cfm per ton). Supply registers shall have an average face velocity between 400 feet per minute (fpm) and 700 fpm, or per manufacturer s recommendations. Where possible, the return shall have a maximum average face velocity of 500 fpm. Vapor (suction) lines shall be continuously wrapped in a minimum of 3/8 insulation and vapor sealed. Condensate drain shall be at least ¾, trapped at unit, and made of copper or plastic. Condensate shall always drain to the exterior. The first 6 feet of condensate line shall be insulated. Float switch shall be installed on auxiliary drain pan or condensate drain. Ducts New and existing ducts shall be securely supported; supports shall not constrict ducts or duct insulation. Ducts shall not contact the ground. Exterior ducts shall meet all applicable TVA Duct System Standards. A minimum of one return air grille is located on each level of the home. Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall visually inspect duct system for damage and provide participant with a quote for making repairs. QCN member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has any gas appliances or an attached garage. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards. ** TVA Minimum Efficiency Requirements for Heating and Cooling are not applicable. *** Installation of new equipment in an area of home where HVAC system previously was not present. Natural gas or propane must be available at the home. ENERGY SAVING TIPS Air seal the home, including attic access opening, recessed lights, and penetrations in the ceiling, basement, and crawlspace. Insulate attic access opening to a minimum R-10. All windows should have 2 layers of glass. Install attic insulation to R-38. Change your air filter every month. Tune up your HVAC equipment every year. Install a programmable thermostat set to ENERGY STAR settings. Keep fan in auto position on thermostat. Keep outdoor unit free of obstructions (i.e., bushes, fences). Seal ducts in unconditioned or semi-conditioned space with mastic. Insulate ducts in unconditioned or semiconditioned space to R-8. Insulate all refrigerant lines (vapor and liquid) when installed in high temperature areas eScore

12 Lighting Nearly 11 percent of your home s electricity bill is attributed to lighting. Changing your old incandescent bulbs to new ENERGY STAR certified Compact Fluorescent Lighting (CFL) and/or Light-Emitting Diodes (LED) is a simple step you can take to make your home more energy efficient. If every household in the United States replaced their five most frequently used incandescent bulbs with ENERGY STAR certified bulbs, it would save about $8 billion in annual electricity costs. How will ENERGY STAR certified lighting save me money? ENERGY STAR certified lighting meets strict performance requirements that are thirdparty certified to provide the following benefits: Less Energy ENERGY STAR certified bulbs use about 75 percent less energy than your old incandescent bulbs while producing the same amount of light. Each ENERGY STAR certified bulb will save about $6 per year in electricity costs, or more than $40 over the lifetime of the bulb, which pays for itself in about six months. For the greatest savings, install ENERGY STAR certified bulbs in the fixtures that you leave on the longest. Less Heat ENERGY STAR certified bulbs produce about 75 percent less heat than incandescent bulbs, which makes them safer to operate and reduces the amount of energy needed to cool your home in the summer. Long Life ENERGY STAR certified bulbs last six times to 25 times longer than incandescent light bulbs and are backed by manufacturer warranties. Since these bulbs need to be replaced less often, they re also convenient for those hard-toreach fixtures. TVA INCENTIVES You are eligible to have up to 6 LEDs installed in high use areas during your escore Evaluation. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to How do I choose the right ENERGY STAR certified lighting? Brightness The amount of light produced by a light bulb is measured in lumens, not watts. The more lumens, the brighter the bulb. However, since most consumers are familiar with the amount of light produced by incandescent bulbs, most light bulb manufacturers conveniently indicate on the packaging the equivalent incandescent wattage as a point of reference. Color Shade The color of light produced by a light bulb is measured in Kelvins (K). A higher number means that the light is whiter (3000K) or bluer (4100K). A lower number means that the light is more yellow (2700K). Most ENERGY STAR bulbs produce light that matches the color of incandescent bulbs in the range of 2,700K to 3,000K, but other varieties are available.

13 CFL or LED ENERGY STAR certified lighting is available in CFL and LED bulbs. LED bulbs can be more efficient and longer lasting than CFLs, but CFLs are usually less expensive than LED bulbs. Both types of bulbs are available in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes. Dimmable Bulbs that will be used with a dimmer must be labeled as dimmable. Outdoor Bulbs that will be used in outdoor fixtures should be rated for outdoor use. BROKEN CFL CLEAN-UP CFLs are perfectly safe when used under normal conditions, but proper care must be taken if a CFL is broken. The EPA provides specific instructions on the proper way to clean-up a broken CFL. For more details, please refer to: www2.epa.gov/cfl Click on the Cleaning up a Broken CFL link in the center of the page eScore

14 Refrigerator Refrigerators are responsible for about 8 percent of the average household s energy usage. Recent improvements in insulation and compressors ensure that today s ENERGY STAR certified refrigerators are about 15 percent more energy efficient than non-certified models. Replacing your old refrigerator with an ENERGY STAR certified refrigerator can save from $200 to $1,100 on electricity costs over the lifetime of your refrigerator. What features should I look for in a new refrigerator? ENERGY STAR Always choose an ENERGY STAR certified model whenever you are purchasing a new refrigerator. EnergyGuide Label Check the refrigerator s yellow EnergyGuide label for estimated annual operating costs and to compare similar models. Top-Mounted Freezer Refrigerators with freezers mounted on top use about 10 percent to 25 percent less energy than side-by-side models or refrigerators with bottom-mounted freezers. Appropriate Size In general, smaller refrigerators use less energy. The most energy efficient models are typically in the 16 cubic foot to 20 cubic foot range. No Ice-Maker and Dispenser Save an additional 14 percent to 20 percent by choosing a refrigerator that does not have an automatic ice maker or through-thedoor dispenser. How can I reduce the amount of energy that my refrigerator uses? Set Temperature Make sure the temperatures are not set too low. Set your refrigerator between 35 and 38 degrees Fahrenheit, and set your freezer between 0 and 5 degrees Fahrenheit. Cool Location Position your refrigerator in a cool location away from heat sources such as an oven, furnace register, or direct sunlight. Air Circulation Make sure that there are a few inches of open space behind the refrigerator for air to circulate. Clean Coils If you have an older refrigerator, keep the condenser coils clean. Refer to the user s manual for proper cleaning methods. Cleaning brushes are available at most home improvement stores. Door Seals Make sure the seals around each of the refrigerator doors are airtight. Door Closed Reduce the amount of time that refrigerator doors are left open. Keep It Full A full refrigerator retains cold air better and doesn t require as much energy to keep food cold. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to Can I use my old refrigerator as a second refrigerator? A second refrigerator could cost you an extra $300 per year to operate, so you should unplug it if it is empty. When purchasing a new refrigerator, choose a retailer that will pick up and recycle your old refrigerator eScore

15 Wall Insulation Insulation keeps your home cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Just like other parts of the home, it is important to insulate exterior walls for a more comfortable and energy efficient home. You should add wall insulation if you have an older home without any insulation in the exterior walls, or if you plan to finish an unfinished space like a basement or bonus room. Additional wall insulation also may be installed when replacing exterior siding. Why is exterior wall insulation important? Heat flows naturally from warmer spaces to cooler spaces. In the winter, heat moves through exterior walls to the outdoors. In the summer, heat moves from the outdoors through the exterior walls to the house interior. Installing insulation in your exterior walls will decrease the workload on your HVAC system and make your home more comfortable. Homes with no existing wall insulation can install wall insulation to maximize potential energy savings. How much exterior wall insulation should I add? Insulation levels are specified by R-values that measure the insulation s ability to resist heat flow. The higher the R-value, the better the thermal performance of the insulation. The amount of wall insulation you should add depends on the size of your walls (e.g., 2 x 4 ) and the type of insulation that you and your contractor decide to install. Generally, exterior walls should be insulated to at least R-13. Why is air sealing important in exterior walls? Insulation works best when air is not moving through or around it. Exterior walls typically have penetrations for electrical wiring and outlets, as well as gaps in the top, bottom, and sides of the walls that can leak warm air either into or out of your home. In addition to increasing heating and cooling costs, these air leaks can introduce water vapor into your walls, potentially resulting in condensation and damage. Typical blownin and batt insulation does not stop air leakage. Air leaks need to be sealed with caulk or foam before installing insulation. If penetrations and gaps are not accessible for air sealing, such as with existing walls, installation of dense pack insulation (cellulose or fiberglass) or blown-in foam insulation will provide an adequate level of air sealing. Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to

16 TVA Installation Requirements for Wall Insulation * General Installation Standards for Wall Insulation Live knob and tube wiring shall be replaced with new wiring by a licensed electrician. Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has any gas appliances or an attached garage. Installation Standards for Exterior Walls Moisture conditions shall be corrected prior to installing wall insulation. Walls with masonry exteriors shall contain a barrier that prevents blown insulation from contacting the masonry. Wall cavities shall be free of hazards prior to installation. Insulation dams shall be installed around openings to crawlspace or basement, heat sources, and electrical hazards. Sealants shall be installed in a manner that continues the function of the drainage plane and does not hold water in the wall assembly. Insulation shall be installed without gaps, voids, compressions, misalignments, or wind intrusions. Installation Standards for Basement Walls If home has experienced ground water leakage through the wall, then a continuous drainage plane that is pumped or drains to outside shall be installed at interior surface of walls. On rough finish walls, drainage plane shall be replaced with a waterproof membrane. A non-absorbent insulation, such as closed-cell spray foam or expanded polystyrene, shall be used. Insulation shall be attached with a durable connection with a minimum expected life of 20 years. Batt insulation shall not be used unless it is in addition to a non-absorbent insulation material that separates the batt insulation from the concrete foundation. Material shall be fire-rated if exposed, or covered with a fire barrier, such as ½ wallboard. A continuous air barrier shall be installed on the warm side of the insulation. Wall assembly shall remain vapor permeable to the interior. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES Area to be insulated should be air sealed before installing insulation. All structural, mechanical, and other penetrations should be air sealed. Whenever exterior siding is removed, add R-5 thermal insulating sheathing beneath the new siding. Air seal and insulate band joist if accessible from basement or crawlspace. If your home is old, an electrician should check to make sure insulation on wiring is not degraded and wiring is not overloaded. Inspect installations with an infrared camera to identify any voids that need to be filled. If sub-slab drainage is installed in connection with basement wall insulation, termite treatment should be performed before reinstalling the slab. An ENERGY STAR dehumidifier should be installed to maintain basement relative humidity of less than 45 percent; condensate should be drained or pumped to daylight eScore

17 Electric Water Heater Water heating typically accounts for about 17% of a home's energy use. If your home has an older water heater, it may need to be replaced. Reliable water heating is important and failures can be costly. Efficiency also decreases with age if not properly maintained. A QCN member can evaluate your home's existing water heating system to see which technology and price meets your replacement needs. Make sure to have your water heater properly installed and routinely maintained by a qualified professional to optimize its energy efficiency. How does an electric water heater work? A standard electric water heater uses electric resistance to directly generate heat. A heat pump water heater works differently it uses electricity to move heat from the surrounding air into the enclosed water heater tank. It requires less energy to move heat than create heat. Where is the best place to install a heat pump water heater? ENERGY STAR recommends that you install a heat pump water heater in a space with a year-round ambient temperature above 40 F and a volume of at least 1,000 cubic feet. A heat pump water heater will cool the space in which it is located, and generally will not work as well in colder spaces. The ideal location for a heat pump water heater is in an area with excess heat, such as a laundry room, basement, utility room, or garage. Heat pump water heaters will also generate noise when operating, which is a factor that should be considered before installing a heat pump water heater in conditioned living space. If you have a geothermal heat pump to heat and cool your home, a desuperheater can be added to the system to heat the water in your existing storage water heater tank. How much money could I save? A heat pump water heater will have a higher initial cost than a conventional storage water heater, but the lower operating costs will offset the higher purchase and installation price. Compared to a standard electric water heater, an ENERGY STAR qualified heat pump water heater could cut water heating costs in half, saving the average homeowner about $300 per year on energy bills. Large families that use more hot water will save even more money. TVA INCENTIVES Subject to TVA Installation Requirements (see reverse side). Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. TVA offers the following rebates: Conventional Electric Water Heater (primary heat source from non-electric to electric) - $500/system (no limit) Rebates subject to change. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to

18 TVA Installation Requirements for Electric Water Heaters * An electric water heater must be installed correctly, per the following requirements, in order to be eligible for a TVA incentive: Water heater shall be installed per manufacturer s instructions and applicable codes; water quality shall be evaluated for debris that may clog the equipment; water leaks shall be repaired before installation. Interior of storage tank shall be non-corrosive; system shall be installed to be freeze-resistant. Water heater shall be accessible for service; attic installations are not allowed. Water temperature shall be set to 120 F or as prescribed by local code. If leakage of tank may cause damage, a galvanized steel pan shall be installed. Pan shall be at least 1½ deep and drained or pumped to daylight with minimum ¾ pipe. Pan drain shall terminate between 6 and 24 above ground surface. Water heater shall have a separate or combined pressure-relief valve and temperature-relief valve. A shut-off valve shall not be installed between a relief valve and the termination point of its discharge pipe or between a relief valve and the tank. Discharge pipe shall terminate safely and at a safe location. Bottom fed tanks shall have a vacuum-relief valve. An expansion tank shall be securely installed as recommended by manufacturer or as required by local codes; no valves shall be located between the expansion tank and the storage tank. If an add-on heat pump is installed on an existing water heater, the existing tank shall be leak-free and fully operational; add-on heat pump shall meet ENERGY STAR requirements. If a recirculating pump is used, best practice is to install a timer set to operate only during intervals when hot water is normally used. Any penetrations to the exterior of the home created during installation shall be sealed. Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has an attached garage or any gas appliances. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES Non-municipal water (i.e., well water) may require treatment or conditioning. If system pressure is more than 75 psi, then a pressure regulator should be installed on the incoming water line. Noise and additional cool air generated by heat pump water heaters may be a concern if located in a conditioned area such as a utility room; better locations are basements and garages. ENERGY STAR recommends that the space containing the heat pump water heater should have ambient temperature above 40ºF and a volume of at least 1,000 cubic feet. Recirculating pumps should be installed on a timer and set to operate only during intervals of time when hot water is normally used. Insulate hot water pipes and first six feet of cold water pipes at water heater eScore

19 Windows and Doors Replacement windows, doors, and skylights are available in a large variety of types and prices. Most replacement windows are double pane and insulated to reduce heat loss through the window. Energy efficient windows, doors, and skylights will lower your energy bills and help keep your home s temperature consistently comfortable by keeping heat outside in the summer and heat inside in the winter. What kind of windows, doors, and/or skylights should I purchase? Whenever you are replacing windows, doors, and/or skylights, always purchase units that are ENERGY STAR qualified. ENERGY STAR windows, doors, and skylights are independently certified to perform at levels that meet or exceed U.S. EPA energy efficiency guidelines, which vary by climate zone. You should discuss product features with your contractor to select the best windows, doors, and/or skylights for your needs. If you are looking for a lower-cost alternative, consider installing storm windows over your single pane windows. What are the energy efficiency guidelines used to rate windows and skylights? Windows and skylights are rated by U-factor and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC). The lower the U-factor, the greater the insulating value of the window or skylight. A lower Solar Heat Gain Coefficient means that less solar heat will pass through the glass, which can significantly reduce air conditioning costs. Spending more for low-e glass is normally worth the extra price, because it reflects or absorbs heat in the form of infrared light, improving both the U-factor and the SHGC. What is the difference between argon and krypton gas-filled windows? Argon and krypton are colorless, odorless, and non-toxic gases that are often used between panes of window glass for insulation and energy efficiency. Krypton is more expensive and a better insulator than argon. Manufacturers often blend argon, krypton, and/or air to balance performance and cost. When selecting replacement windows, it is more important to consider the U-factor, SHGC, and ENERGY STAR status rather than specific materials used. Subject to TVA Installation Requirements (see reverse side). Homes with unvented combustion appliances that are the primary heat source for the home are not eligible for program upgrade installations. For more details, call eScore ( ) or go to How much money could I save? Properly upgrading old windows and doors with ENERGY STAR qualified windows and doors can help you save up to 15 percent on your household energy bills.

20 TVA Installation Requirements for Windows, Doors, and Skylights * General Installation Requirements for Windows, Doors, and Skylights: Presence of lead-based paint shall be assumed unless testing confirms otherwise; Quality Contractor Network (QCN) member shall comply with EPA lead requirements. Moisture issues shall be resolved before work begins. Product must be new and meet ENERGY STAR criteria for the applicable climate zone. Product must have a National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) sticker with performance ratings for the window. Unit shall be installed per manufacturer requirements and local codes. QCN member shall advise participant to install a working carbon monoxide (CO) monitor if the home has an attached garage or any gas appliances. Installation Requirements for Prime Window Replacement: Replacement of existing single-paned and double-paned windows qualify for replacement. If the rough opening is exposed during installation, then a self-adhesive 4 flexible flashing shall be installed to promote drainage from top down, and the space between the window frame and rough opening shall be filled with flexible insulation and sealed airtight with caulk or low expansion foam; do not use expanding foam. Interior jambs shall be caulked. Installation Requirements for Prime Door Replacement: A qualifying replacement door shall separate conditioned from unconditioned or buffered space. Doors with sidelights may have single pane glass up to 10 percent of the total door and sidelight area; glass shall be tempered if 18 or lower from floor, or if glass faces bottom of a stairway. Door shall have new jambs and new threshold shipped with door from manufacturer; transoms are treated as replacement windows unless built into door frame; installation shall allow for expansion and contraction. Three ¼ lines of caulk shall be applied between threshold and subfloor. Low expansion foam or silicone caulk (not expanding foam) shall be used to seal gaps between door frame and rough opening. Door shall properly fit jamb, and shall operate and lock easily. Installation Requirements for Skylight Replacement: New skylights may be installed to replace existing skylights that are damaged or if replacement is recommended to improve energy efficiency; tubular skylights are not eligible. Skylight shall be mounted above roof surface with a curb and flashing, and all joints sealed; manufacturer s guidelines shall be followed. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES FOR WINDOWS: Caulk interior window trim to wall surface to reduce air leakage. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES FOR SKYLIGHTS: Apply a layer of sheet waterproofing over the flanges/flashing of the skylight, and under the finish roofing material. Avoid water diversion devices such as roof crickets or diverter strips which often create more problems than they solve. RECOMMENDED BEST PRACTICES FOR DOORS: Use shims only on the bottom and sides of door as needed to ensure that the door is properly aligned in the rough opening. Use rot-proof shims at the bottom of the door. Steel doors should be sealed with a high quality exterior grade paint within a week after installation; apply a second layer of primer over the base primer before adding exterior paint. * This sheet is not a substitute for the TVA Standards eScore

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