Starting Transplants & Sowing Seeds. George Bushell

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1 Starting Transplants & Sowing Seeds George Bushell

2 2:Use Fresh Seeds -Store Seeds in Fridge or Freezer to Increase Storage Life -Seal in Plastic to Prevent Seeds from Drying Out Re-Seal Seed Packages with Left-Over seeds Masking Tape Organic Seed Suppliers: Click On : Full supplier list Some Seeds Can Easily Be saved

3 3:Starter Mix for Starting Seeds Indoors - Use a Clean Organic Starter Mix for Best Results - Helps to prevent damping off, which destroys stem at surface - Helps to Keep the Seeds Moist for better germination Add Water & Stir Until Mix is Moist Organic Pro-Mix Contains Peat, Compost & Mycorise* * (A natural occurring fungus that helps roots absorb moisture and nutrients)

4 4: Soil For Transplanting To Larger Containers 1 - Mix: 2 To enrich mix, one can add: 50% Soil 50% Compost (Nitrogen) Wood Ashes (Ka) Dolomitic Limestone (Ca & Mg) Bone Meal (P) Start Young 3 - Transplant And Have a Great Hobby for Life

5 9: Ottawa Planting Schedule 1 st Week of March - Start onions from seeds indoors - Place sweet potatoes in water to sprout indoors 1 st Week of April - Start tomatoes, peppers and eggplant indoors - Start early brassicas and romaine lettuce indoors if you have a cold frame Middle of April - (or whenever soil can be worked) plant peas, radish, lettuce, spinach & a few onion sets for greens outdoors 3rd Week of April - Transplant brassicas and romaine lettuce to cold frame 1 st Week of May - Start watermelon and cantaloupe indoors - Start one container of slicing cucumbers indoors - Plant beets and carrots for early harvest, Swiss chard and storage onions outdoors Middle of May - Start early corn outdoors (if soil reasonably warm) - Plant early potatoes-- Last Week of May - Cut sweet potato vines into 7-8 pieces and place in 2-3 of water to root - Start mid-season corn, green beans, cucumbers and squash outdoors - Transplant tomatoes and peppers outdoors 1 st Week of June - Plant lima beans and okra outdoors - Transplant sweet potatoes, watermelons, cantaloupes and slicing cucumber outdoors 2nd Week of June - Plant late corn outdoors - Plant winter storage carrots, beets, rutabagas and potatoes outdoors at end of week - Start late season brassicas (cabbage, cauliflower and broccoli) outdoors for later transplanting 1 st Week of July - Plant Chinese vegetables/cabbage outdoors - Transplant late season brassicas Late August - Start fall garden of radish, lettuce and onion sets 1st Week of Sept - Start spinach and onion sets for spring harvest

6 10: Starting Seeds Indoors Using Recycled Containers 3-Tape Holes In Lid 1-Cut Lid From Egg Carton 2-Punch Drain Holes In Bottom 4-Place Bottom In Lid 5-Punch Drain Holes In Cups 6-Obtain Seed Starter Mix 7-Add Water To Seed Starter Mix & Stir Until Moist

7 Small Seeds Easily Transplanted, Start in Small Containers Example tomatoes, peppers, brassicas 11: Starting Seeds Indoors Using Recycled Containers (Cont d) 1-Fill carton ¾ full of starter mix 2-Place Seeds & Cover with Starter Mix* Always Record Variety on Container Larger Seeds Harder to Transplant, Start in Larger Containers Example cucumbers, melons, zucchini watermelons 1-Fill Cup ¾ full of soil-compost mix 2-Add ½ inch of seed starter mix 3-Place Seeds 4-Cover Seeds with starter mix* * Cover according to package instructions & keep moist until sprouted. Once sprouted, let surface dry-out between waterings to prevent damping-off (a fungus)

8 12: Keep Seeds At Optimal Germination Temp* (Some seeds need warm soil to germinate quickly) Or Place Under Grow Lights & Cover With Clear Plastic to Warm Soil** Use a heating Pad & Monitor Soil Temperature (remove pad when plants appear) * See handout or page at end of this presentation ** Remove plastic when plants appear Or Place In Sunny Window With Clear Plastic to Warm Soil**

9 13: Grow Lights All Plants Require Full Spectrum Light Use a Timer to Turn Lights On & Off Each Day e.g., 16 hours on, 8 hours off Ensure Distance Between Containers/Plants Can Be Adjusted Place Containers/Plants Close to Lights (e.g., 2 inches / 50 cm) as light intensity decreases with square of distance)

10 14: Starting Easy To Transplant Veggies Indoors See Seed Package for Depth & Last Slide for Temperature Start 5-6 weeks before planting date in re-cycled containers Examples tomatoes peppers brassicas head lettuce 2 Transplant to larger containers as needed Provide Plenty of Light

11 15: Starting Difficult to Transplant Veggies Indoors See Seed Package for Depth & Last Slide for Temperature Examples cucumbers cantaloupe watermelons Start 4 weeks before planting date in re-cycled containers that are large enough to last until transplanting outdoors - Monitor Temperature - Provide Plenty of Light Ready to Transplant Outdoors

12 16: Build A Temporary Greenhouse For Optimal. Lighting and Large Numbers of Transplants 1-Use 2x2 s to Erect a Temporary Frame 2-Cover with Poly & Place Against Patio Door Small temporary greenhouses. Vent during warm days & install thermostat heater for cold nights or cover/bring inside if portable 3-During warm days, raise poly a few inches at the sides and open patio door to allow greenhouse to ventilate - At night, close sides and leave patio door open to keep greenhouse warm (or place a small thermostat heater in greenhouse

13 17: Transplant To A Cold Frame for Early Produce Great for Cold Tolerant Veggies e.g., brassicas, head lettuce Transplant when Soil Clear of Snow on warm days raise or remove covers Keep Top in Place on Cool and/or Cloudy Days Cover With Blanket On Cold Nights Active Compost In Bottom Provides Heat

14 18: Other Cold Frames Partially Raise Cover on Warm days Brick Can Be Stored When Not In Use Remove Top On Hot Days Simple & Provides Insulation On Cold Nights

15 19: Transplanting Outdoors Create a depression around plant to hold water Most Plants can Be Transplanted Directly to Garden Harden Off or Protect from Sun Burn & Wind Damage For a Few Days Cover with a Poly Tunnel to Keep Heat Loving Plants Warm e.g., sweet potatoes, watermelon

16 20: Planting Small Seeds Outdoors e.g., carrots, lettuce, radish, parsnips, brassicas, beets, rutabagas Read Seed Package for Depth, Row Spacing, etc Firm soil in seed row Create proper depth Spread Seed & Cover With Soil Cover row for 3 to 5 days with boards to keep moist Covers prevents soil/seed from drying out in hot weather & stops heavy rains from washing seed away

17 20: Planting Early Seeds Outdoors Cover Seeds & Insert Galvanized Wire Hoops Peas, Lettuce, Radish, Spinach & Onions are frost tolerant Peas Work Soil & Plant Seeds (planted Mar20/12) Remove Fabric After Frosty Weather Pic taken Apr 11, 2012 Cover Bed With Remay Fabric Peas, Lettuce, Radish, Spinach & Onions

18 21:Small Seed Example: Starting Carrots 1-Planted & Watered Seed 2-Cover 4 to 5 days for good germination 3-Apply 2 of compost after plants are growing 4-Healthy Growing Carrots 5-Fall Harvested Carrots

19 22:Starting Watermelon & Cantaloupe 2 Start May 1st - keep soil 25 to 30C for germination Transplant in late May to raised hills Do not disturb roots when transplanting Raised ridge for efficient watering Cover with perforated poly to keep warm and protect from cool winds Always irrigate with warm water Mulch with straw before end of June to conserve moisture & reduce weeds

20 Georgia Jet Best Variety Place roots in warm water March 1st Cut vines into 7 pieces & root in water ~ May 24th Transplant to raised beds ~June 1 st & cover with poly If available, cover with perforated poly Uncover at the end of June Order slips from NB: 23:Starting Sweet Potatoes in Ottawa

21 24:Start With Good Seeds And Transplants- Finish With Great Veggies

22 Vegetable Seed Germination Temperatures Crop Minimum Temperature ( C)* Optimum Temperature ( C)* Days to Germination Celery Bean, Snap Beet Carrot Brassica Crops (e.g. Cabbage, Broccoli) Cucumber Eggplant Lettuce Cantaloupe/Watermelon Onion (bulb) Onion (bunch) Pea Pepper Pumpkin Radish Spinach Sweet Corn Swiss Chard Tomato Turnip/Rutabaga

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