Management, 2nd Edition

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1 Greenhouse Technology and Management, 2nd Edition Nicolas Castilla, PhD Research Coordinator, Department of Horticulture IFAPA (Institute for Agricultural Research and Training), Granada, Spain Based on the second edition of the book Invernaderos de Plastico: Tecnologi'a y Manejo by Nicolas Castilla, PhD Published by Ediciones Mundi-Prensa, Madrid (Spain) and Mexico Translated by Esteban J. Baeza, PhD Agricultural Engineer IFAPA, Spain Reviewed by A.P. Papadopoulos, PhD Senior Research Scientist, Greenhouse Crops Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Harrow, Ontario, Canada Adjunct Professor (Laval and Guelph Universities, Canada)

2 Contents Foreword Preface to the First Edition (Spanish) Preface to the Second Edition (Spanish) Acknowledgements xv xvii xix xxi 1 Protected Cultivation Introduction Types of Protection Objectives of Protected Cultivation History Importance Plastic Materials Summary 10 2 The External Climate Introduction The Earth and the Sun Introduction The seasons Day Length Solar Radiation Introduction Quality of solar radiation Quantity of solar radiation Measurement of solar radiation The Earth's Radiation Net Radiation Temperature Air temperature Soil temperature The relationship between solar radiation and air temperature Wind Composition of the Atmosphere Water vapour content C02 content Atmospheric pollution 27 v

3 vi Contents 2.10 Rainfall Altitude and Topography Summary 28 3 The Greenhouse Climate Introduction The Greenhouse Effect Solar Radiation in Greenhouses Introduction Transmissivity to radiation Orientation and transmissivity Optimization of the transmissivity Temperature Air temperature Plant temperature Soil temperature Thermal inertia in the greenhouse The Wind Inside the Greenhouse The Greenhouse Atmosphere Greenhouse ventilation Air humidity C02 content Pollutant gases Summary 41 4 The Plastic Greenhouse Introduction Evolution of the Greenhouse Concept Geographical Production Areas Climatic Suitability for Greenhouse Vegetable Production Introduction Climate requirements of vegetables Obtaining the required climate conditions Climate suitability The Plastics Introduction Plastic materials commonly used in agriculture Plastic additives Properties of plastic films Plastic films most commonly used in greenhouses Rigid plastic materials Greenhouse Construction Introduction Greenhouse types Structure materials Covering materials Greenhouse screens The Selection of the Greenhouse: Options Greenhouse Site Selection Criteria for the Design and Construction of Greenhouses Introduction Criteria for the design of plastic-film greenhouses 73

4 Contents vii Design criteria in areas with a Mediterranean climate Design criteria in humid tropical climates Greenhouses for other climate conditions Maximizing the Radiation Inside the Greenhouse Introduction Factors determining the available solar radiation Solar radiation inside the greenhouse Greenhouse orientation Normalization of Greenhouse Structures Summary 82 5 Greenhouse Heat Exchanges Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Radiation Heat Exchanges by Air Renewal in the Greenhouse Heat Exchanges in the Greenhouse and Energy Balance Simplified Greenhouse Energy Balances Summary 89 6 Crop Physiology: Photosynthesis, Growth, Development and Productivity Introduction Physiological Functions and Growth Photosynthesis Introduction The stomata Internal factors affecting photosynthesis External factors influencing photosynthesis Photomorphogenesis Introduction Vegetable pigments Periodic rhythms in plants Photoperiodism Respiration Distribution of Assimilates and Sink-Source Relations Introduction Distribution of assimilates between organs Management of the assimilate distribution Growth Introduction Influence of the microclimate on growth Growth analysis Development Introduction Development stages in greenhouse crops Bioproductivity Bioproductivity and harvest index (HI) Interception of radiation by the crop Efficiency in the use of solar radiation Strategies to maximize the use of radiation 110

5 Heating viii Contents 6.10 Production Quality Introduction Effects of climate factors on quality Other factors affecting quality Summary Facilities and Active and Passive Climate Control Equipment: Low Temperature Management Introduction Reduction of Heat Losses Reduction of the exchange surfaces Reduction of heat losses per unit surface Total heat losses Insulation Devices Inflated double cover Mobile thermal screens External double sidewalls Windbreaks Other insulation devices Heating Convective heating Radiative-convective heating Soil or substrate heating Heat production Sizing of the heating systems Heating and temperature management Summary Management of High Temperatures: Cooling Introduction Function of Ventilation How Airtight is the Greenhouse? Natural Ventilation The thermal effect The wind effect Characteristics of the openings The crop and air movements Measuring the ventilation of greenhouses Anti-insect screens Screenhouses Mechanical or Forced Ventilation Cooling by Water Evaporation Pad and fan Fogging and misting Cooling by evapotranspiration Shading Other Cooling Methods Ventilation and Climate Management Temperature management Humidity management 151

6 Light Contents 8.10 Dehumidification Associated heating Dehumidification systems Summary Air Movement in the Greenhouse: Carbon Dioxide Enrichment - Management Air Movement Inside the Greenhouse Introduction Air movement: objectives Plant responses Air movement regulation Carbon Enrichment (COJ Introduction Recommended C02 concentrations C02 enrichment techniques Distribution of C COz balance C02 control Light Introduction Light increase Artificial light to increase the illumination Partial light reduction Control of the duration of day/night Summary The Root Medium: Soil and Substrates Introduction Desirable Characteristics of Horticultural Soils Physical and hydraulic characteristics Chemical characteristics Considerations on the management of greenhouse soils Soilless Cultivation Introduction: systems Advantages and disadvantages of substrate-grown crops Substrate cultivation systems Characteristics of the substrates Types of substrate Changes in the Management of the Root Medium Summary Irrigation and Fertilization The Plants and Water Transpiration Evapotranspiration The Water in the Soil Introduction Characterization of the soil water stress Measurement of the soil water content Quality of the irrigation water 184

7 X Contents 11.5 The Water in the Plant Introduction Characterization of the water in the plant Water stress Effects of water stress in the plant Saline stress Greenhouse Irrigation Introduction Components of the drip irrigation system Management of drip irrigation Water and salts movements with drip irrigation Greenhouse irrigation scheduling (soil-grown crops) Irrigation scheduling in soilless crops Water use efficiency Quality of the irrigation water Fertilization Introduction The nutrients cycle (soil cultivation) Nutrients extractions Tolerance to salinity Fertigation A practical example: a soil-grown tomato crop Fertigation of soilless crops Summary Regulation and Control Systems: Computer Climate Management Mechanization Regulation and Control Systems Introduction Input-output systems Regulation methods Application to climate management Types of controllers Selection of the type of automatic control Models Computer Climate Management Controls performed by greenhouse management systems Digital control systems The climate control computer Functions of climate control computers Towards integrated control Mechanization Introduction Mechanization of operations Occupancy of the greenhouse Summary Plant Protection Introduction Chemical Control Main aspects Treatment equipment 221

8 Contents 13.3 Biological Control Integrated Pest Management Climate Control and IPM Most Common Greenhouse Diseases Most Common Greenhouse Pests Prophylaxis Other Aspects Summary Economic and Environmental Analysis Economic Analysis Introduction Greenhouse structures and equipment The Spanish greenhouse horticultural farm Production costs Other aspects of interest Environmental Analysis Introduction Most important residues Environmental impact assessment Summary Postharvest Introduction Postharvest Respiratory Metabolism Ripening Ethylene Postharvest Handling Quality Food Safety: Traceability Postharvest Pathologies Summary Marketing Introduction Postharvest Alterations: Storage Standardization and Classification Marketing Channels Transport Distribution Quality Quality Management Future Prospects Summary Greenhouse Production Strategies Introduction Crop Productivity and Production Costs Destination of the Produce Greenhouse Production Options Production Strategies and Tactics in Mediterranean Climates General aspects 263

9 xii Contents Biological aspects Strategies and tactical management Future perspectives Summary 265 Appendix A.l Chapter A.l.l Calculation of the zenith angle 267 A.l.2 Calculation of global radiation as a function of insolation 267 A.1.3 Day length 267 A. 1.4 Wien's law 268 A.1.5 Wavelength and frequency 268 A. 1.6 Hellman's equation 268 A. 1.7 Saturation vapour pressure 268 A.2 Chapter A.2.1 Thermal integral 268 A.3 Chapter A.3.1 Diffuse solar radiation inside a greenhouse 269 A.4 Chapter A.4.1 Conduction 269 A.4.2 Convection without phase change 269 A.4.3 Evaporation and condensation 270 A.4.4 Radiation 270 A.4.5 Air renewal 270 A.4.6 Energy balance 271 A.4.7 Specific heat of a body 271 A.4.8 Latent heat of vaporization 271 A.4.9 Global heat transfer coefficient 271 A. 5 Chapter A.5.1 Interception of the radiation by the extinction canopy: coefficient 272 A.5.2 Radiation absorbed by the crop 272 A.5.3 Growth parameters 272 A.5.4 Fruit harvest and biomass indexes 273 A.5.5 Use of radiation in a typical greenhouse ecosystem 273 A.6 Chapter A.6.1 Wind effect in natural ventilation 273 A.6.2 Thermal effect in natural ventilation 274 A.6.3 Wind loads 274 A.6.4 Air flow reduction when a screen is placed on a greenhouse vent 274 A. 7 Chapter A.7.1 CO, units 274 A. 8 Chapter A.8.1 Crop water stress index 274 A.8.2 Irrigation water quality 275 A.8.3 Estimation of the evapotranspiration ( T0) in a greenhouse 275 A.9 Chapter A.9.1 Transmissivity models 276 Appendix 2 Symbols and Abbreviated Forms 277

10 Contents xiii Appendix 3 Units and Equivalences 283 Length 283 Area 283 Volume 283 Mass 284 Thickness of Plastic Films 284 Temperature 284 Pressure 285 Energy and Power 285 Radiation 285 Water Lamina 285 Prefixes 285 List oftables 287 List offigures 291 List of Photos 299 List of Plates 303 References 307 Index 327 The colour plates can be found following p. 178.

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