1 Module 1 Separation, Stabilization & Base Reinforcement Introduction To Geosynthetics In Transportation Prepared by July 2007 For the Local Technical Assistance Program
2 The Geosynthetic Materials Association (GMA) represents all segments of the geosynthetics industry n Manufacturers n Companies that test or supply material or services to the industry GMA activities further the acceptance and use of geosynthetic materials in a variety of applications. n Trade association n Bimonthly magazine n Conferences and trade show For additional information please contact: n Andrew Aho, Managing Director, GMA n Phone: or n n Website: In 2007 Geosynthetics magazine (formerly GFR) enters its 25th year of publication.
3 Preface This short-course introduces geosynthetics from the perspective of practical application. It is intended to serve as a general reference in the field for those who are building structures that include geosynthetics.
4 Geosynthetics The most versatile and cost-effective ground modification materials.
5 Contents Introduction Geosynthetic Functions Geosynthetic Materials Geosynthetic Applications n Separation, Stabilization and Base Reinforcement Simplified Generic Specifications
6 Introduction to Geosynthetics Geosynthetics, including: Geotextiles Geomembranes Geonets Geogrids Geocomposites Geosynthetic clay liners Are often used in combination with conventional materials, offer numerous advantages over traditional materials
7 Geosynthetic Separator Geosynthetics can perform numerous functions, including the separation function. In roadways, a separator keeps the base aggregate and the subgrade from mixing.
8 Geosynthetic Reinforcement A geosynthetic performs the reinforcement function when it contributes a tensile force within the soil mass.
9 Geosynthetic Cushion / Protection A geosynthetic performs the cushion/protection function when it alleviates or distributes the stresses and strains transmitted to the material to be protected.
10 Geosynthetic Categories Geotextiles both woven and nonwoven make up the largest percentage of geosynthetics used in transportation applications. Geogrid 6% Other 2% Woven 32% Nonwoven 60% USA Market
11 Geotextiles Geotextiles, like other geosynthetics, are manufactured in state-of-the-art facilities using sophisticated equipment.
12 Geotextiles Polymers Almost all are polyester or polypropylene. n Polypropylene is lighter than water (specific gravity of 0.9), strong and very durable. n Polyester is heavier than water, has excellent strength and creep properties, and is compatible with most common soil environments. Structures Nonwoven Woven Other n Knitted n Stitch bonded
13 Nonwovens Manufactured from (short) staple fibers or continuous filaments randomly distributed in layers onto a moving belt to form a "web". The web then is needled or heat and pressure bonded to interlock the fibers.
14 Needle-punched Nonwoven Geotextiles Needle-punched nonwovens are felt-like and very flexible.
15 Heatbonded Nonwoven Geotextiles Heat-bonded nonwovens are thinner and have greater stiffness.
16 Wovens Weaving is a process of interlacing yarns to make a fabric. Woven geotextiles are made from weaving slit film, monofilament, or multifilament yarns.
17 Slit Film Woven Geotextiles Slit film woven geotextiles provide economical separation of materials.
19 Fibrillated and Multifilament Woven Geotextiles Multifilament woven geotextiles provide enhanced tensile strength.
20 Geogrids Geogrids are single or multi-layer materials usually made from extruding and stretching high-density polyethylene or polypropylene or by weaving or knitting and coating high tenacity polyester yarns. The resulting grid structure possesses large openings (called apertures) that enhance interaction with the soil or aggregate. The high tensile strength and stiffness of geogrids make them especially effective as soil and aggregate reinforcement.
21 Punched/Drawn Geogrid
22 Woven/Coated Geogrid
23 Estimated Annual North American Geotextile Market (in millions of square yards) An approximate breakdown of geotextile and geotextile-related product use in the US by application. Silt Fence 45 Lining 95 Reinforcement 25 Erosion Control 40 Drainage 75 Asphalt Overlay 110 Separation / Stabilization 160 USA Market
24 Geosynthetics In Roads & Pavements Subgrade separation and stabilization, base reinforcement, overlay stress absorption and reinforcement As shown previously, the largest use of geotextiles is in road applications, including separation/stabilization and asphalt overlay applications.
25 Geosynthetics In Roads & Pavements History Though only widely recognized since the latter half of the 1900s, geotextile advantages were initially demonstrated as early as the 1930s using conventional textile materials.
26 Subgrade Separation & Stabilization Geosynthetics can stabilize the road subgrade and reinforce the road base aggregate by contributing two important functions: 1. Membrane action - the ability of a geosynthetic material to reduce and spread stress arising from the weak subgrade. 2. Lateral restraint, sometimes called confinement - restraining lateral movement of both the aggregate and the subgrade, improving the strength and stiffness of the road structure.
27 Introduction to the Problem The Problem: Poor Subgrade Conditions q Problems are encountered when the subgrade consists of soft clays, silts and organic soils. q This type of subgrade is often unable to adequately support traffic loads especially when wet - and must be improved. q Typically, excavation and replacement of unsuitable materials or subgrade improvement such as chemical stabilization would be used. q These methods are costly and time consuming.
28 Without Separation Base Stone Fouling Occurs Fouling of the base aggregate gradually reduces the quality and strength of the base aggregate. Rigid Pavement Flexible Pavement
29 If you combine 10 pounds of stone and 10 pounds of mud, you have 20 pounds of mud... and the associated loss of support! The most versatile and cost-effective ground modification materials.
30 Base/Subgrade Separation At small rut depth, the strain in the geosynthetic is also small. In this case the geosynthetic acts primarily as a separator between the soft subgrade and the aggregate. A geosynthetic that survives construction will work as a separator.
31 Example 1: Base Separation - Unpaved Roadway Seasonal re-applications of aggregate on unpaved roads can be avoided if a separation geotextile is placed before the aggregate to create an all-weather, allseason road. Here is an experimental road in Oklahoma with alternating sections with and without separation fabric. Fabric Section 6 Stone Placed Throughout
32 Example 1: Base Separation - Unpaved Roadway The photo on the left is of the aggregate road with alternating sections with and without a separation geotextile. The right photo is a close-up of a section with no separation geotextile. The fabric cost was equivalent to 1 of aggregate. Spring Thaw No Separation Geotextile
33 Example 2: Base Separation - Paved Roadway It is common for development to lead to increased traffic loading on and associated deterioration of existing roads, such as happened to this rural road when a new appliance factory opened. Existing Rural Road New Appliance Factory
34 Example 2: Base Separation - Paved Roadway Maintenance of the degraded roadway involved removal of the damaged areas and reconstruction using a separator geotextile. Remove Fouled Sections Install Separator
35 Example 2: Base Separation - Paved Roadway Reconstruction included compacted aggregate and an asphalt patch over the separation geotextile in the damaged area followed by an overlay of the entire roadway. Repave Patches Pavement Overlay
36 Subgrade Stabilization For larger rut depths, more strain is induced in the geosynthetic. In this case, considerable reduction in aggregate thickness is possible by the use of a stronger geosynthetic. A stabilization geotextile facilitates construction over weak subgrades A geogrid is effective in reducing the required fill over a weak subgrade
37 Subgrade Stabilization Stabilized (rutted) roadway functions as an unpaved road or forms a working platform for a conventional paved road. Once ruts stabilize, the working platform stops deforming. Unpaved Roads Temporary Access
38 Stabilization Stabilization geotextiles can be fabricated into large panels and deployed to expedite road embankment construction.
39 Design for Separation/Stabilization The following general conclusions can be drawn relating to a typical road base: n A geosynthetic that functions primarily as a separator (typically when the subgrade CBR 3) will increase the allowable bearing capacity of the subgrade by 40-50% (separation geotextiles) n A geosynthetic that functions primarily to provide confinement of the aggregate and lateral restraint to the subgrade (typically when the subgrade CBR < 3) will both increase the allowable bearing capacity of the subgrade and provide an improved load distribution ratio in the aggregate. The combined benefits can enhance load carrying capacity of the road by well over 50% (stabilization geogrids or geotextiles) n With very weak subgrades, it is often beneficial to combine the benefits of both separation and stabilization
40 Base Reinforcement q Permanent roads carry larger traffic volumes and typically have asphalt or portland cement concrete surfacing over a base layer of aggregate. q With the addition of an appropriate geosynthetic, the Soil-Geosynthetic- Aggregate (SGA) system gains stiffness via confinement of the aggregate.
41 Introduction to the Problem Poor roads often result from poor subgrades When the subgrade consists of soft clays, silts and organic soils (i.e. water sensitive soils) that when wet, are unable to adequately support traffic loads. If unimproved the subgrade will mix with the road base aggregate degrading the road structure - whenever the subgrade gets wet.
42 The Geosynthetic Solution Geogrid base reinforcement, confines and stiffens the aggregate base layer providing long-term support for the paved surface by: Preventing lateral spreading of the base Increasing confinement and thus stiffness of the base Improving vertical stress distribution on the subgrade Reducing shear stress in the subgrade
43 Quantifying the Geosynthetic Benefit The TBR relates the ratio of reinforced load cycles to failure (excessive rutting) to the number of cycles that cause failure of an unreinforced road section in laboratory or field tests. In general, geosynthetics have been found to provide a TBR in the range of 1.5 to 70, depending on the type of geosynthetic, its location in the road, and the testing scenario.
44 Installation of Geosynthetics For Separation, Stabilization & Base Reinforcement Basic Construction Procedures q Clear and grade the installation area. q Unroll the geosynthetic on the prepared subgrade in the direction of construction traffic. q Adjacent rolls should overlap in the direction of the construction. q Depending on the strength of the subgrade, the overlaps may have to be sewn. q For weaker subgrades, dump onto previously placed aggregate and then spread the aggregate onto the geosynthetic with a bulldozer.
45 Basic Construction Procedures Cont d q A sufficient layer of aggregate must be maintained beneath all equipment while dumping and spreading to minimize the potential of localized subgrade failure. q Compact the aggregate to the specified density using a drum roller. q Fill any ruts with additional aggregate and compact.
46 Clear & Grubbing Generally site should have topsoil and all vegetation cleared, but care should be taken not to disturb subgrade excessively. Vegetative mat may be helpful on very soft areas.
47 Seaming/Overlap Rolls of geotextiles must be overlapped, sewn, or jointed as required Overlap n CBR= ft n CBR> ft n Pin or staple overlaps
48 Aggregate Placement Construction vehicles should not drive on fabric First lift should be placed at minimum 12 thickness Rut depths should be less than 3 Initial lift should be compacted by tracking-additional lifts with smooth drum vibratory
49 Stone Selection Stone should be crushed with 10%-15% fines content Clean stone lacks strength Clean stone can be placed over working platform
50 Repair of Rutting Fill any ruts with additional aggregate and compact.
51 Surfacing A surface treatment such as an asphalt layer or a double or triple-treatment can be placed once the base course is complete and structurally sound.
52 Simplified Generic Specifications For Routine Applications* (*The specification of critical geosynthetic applications will generally require the input of a qualified engineering professional) Specification Criteria: Construction Survivability In-Service Performance q Geotextiles for routine applications are easily specified by using generic specifications such as AASHTO M288 and FHWA FP-03. q The specifications use common geotextile properties to specify geotextiles based on empirical evidence of construction survivability and in-service performance over three decades. q The FP-03 specifications are available for downloading at no charge at
53 Simplified Generic Specifications For Routine Applications FP03 FP-03 specifications rely on a single table for each application that addresses both survivability-related properties and in-service performance-related properties. Survivability & Performance Properties n Table Subsurface Drainage n Table Separation n Table Stabilization n Table Permanent Erosion Control n Table Temporary Silt Fence n Table Paving Fabric (All values in tables, with the exception of AOS, represent minimum average roll values in the weakest principal direction.)
54 FP03, Table Separation Geotextile Requirements Test Methods Units Type II-A Type II-B Type II-C Grab strength ASTM D 4632 N 1400 / / / 500 Sewn seam strength ASTM D 4632 N 1260 / / / 450 Tear strength ASTM D 4533 N 500 / (3) / / 175 Puncture strength ASTM D 4833 N 500 / / / 175 Burst strength ASTM D 3786 kpa 3500 / / / 950 Permittivity ASTM D 4491 sec Apparent opening size ASTM D 4751 mm 0.60 (2) 0.60 (2) 0.60 (2) Specifications (1) Ultraviolet stability ASTM D 4355 % 50% retained strength after 500 hours exposure 1. The first values in a column apply to geotextiles that break at < 50% elongation (ASTM D 4632). The second values in a column apply to geotextiles that break at 50% elongation (ASTM D 4632). 2. Maximum average roll value. 3. The minimum average tear strength for woven monofilament geotextile is 245 N. FP03, Table provides both survivability and performance properties for geotextiles used for separation. Yellow designates the equivalent of the M288 specification default.
55 Separation Geotextile Types Survivability: Default geotextile selection is Type II-B. Type II-A should be specified when extra durability during construction is desired. Engineer may specify a Type II-C geotextile from Table based on one or more of the following: 1. Engineer has found Type II-C geotextiles to have sufficient survivability based on field experience. 2. Engineer has found Type II-C geotextiles to have sufficient survivability based on laboratory testing and visual inspection of a geotextile sample removed from a field test section constructed under anticipated field conditions. 3. Aggregate cover thickness of the first lift over the geotextile exceeds 300 mm and the aggregate diameter is less than 50 mm. 4. Aggregate cover thickness of the first lift over the geotextile exceeds 150 mm, aggregate diameter is less than 30 mm, and construction equipment contact pressure is less than 550 kpa.
56 Separation Geotextile Types Cont d In-Service Performance: Default values are given in Table for the geotextile type selected based on survivability. Permittivity of the geotextile should be greater than that of the soil ( Ψg > Ψs ). The engineer may also require the permeability of the geotextile to be greater than that of the soil (kg > ks).
57 FP03, Table Stabilization Geotextile Requirements Test Methods Units Type III-A Type III-B Grab strength ASTM D 4632 N 1400 / / 700 Sewn seam strength ASTM D 4632 N 1260 / / 630 Tear strength ASTM D 4533 N 500 / (3) / 250 Puncture strength ASTM D 4833 N 500 / / 250 Burst strength ASTM D 3786 kpa 3500 / / 1300 Specifications (1) Permittivity ASTM D 4491 sec Apparent opening size ASTM D 4751 mm 0.43 (2) 0.43 (2) Ultraviolet stability ASTM D 4355 % 50% retained strength after 500 hours exposure (1) The first values in a column apply to geotextiles that break at < 50 percent elongation (ASTM D 4632). The second values in a column apply to geotextiles that break at 50 percent elongation (ASTM D 4632). (2) Maximum average roll value. (3) The minimum average tear strength for woven monofilament geotextile is 245 N. FP03, Table provides both survivability and performance properties for geotextiles used for stabilization. Yellow designates the equivalent of the M288 specification default.
58 Stabilization Geotextile Types Survivability: Default geotextile selection is Type III-A Engineer may specify a Type III-B geotextile from Table based on one or more of the following: 1. Engineer has found the class of geotextile to have sufficient survivability based on laboratory testing and visual inspection of a geotextile sample removed from a field test section constructed under anticipated field conditions. 2. Engineer has found the class of geotextile to have sufficient survivability based on field experience.
59 Stabilization Geotextile Types Cont d In-Service Performance: Default values are given in Table for the geotextile type selected based on survivability. Permittivity of the geotextile should be greater than that of the soil ( Ψg > Ψs ). Engineer may also require the permeability of the geotextile to be greater than that of the soil (kg > ks).
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Lecture 36 APPLICATIONS IN FILTRATION AND DRAINAGE & EROSION CONTROL Prof. G L Sivakumar Babu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012 Geotextile filter requirements:
The First Pan American Geosynthetics Conference & Exhibition 2-5 March 2008, Cancun, Mexico Field Trials with Polypropylene Woven Geotextiles B.V.S. Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian
Australian Company // Global Expertise Woven Polyester High Strength Geotextile ACETex the proven choice for: SOIL REINFORCEMENT IN APPLICATIONS OF: n Embankment Support over Soft Soils n Embankment Support
GRI White Paper # The Development of a Benefit/Cost Ratio Matrix for Optimal Selection of a Geosynthetic Material by Robert M. Koerner and George R. Koerner Geosynthetic Institute 7 Kedron Avenue Folsom,
An Introduction to Soil Stabilization for Pavements J. Paul Guyer, P.E., R.A. Paul Guyer is a registered mechanical engineer, civil engineer, fire protection engineer and architect with over 35 years experience