Engineering Report: Appendix F Volume 3 Landfill Liner Construction Specifications COWLITZ COUNTY HEADQUARTERS LANDFILL PROJECT COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHIN

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11 Engineering Report: Appendix F Volume 3 Landfill Liner Construction Specifications COWLITZ COUNTY HEADQUARTERS LANDFILL PROJECT COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON

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13 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS GENERIC CELL CONSTRUCTION COWLITZ COUNTY HEADQUARTERS LANDFILL PROJECT COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON Prepared for COWLITZ COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS October 2011 Prepared by PO Box 1010 Oregon House, CA (530)

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15 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS CELL CONSTRUCTION HEADQUARTERS LANDFILL TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE DIVISION 2 SITEWORK SECTION EXPOSE EXISTING TERMINATIONS - EARTHWORK SECTION EXPOSE EXISTING TERMINATIONS - INSTALLER SECTION TEMPORARY EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL SECTION EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT SECTION SUBGRADE PREPARATION SECTION GRANULAR DRAINAGE LAYERS SECTION OPERATIONS LAYER SECTION HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) PIPE SECTION GEOTEXTILE - EARTHWORK SECTION GEOTEXTILE - INSTALLER SECTION GEOMEMBRANE SECTION GCL SECTION GEOMEMBRANE ELECTRIC LEAK LOCATION SURVEY SECTION PLYWOOD COVER SECTION HYDROSEEDING Table of Contents Rev. 0; 10/11 Technical Specifications Cell Construction

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17 SECTION EXPOSE EXISTING TERMINATIONS - EARTHWORK PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Exposing existing soil and geosynthetic terminations along the east side of existing cells in preparation for connection to the new landfill composite liner system. Existing terminations include the following. 1. Geosynthetic Clay Liner. 2. Primary Geomembrane. 3. Leachate Collection and Recovery System (LCRS) Layer and Pipes. 4. Geotextile Separator. 5. Soils Operations Layer 1.02 RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Excavation and Embankment. B. Section Granular Drainage Layers. C. Section Operations Layer. D. Section High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe. E. Section Geotextile. F. Section Geomembrane. G. Section Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL). PART 2 PRODUCTS Not Used PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION A. Contractor can use previous record-surveys to locate existing liner termination. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Expose Existing Terminations

18 B. Contractor will use its own forces or subcontractor to remove soil and expose LCS drainage gravel along the existing termination. Monitor H 2 S emissions along this edge from the existing landfill. C. Tarp exposed termination and remove tarps as needed for the Work of the CONTRACTOR to proceed EXPOSING CELL TERMINATIONS A. CONTRACTOR will remove and dispose of existing drainage layer to expose plywood scrap sheet. B. Remove plywood scrap sheet and dispose in active landfill, unless condition allow recycling for re-use in current cell. C. Clean existing exposed geomembrane a minimum of 4 feet wide along the length of the tie-in. Use brooms, rags, and water to remove all soil. D. Additional uncovering and gravel removal may be necessary to locate ends of LCS pipes. E. Remove and dispose of excess soil layers as necessary. F. Do not damage exposed geosynthetics. CONTRACTOR will repair, at no additional cost to the OWNER, all holes, cuts, gouges, tears, and scrapes caused by efforts to expose the existing geotextiles and geomembranes. END SECTION EXPOSE EXISTING TERMINATIONS Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Expose Existing Terminations

19 SECTION EXPOSE EXISTING TERMINATIONS - INSTALLER PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Exposing and cleaning existing soil and geosynthetic terminations along the east side of existing cells in preparation for connection to the new landfill composite liner system. Existing terminations include the following. 1. Geosynthetic Clay Liner (2009). 2. Primary Geomembrane (2009). 3. Leachate Collection and Recovery System (LCRS) Layer and Pipes (2009). 4. Geotextile Separator (2009). 5. Soils Operations Layer (2009) RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Excavation and Embankment. B. Section Granular Drainage Layers. C. Section Operations Layer. D. Section High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe. E. Section Geotextile. F. Section Geomembrane. G. Section Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL). PART 2 PRODUCTS Not Used PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION A. Earthwork Contractor will have previously removed excess soil, rock, and plywood at existing tie-in location. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Expose Existing Terminations

20 3.02 PREPARING CELL TIE-INS A. Cut geomembrane near edge of existing liner system. Clean existing exposed geomembrane a minimum of 4 feet wide along the length of the tie-in. Use brooms, rags, and water to remove all soil. B. Do not damage exposed geosynthetics. CONTRACTOR will repair, at no additional cost to the OWNER, all holes, cuts, gouges, tears, and scrapes caused by efforts to expose and clean the existing geotextiles and geomembranes. C. Protect existing GCL from hydration due to precipitation by edge surface covered with weighted geomembrane. New GCL will need to overlap existing GCL by at least 18 inches, which will require the geomembrane to be folded back at the time of GCL instllation. END SECTION EXPOSE EXISTING TERMINATIONS Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Expose Existing Terminations

21 SECTION TEMPORARY EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Installation of silt fences and straw bale barriers for temporary erosion control during the construction. B. Construction of temporary sediment control traps. C. Construction of temporary ditches. D. Installation of erosion control matting RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Temporary Controls. B. Section Clearing, Grubbing and Stripping. C. Section Excavation and Embankment. D. Section Ditches. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 SILT FENCE A. Post: 2-inch x 4-inch x 48-inch wooden post or steel fence post 48-inches long and weighing 1.33 pounds per linear foot. B. Woven filter fabric: Mirafi 700X, or equal as approved by the ENGINEER. C. Staples or wire rings ROCK PROTECTION A. In accordance with Section 02722; Part DRAINAGE GRAVEL A. In accordance with Section 02224; Part SEDIMENT TRAP A. Constructed with earthfill materials. Rock outlet constructed with a 1-foot depth of Rock Protection place over a 1-foot depth of drainage gravel. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: 4/20/ Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control

22 2.05 STRAW BALE BARRIER A. Straw bales: 15-inch x 15-inch x 36-inch. B. Hardwood posts: 2-inch x 2-inch x 36-inch EROSION CONTROL MATTING A. Synthetic Industries Landlock TRM 1060 or approved equivalent. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 SILT FENCE INSTALLATION A. Install at location and to the dimensions shown on the Drawings, or as required by Work conditions. B. Install parallel to slope contours. C. Space posts at 6-foot maximum spacing. Drive posts a minimum of 24-inches and a maximum of 30 inches into the ground. D. Excavate a 12-inch x 6-inch wide trench on the upslope side of the post alignment. E. Staple filter fabric to wooden posts using heavy-duty 1-inch wire staples or tie the filter fabric to metal posts using wire rings. Space staples or wire rings 8-inches along post. F. Extend filter fabric 12-inches into trench. G. Backfill trench with earthfill material. H. If joints are necessary, splice filter fabric together only at posts with a minimum 6-inch overlap and both ends securely fastened to the post SEDIMENT TRAP A. Overexcavate rock outlet that will receive rock protection a minimum of 8-inches. B. Place 1-foot lift of drainage rock in outlet. C. Place 1-foot lift of rock protection over drainage rock in outlet. D. Backfill excavation with rock protection to an 8-inch minimum depth ROCK CHECK DAM PLACEMENT A. Install at locations and to the dimensions shown on the Drawings or requested by OWNER. B. Overexcavate area in ditch bottom that will receive rock protection a minimum of 8-inches. C. Place rock protection according to the configuration shown on the Drawings or as directed by the ENGINEER. D. The center of the check dam must be at least 6-inches lower than the outer edges. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: 4/20/ Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control

23 3.04 EROSION CONTROL MATTING INSTALLATION A. Install in ditches with slopes 10 percent where directed by the ENGINEER. B. Install according to manufacturers instructions. C. Grade and compact area of installation. D. Prepare seedbed by loosening 2 to 3-inches of topsoil above final grade. E. Remove all rocks, clods, vegetation or other obstructions so that the installed erosion mat will have direct contact with soil surface. F. Do not mulch areas where mat is to be placed. G. Seed area before installing erosion matting. H. All check slots and other areas disturbed during installation must be reseeded. I. Dig initial anchor trench 12-inches deep and 6-inches wide across the channel at the lower end of the project area. J. Excavate intermittent check slots 4-inches deep and 4-inches wide along each side of the installation to bury edges of matting above crest of channel side slopes. K. Cut longitudinal channel anchors slots 4-inches deep and 4-inches wide along each side of the installation t bury edges of matting above crest of channel side slopes. L. Beginning at the downstream end and in the center of the channel, place the initial end of the first roll in the anchor trench and secure with fastening devices at 1-foot intervals. M. In same manner, position adjacent rolls in anchor trench, overlapping the proceeding roll a minimum of 2-inches. N. Secure at 1-inch intervals, backfill and compact soil. O. Unroll center strip of matting upstream over the compacted trench with smaller netting on bottom, large netting on top. Stop at next check slot or terminal anchor trench. P. Unroll adjacent mats upstream in similar fashion, maintaining 3-inch overlap. Q. Fold and secure all rolls of matting snugly into all transverse check slots. Lay mat in the bottom of the slot then fold back against itself. Anchor through both layers of mat at 1-inch intervals then backfill and compact soil. Continue rolling all mat widths upstream over the compacted slot to the next check slot or terminal anchor trench. R. Shingle-lap roll ends by a minimum of 1-inch with upstream mat on top to prevent uplifting by water or begin new rolls in a check slot. Anchor overlapped areas by placing two rolls of anchors, 1-inch apart on 1-inch intervals. S. Place edges of outside mats in previously excavated longitudinal slots, anchor using prescribed staple pattern, backfill and compact soil. T. Anchor fill and compact upstream end of mat in a 12-inch by 6-inch terminal trench. U. Secure mat to ground surface using U-shaped wire staples at 18-inch intervals. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: 4/20/ Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control

24 V. Wire staples should be a minimum of 8-gauge. W. Wire staples should be driven flush to the soil surface. X. All anchors should be 8-inches to 18-inches long and have sufficient ground penetration to resist pullout. Longer anchors may be required for loose soils. END SECTION TEMPORARY EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: 4/20/ Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control

25 SECTION EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY 1. Excavation and embankment for Cell subgrade. 2. Backfill for trenches RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Surveying. B. Section Clearing, Grubbing and Stripping. C. Section Subgrade Preparation. D. Section Granular Drainage Layers REFERENCES A. ASTM D 1557 Moisture-Density Relations of Soils and Soil-Aggregates Using a 10-lb. Rammer and 18-inch Drop. B. ASTM D 2922 Density of Soil and Soil-Aggregate In-place by Nuclear Methods. C. ASTM D 2937 Density of Soil in Place by the Drive-Cylinder Method. D. ASTM D 3017 Moisture Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate In-place by Nuclear Methods QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING 1. ENGINEER will perform the following quality assurance verification testing prior to and during embankment operations. 1. Moisture-density relations (ASTM D 1557) to determine the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content for each different type of embankment material. 2. Nuclear density and moisture content (ASTM D 2992 and ASTM D 3017) to verify relative compaction. 3. In-place density by the drive-cylinder method (ASTM D 2937) to verify that the nuclear density gauge is working properly and providing reliable test results. Permeability testing may be conducted on duplicate in-place drive-cylinder samples. 4. Visual examination and sampling to verify that embankment materials contain no organic, saturated, oversized, or other unsuitable materials. 2. Cooperate with ENGINEER in the performance of quality assurance verification testing. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Excavation and Embankment

26 PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 EARTHFILL 1. Obtained from on-site excavations. 2. Free of organic, saturated, oversized, or other unsuitable materials. 3. Maximum particle size 4-inches, unless otherwise approved by ENGINEER. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Verify that area has been properly grubbed and stripped. B. Survey subgrades to receive embankment for computation of measurement and payment quantities prior to embankment operations. Payment will not be made for embankment placed on areas not surveyed. C. Locate, identify and protect all utilities and existing structures from damage. D. Provide dust control. E. Coordinate traffic control and barricades with OWNER. F. Coordinate operations and haul routes with landfill operations. G. Provide construction staking and grade control. Establish lines, grade, contours and datum. H. Protect temporary bench marks and off-set construction staking. I. Provide as-built and measurement and payment surveys in accordance with Section J. Verify HGCS layer has been properly placed and protected with geotextile separator. In areas where groundwater levels may be above embankment grades notify OWNER and provide dewatering measures as necessary to allow embankment operations to continue, grade verification, and placement of overlying soil materials CELL EXCAVATION A. Excavate as required to construct new cell. B. Correct over-excavated areas by filling and compacting per Part C. Finish areas per Section Other areas should be proof-rolled and, if to remain exposed, track-walked in preparation for hydroseeding. D. Excavation spoils should be used for embankment unless unsuitable. Unsuitable materials should go to stockpile location. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Excavation and Embankment

27 3.03 CELL EMBANKMENT A. Verify underlying geotextile separator above HGCS is complete. B. Place Cell embankments to the limits, lines and grades as shown on the Drawings. C. Moisture condition and compact all subgrades to receive embankment to a minimum 90 percent relative compaction as determined by ASTM D Note that most embankment material will likely have to be dried as it is likely well above optimum moisture content, both from the cut areas and from the existing stockpile. Contractor should plan to have a large drying pad for disking and drying soils. D. Soils for embankment coming from the stockpile shall be screened over a 4 grizzly. E. Soils for embankment coming from cell excavation shall have oversize rock kicked out with equipment and laborers during lift placement. F. The upper 4 inches of finished embankment surface below the liner shall be screened to remove rock greater than 2 inches. G. Place in loose lifts not exceeding 8-inches, except that first lift should be a minimum 12 inches to avoid damage to geotextile separator. H. Moisture condition and compact all embankment materials to a minimum 90 percent relative compaction as determined by ASTM D I. Scarify the top of each lift prior to placing subsequent lifts. J. Maintain embankment lift surfaces to prevent moisture loss and desiccation cracking. Repair desiccated areas prior to placing subsequent lifts STOCKPILES A. Create stockpiles at locations directed by Owner. B. Maximum outer stockpile slope of 2.5:1 with smooth, even surfaces that will not pond water. C. Track-walk final surface TOLERANCES A. Line feet. B. Grade feet. END SECTION EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Excavation and Embankment

28 SECTION SUBGRADE PREPARATION PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Finishing landfill subgrade. B. Final surface preparation RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Surveying. B. Section Excavation and Embankment. PART 2 PRODUCTS Not Used PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Locate, identify and protect all utilities and existing structures from damage. B. Provide dust control FINAL SURFACE PREPARATION A. The landfill cell has previously been prepared to final grades, except for a small perimeter berm shown on the Drawings. The surface was seeded, and some areas protected with plastic. B. The thin layer of grass, and the existing protective tarp, need to be removed within the new cell area. The grassy strippings should be removed as thinly as possible, and can be spread over the adjacent land. C. Although the existing surface soils should have been screened for 2-inch minus, it is possible that some rocks will be exposed during final surface preparations. Exposed rocks may need to be removed by hand, or should be flush with the final compacted subgrade surface. D. Steeldrum roll the completed surface when the soil surface is near optimum moisture content. Remove ridges, gouges and ruts greater than 1-inch. E. Remove all protrusions greater than ½ and repair area. F. Moisture condition and proof-roll completed surface as necessary. END SECTION SUBGRADE PREPARATION Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Subgrade Preparation

29 SECTION GRANULAR DRAINAGE LAYERS PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Placing and grading drainage aggregate as the leachate collection layer (2009) RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Surveying. B. Section Aggregate Production and Stockpiling. C. Section High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe. D. Section Geotextile. E. Section Geomembrane REFERENCES A. ASSHTO T11 #200 Sieve Wash of Soils and Aggregates. B. ASTM C 136 Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates. C. ASTM D 422 Particle-Size Analysis of Soils. D. ASTM D 2434 Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) SUBMITTALS (Obtained by Owner) A. Submit the following 14 days prior drainage aggregate placement operations. 1. Name and location of source pound sample (4 five-gallon buckets). 3. Gradation and permeability results. 4. List of proposed equipment and description of construction methods to place drainage aggregate over geosynthetics installations in accordance with this Section EARLY OR NIGHT HOURS PLACEMENT OPERATIONS A. Placement hours and methods of drainage aggregate operations on the geomembrane may be restricted to prevent the development of wrinkles and stress bridging of the underlying geomembrane. B. CONTRACTOR must be prepared to adjust drainage aggregate placement schedules so operations take place during cool temperature periods (e.g. early morning or night hours). Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: April 20, Granular Drainage Layers

30 C. Provide adequate illumination if early morning or night hours are necessary to place drainage aggregate. Provide a minimum of three freestanding light plants. D. Notify OWNER three days in advance of proposed schedule change for early morning or night hours placement operations QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING AND PROCEDURES A. CQA Organization may perform the following quality assurance verification testing prior to and during drainage aggregate placement operations. 1. Sieve Analysis and #200 Wash (ASTM D422, or ASTM C 136 and ASSHTO T11) to verify product gradation requirements. 2. Permeability (ASTM D 2434). 3. Visual examination and sampling to verify materials contain no oversized or other unsuitable materials. B. CQA Organization will restrict placement hours and methods to prevent the development of wrinkles and stress bridging of the underlying geomembrane. C. Cooperate fully in the performance of quality assurance verification testing and procedures. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 LEACHATE COLLECTION LAYER A. Obtained from Owner-provided stockpile near 1600 road. B. Free of organic, oversized, deleterious, or other unsuitable materials, and not gap-graded. C. Permeability equal to or greater than 1 cm/sec. D. In general meeting the gradation requirements given in Table Other gradations the meet the required permeability can be submitted to the ENGINEER for approval. E. Meeting the following gradation requirements (designed to work with 5/16 pipe perforations). U.S. SIEVE SIZE Percent Passing 1-1/4 100 ¾ ½ / No No No Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: April 20, Granular Drainage Layers

31 PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PLACEMENT - GENERAL A. Provide platformed grade control stakes at 50-foot centers and grade breaks. ENGINEER must approve alternate grade control method. B. Provide for dust control. Water haul roads several times each day and when requested by OWNER. C. Coordinate operations and haul routes with landfill operations. Maintain OWNER s access to and from operating facilities. D. Verify clearing and grubbing is complete PLACEMENT AROUND PIPES A. Place gravel next to both sides of pipe to level between the haunch and the springline(1/4 to ½ the way up the pipe). Use manual labor with wood posts to hand-tamp gravel under haunches up to springline PLACEMENT OF LCS OVER GEOMEMBRANE A. Verify underlying geomembrane and geotextile cushion installations are complete and in accordance with the technical specifications. B. When spreading layer with heavy equipment above a geomembrane, use only low ground pressure wide-tracked bulldozers for placement, spreading, and final grading operations. Maximum allowable size of bulldozer operating over a geomembrane equivalent to wide-track CAT D-6. Maintain minimum of 12 inches of gravel between dozer cleats and geomembrane. C. Provide ground-man for each piece of placement equipment spreading over a geomembrane. Do not operate equipment over the geomembrane without the presence of the ground man to look for damage and help control wrinkles. D. Construct 36-inch thick haul roads, turnouts, staging, and dump areas for all rubber tired transport vehicles and loaders operating on a geomembrane. Alternate operating equipment and haul road thickness maybe considered and allowed if approved by OWNER and ENGINEER. E. Take steps to minimize wrinkle size and generation in the geomembrane being covered. Placement of drainage material during the night time and early morning hours is the preferred and most effective method of controlling wrinkles. Wrinkles that must unavoidably be buried should be divided into smaller wrinkles by ground personnel walking them out. The wrinkles must be trapped in a near-vertical position by a ground man as it is buried by gravel, and in no case should be greater than 3 inches. Continued occurrence of buried wrinkles, even if they are less than 3 inches, is cause for a re-evaluation of the work method being used by the contractor. F. Do not make tight radius turns with track-mounted or rubber-tired equipment. Expose by hand all locations where spinning tracks or tires made have damaged underlying geosynthetics. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: April 20, Granular Drainage Layers

32 G. Provide freestanding light plants if placement operations take place at night. A minimum of 3 light plants is required. Position light plants to minimized dark areas and shadowing. H. Place in single uniform 12-inch lift to the lines and grades shown on the Drawings. I. Construct gravel windows as shown on the Drawings. J. Do not damage underlying geomembrane or geotextile cushion installations. Repair damaged geomembrane and geotextile cushion at no additional cost to OWNER. K. Match grade and provide a uniform transition with the existing drainage aggregate layer. L. Grade final surface to a tolerance so that the minimum thickness is 1.0 foot. M. Remove ridge marks and ruts greater than 1-inch. N. Remove grade control stakes or pipe elevation markers. END SECTION DRAINAGE AGGREGATE Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: April 20, Granular Drainage Layers

33 SECTION OPERATIONS LAYER PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Placing and grading operations layer material RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Geotextile. B. Section Excavation and Embankment QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING A. ENGINEER will perform the following quality assurance verification testing prior to and during soil operations layer placement operations. 1. Visual examination and sampling to verify that material contains no oversized, organic, saturated, deleterious, or other unsuitable materials. B. Cooperate with ENGINEER in the performance of quality assurance verification testing. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 OPERATIONS LAYER A. Maximum particle size 8 inches. B. Provided in stockpile near work area by Owner. Material may be mill waste. C. Soil will be used for the perimeter berm operations layer. See Section PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Note that OWNER will be conducting an electrical leak location survey on the constructed liner system. The survey will take approximately one week to complete, and must be performed after the granular drainage layer is placed, but before the operations layer can be placed. CONTRACTOR shall allow for this in the project scheduling. B. Provide platformed grade control stakes at 50-foot grid. Grade control stakes can not be driven through the geotextile filter. Alternative, GPS methods may be used. C. Provide for dust control. D. Coordinate operations and haul routes with landfill and quarry operations. E. Verify that underlying geotextile filter installation is complete and in accordance with the technical specifications. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0; 4/20/ Soil Operations Layer

34 F. Establish location, limits and alignment of areas where gravel windows will exist. These areas should be marked PLACEMENT A. Over the underlying geotextile filter, construct 24-inch thick haul roads, turnouts, staging, and dump areas for rubber tired transport vehicles. B. Use only low ground pressure wide-tracked bulldozers. Maximum allowable size of bulldozer equivalent to wide-track CAT D-6. C. Place in single uniform 12-inch lift to the lines and grades shown on the Drawings. D. Do not damage or create excessive stress on underlying geotextile filter. Repair damaged geotextile at no additional cost to OWNER. E. Match grade and provide an uniform transition with the existing soil operations layer. F. Grade final surface to a tolerance of 0.10-foot of design grade. G. Grade up to but not over gravel windows. H. Remove grade control stakes. I. Final surface will be smooth and even, with no ponding of water when tarped. Final surface must be verified by survey. END SECTION SOIL OPERATIONS LAYER Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0; 4/20/ Soil Operations Layer

35 SECTION HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) PIPE PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Installing solid high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and fittings for the following landfill cell systems inch perforated HDPE pipe, fittings, and end markers for LCS inch perforated HDPE pipe, fittings, and end markers for LCS inch solid HDPE pipe, valves, and fittings for landfill gas collection RELATED SECTIONS A. Section 0224 Drainage Aggregate B. Section Geotextile 1.02 REFERENCES A. ASTM D 638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics. B. ASTM D 790 Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials. C. ASTM D 1238 Standard Test Method for Flow Rates of Thermoplastics by Extrusion Plastometer. D. ASTM D 1248 Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials. E. ASTM D 1505 Standard Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique. F. ASTM D 1603 Standard Test Method for Carbon Black in Olefin Plastics. G. ASTM D 1693 Standard Test Method for Environmental Stress Cracking of Ethylene Plastics. H. ASTM D 2657 Practice for Heat Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings. I. ASTM D 2837 Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe Materials. J. ASTM D 3035 Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Controlled Outside Diameter. K. ASTM D 3261 Standard Specification for Butt Heat Fusion Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe and Tubing. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, May 8, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe

36 L. ASTM D 3350 Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastic Pipe and Fittings. M. ASTM F 714 Standard Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter. N. ASTM F 1248 Determination of Environmental Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR) of Polyethylene Pipe. O. NSF 14 Plastic Piping Components and Related Materials. P. PPI Plastics Pipe Insititute 1.03 SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following 14 days prior to pipe installations. 1. Product data sheets and complete description of pipe and fittings that meet or exceed the product requirements of this Section. 2. Manufacturer s certification of compliance with the product requirements of this Section. 3. Certifications of qualified HDPE pipe fusion welders that will be welding pipe during the project. 4. Shop drawings or descriptions of reducers and bifurcated fittings PIPE WELDERS QUALIFICATIONS A. All operators fusion welding pipe must be certified by the manufacturer to be technically qualified and experienced in fusion welding of HDPE pipe. B. Submit list of certified operators and certifications in accordance with Part 1.04 prior to pipe welding operations DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING A. Notify OWNER of pipe shipment deliveries. B. Unload, handle, and transport pipe with nylon or other cloth straps that do not damage the pipe. D. Separate damaged or rejected pipe as directed by OWNER. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 PIPE A. High density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. New, first quality, compounded, and manufactured specifically for producing HDPE pipe. B. Manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 3350 and ASTM F 714. C. Pipe resins listed with NSF and PPI. No mixing of different resin types during manufacturing. D. No second run or recycled materials in manufacturing, except for material generated in the manufacturer s own plant and from the same raw material resin. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, May 8, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe

37 E. Having a Specific Gravity (ASTM D 1505) greater than gm/cm 3 and less than gm/cm 3. F. Standard Dimension Ratio (SDR) pipes: SDR , 8 and 12 pipes: SDR 11 G. Pressure rating of 100 psi. H. Finished pipe free from cracks, holes (except perforations), bubbles, blisters, excessive gels, undispersed resins, undispersed carbon black, contamination by foreign materials, and nicks or cuts. I. Finished pipe uniform in color, capacity, density, and other physical properties. J. Meeting the minimum requirements specified in Table K. Example of acceptable pipe is Driscopipe 1000 series and Polaris Duratuff. L. Local pipe supplier is Famillian Inc., located in Washougal, WA. (800) TABLE HDPE Pipe Properties PROPERTY TEST METHOD MINIMUM REQUIREMENT Material Designation PPI PE3408 Material Classification ASTM D 1248 III C5 P34 Cell Classification ASTM D C Tensile Strength ASTM D 638 3,200 psi Environmental Stress Crack ASTM D % failure/5000 hrs Hydrostatic Design Basis ASTM D ,600 psi UV Stabilizer (Carbon Black Content) ASTM D to 3% Elastic Modulus ASTM D ,000 psi Brittleness Temperature ASTM D 746 < -180F Vicat Softening Temperature ASTM D 1525 > 225F Hardness ASTM D Shore D 2.02 PIPE FITTINGS A. High density polyethylene (HDPE) resin. New, first quality, compounded, and manufactured specifically for producing HDPE pipe. B. Manufactured in accordance with ASTM D 3261 and ASTM D C. Pipe fittings resins listed with NSF and PPI. No mixing of different resin types during manufacturing. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, May 8, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe

38 D. No second run or recycled materials in manufacturing, except for material generated in the manufacturer s own plant and from the same raw material resin. E. Pressure rating of 100 psi. F. Fully compatible with HDPE pipe. G. Flange backup rings, bolts, nuts and washers at sump should be 316 stainless steel. H. Provide flat neoprene gasket between all flanges and flange-adaptors where applicable. I. Where applicable, flange adaptors adjacent to butterfly valves must be SDR 17. Lower SDRvalues may produce interference with the valve discs PIPE PERFORATIONS A. LCS Pipes. 1. Perforation size 1/2 dia. Provide 4 perforations 90 apart at 6 on-center; rotate rows 45 degrees. B. Clean pipes of all hole filings and burrs. C. Gas collection pipes: Perforation size 3/4 dia. Provide 4 perforations 90 apart at 6 on-center; rotate rows 45 degrees. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Verify all surfaces are complete with underlying cushions on geomembrane, and final grades on operations layer, before placing pipes INSTALLATION A. Do not damage pipe during handling, transport, or installation operations. Remove or repair damaged pipe. B. Install pipe at locations, alignments, grades, and dimensional cross-sections shown on the Drawings. C. Correct and repair damaged or disturbed grade. D. Butt-fusion weld pipe in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions, except where modified or amended by Part E. Do not damage pipe and secure pipe from moving during backfill operations. F. Do not damage underlying geosynthetic installations during pipe operations. Repair damaged geosynthetics at no additional cost to OWNER. G. Fill over and adjacent to pipes per Section H. LCS pipes will require over-size couplings provided by Owner for connection with existing LCS pipes. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, May 8, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe

39 I. 6 gas pipe will require cutting existing pipe, fusing in two valves with flange adaptors and backup rings, and adding elbows and a tee. J. Terminate all pipes with a cap BUTT-FUSION WELDING A. Welding operations will only take place when the ambient temperature is between 40F and 110F. Prevent water from coming in contact with pipe and heater plates during welding operations. Special weather welding plans must be submitted and approved by ENGINEER to weld outside this range. B. Thermal butt or side-wall fusion weld all pipe in accordance with the manufacturer s instructions. Use correct plate temperatures, fusion pressures and cycle times for the diameter of pipe being welded. C. Use power source capable of producing sufficient and constant voltage to maintain constant heater plate surface temperatures. D. Check surface temperature of heater plate and verify gauge readings with a pyrometer (high temperature thermometer). E. Use power source capable of producing sufficient and constant voltage to maintain constant heater plate surface temperatures. F. Clean inside and outside of pipe ends to remove dirt, water, grease, and other foreign material. G. Squarely face pipe ends the facing tool of the fusion welding machine. Remove all cuttings from inside of pipe. H. Line up pipe ends in the fusion welding machine so that the pipe ends meet squarely and completely over the entire surface to be welded. Securely clamp pipe into place so that the pipe does not move during the fusion welding process. I. Clean heater plate and verify appropriate heater plate temperature. Insert heater plate between the aligned pipe ends and firmly bring the pipe ends into contact with the heater plate. NO PRESSURE should be applied to achieve the melt pattern. J. Allow the pipe ends to heat and soften. As the pipe heats and softens a melt bead begins to roll back from the contact point of the heater plate and the pipe ends. Approximate diameter sizes of melt beads for various sizes of pipe are as follows: Pipe Size 2-inch and below 3-inch to 5-inch 5-inch to 12-inch 12-inch to 22-inch 24-inch to 54-inch Diameter of Melt Bead 1/16-inch 1/8-inch 3/16-inch ¼-inch to 5/16-inch 5/16-inch to 7/16-inch K. Quickly and cleanly remove the heater plate when the appropriate melt bead is achieved. Verify that no melted pipe material sticks to the heater plate. If melted material sticks to the heater plate, discontinue this joint, clean the heater plate, re-face the pipe ends, and re-start the joint. L. Rapidly join the melted pipe ends together and apply enough pressure to the joint to form a melt bead 1/8-inch to 3/16-inch in diameter around the entire circumference of the pipe. Pressure is critical to cause the heated material of each pipe end to flow together. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, May 8, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe

40 M. Allow the joint to cool and solidify properly before the pipe is released from the fusion welding machine. Cooling and solidification is completed when the operator s finger can remain comfortably on the bead. N. Examine the joint when the pipe is released from the fusion welding machine to verify that the weld is completely around the entire circumference of the pipe. O. Remove all cuttings, shavings, debris, and dirt from interior of installed pipe SLIP JOINTS A. Provide minimum 18 inch overlap between inner and outer pipe (both sides if coupling). END SECTION HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE (HDPE) PIPE Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, May 8, High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Pipe

41 SECTION GEOTEXTILE EARTHWORK PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Installing geotextile filter over LCS drainage layer RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Granular Drainage Layer REFERENCES A. ASTM D 3786 Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Knitted Goods and Nonwoven Fabrics - Diaphragm Bursting Strength Tester Method. B. ASTM D 4355 Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles from Exposure to Ultraviolet Light and Water (Xenon-Arc Type Apparatus). C. ASTM D 4491 Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity. D. ASTM D 4533 Test Method for Trapezoid Tearing Strength of Geotextiles. E. ASTM D 4632 Standard Test Method for Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles (Grab Method). F. ASTM D 4751 Determining the Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile. G. ASTM D 4833 Test Method for Index Puncture Resistance of Geotextiles, Geomembranes, and Related Products. H. ASTM D 5261 Test Method for Mass Per Unit Area of Geotextiles SUBMITTALS (Owner will acquire from Installer) A. Submit the following 14 days prior to geotextile installations. 1. Sample, product data sheet, and complete description of geotextile filter that meet or exceed the product requirements of this Section. 2. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for geotextile filter rolls delivered to the site. At a minimum, tests specified in Part 2.01 of this Section must be included in the testing reports. 3. Sample, product data sheet, and complete description of geotextile cushion that meet or exceed the product requirements of this Section. 4. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for geotextile cushion rolls delivered to the site. At a minimum, tests specified in Part 2.02 of this Section must be included in the testing reports. 5. Instructions for storage, installation, repair, and sewing of geotextiles. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

42 6. Sample, product data sheet, and complete description of sewing thread recommended by the manufacturer to sew the geotextile SHIPMENT, HANDLING, AND STORAGE A. Ship geotextile rolls with opaque protective coverings in closed trailer. B. Unload and handle rolls with nylon or other cloth straps that do not damage the geotextile or the protective coverings. C. Store and protect rolls from damage. Replace damaged protective coverings QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING A. ENGINEER may sample geotextiles every 200,000 square feet of material delivered to the site and perform the following quality assurance verification testing to verify compliance with the product requirements of this Section. 1. Geotextile Filter. a. Mass Per Unit Area (ASTM D 5261). b. Permittivity (ASTM D 4491) c. Grab Strength (ASTM D 4632). d. AOS (ASTM D 4751). B. OWNER s acceptance of geotextiles will be based on results of quality assurance verification testing. Allow 7 days to complete testing. C. Assist ENGINEER with sampling procedures by separating selected rolls during unloading operations. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE FILTER A. Non-woven, continuous or staple-filament, needle punched, polypropylene or polyester fabric; yarn oriented into a stable network that maintains its structure during handling, placement, and long term service. Can not be heat burnished. B. Resistant to soil chemicals. C. No recycled materials. D. Meeting the following minimum average roll values (MARV) for the following properties. 1. Mass Per Unit Weight 3.8 oz/yd 2 2. Permittivity >1.5 sec Grab Strength 110 lb 4. AOS Approx No. 70 sieve Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

43 2.03 SEWING THREAD A. Polymeric thread with strength properties equal to or greater than the geotextile. B. Chemical resistant. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Verify that underlying granular drainage layer is complete and in accordance with the technical specifications prior to geotextile filter installation GEOTEXTILE PLACEMENT A. Place geotextile in accordance with manufacturer s instructions. B. Place geotextile with the machine direction (lengthwise) of the roll oriented down the slope. C. Place geotextile with sufficient tension to prevent excessive overlapping, insufficient overlapping, wrinkles, and folds. Overlap geotextile panels with sufficient material to create a prayer fold for sewing operations. D. Ballast geotextile during placement operations and leave ballast in place until geotextile is covered with the overlying cover soil layer. E. Temporary anchorage is the responsibility of CONTRACTOR. F. Remove damaged geotextile or repair by sewing GEOTEXTILE SEAMING A. All geotextile seams must be sewn unless otherwise approved by the ENGINEER. B. Overlap panels a minimum of 3-inches. C. Create prayer fold within the overlap. D. Sew prayer fold with a 401 two-thread chain stitch. E. If Owner approves overlap seams, the overlap distance shall be 18 inches and special covering techniques will be required. Also, excess geotextile used by overlaps will be responsibility of Contractor to replace if quantity runs short. END SECTION GEOTEXTILE Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

44 SECTION GEOTEXTILE INSTALLER PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Suppying and Installing geotextile cushion under LCS gravel. B. Supplying geotextile filter RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Granular Drainage Layer. B. Section Geomembrane 1.03 REFERENCES A. ASTM D 3786 Test Method for Hydraulic Bursting Strength of Knitted Goods and Nonwoven Fabrics - Diaphragm Bursting Strength Tester Method. B. ASTM D 4355 Test Method for Deterioration of Geotextiles from Exposure to Ultraviolet Light and Water (Xenon-Arc Type Apparatus). C. ASTM D 4491 Test Methods for Water Permeability of Geotextiles by Permittivity. D. ASTM D 4533 Test Method for Trapezoid Tearing Strength of Geotextiles. E. ASTM D 4632 Standard Test Method for Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles (Grab Method). F. ASTM D 4751 Determining the Apparent Opening Size of a Geotextile. G. ASTM D 4833 Test Method for Index Puncture Resistance of Geotextiles, Geomembranes, and Related Products. H. ASTM D 5261 Test Method for Mass Per Unit Area of Geotextiles SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following 14 days prior to geotextile installations (Owner s responsibility). 1. Sample, product data sheet, and complete description of geotextile filter that meet or exceed the product requirements of this Section. 2. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for geotextile filter rolls delivered to the site. At a minimum, tests specified in Part 2.01 of this Section must be included in the testing reports. 3. Sample, product data sheet, and complete description of geotextile cushion that meet or exceed the product requirements of this Section. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

45 4. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for geotextile cushion rolls delivered to the site. At a minimum, tests specified in Part 2.02 of this Section must be included in the testing reports. 5. Instructions for storage, installation, repair, and sewing of geotextiles. 6. Sample, product data sheet, and complete description of sewing thread recommended by the manufacturer to sew the geotextile SHIPMENT, HANDLING, AND STORAGE A. Ship geotextile rolls with opaque protective coverings in closed trailer. B. Unload and handle rolls with nylon or other cloth straps that do not damage the geotextile or the protective coverings. C. Store and protect rolls from damage. Replace damaged protective coverings QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING A. ENGINEER will sample geotextiles every 200,000 square feet of material delivered to the site and perform the following quality assurance verification testing to verify compliance with the product requirements of this Section. 1. Geotextile Filter. a. Mass Per Unit Area (ASTM D 5261). b. Permittivity (ASTM D 4491) c. Grab Strength (ASTM D 4632). d. AOS (ASTM D 4751). 2. Geotextile Cushion. a. Mass Per Unit Area (ASTM D 5261). b. Puncture (ASTM D 4833). B. OWNER s acceptance of geotextiles will be based on results of quality assurance verification testing. Allow 7 days to complete testing. C. Assist ENGINEER with sampling procedures by separating selected rolls during unloading operations. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 GEOTEXTILE CUSHION A. Non-woven, continuous or staple-filament, needle punched, polypropylene or polyester fabric; yarn oriented into a stable network that maintains its structure during handling, placement, and long term service. Can not be heat burnished. B. Resistant to soil chemicals. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

46 C. No recycled materials. D. Meeting the MARV for the following properties. 1. Mass Per Unit Weight 15.0 oz/yd 2 2. Puncture Force (ASTMD4833) 240 lb 3. Trap Tear (AST< D4533) 150 lb 2.02 NONWOVEN GEOTEXTILE FILTER A. Non-woven, continuous or staple-filament, needle punched, polypropylene or polyester fabric; yarn oriented into a stable network that maintains its structure during handling, placement, and long term service. Can not be heat burnished. B. Resistant to soil chemicals. C. No recycled materials. D. Meeting the following minimum average roll values (MARV) for the following properties. 1. Mass Per Unit Weight 3.8 oz/yd 2 2. Permittivity >1.5 sec Grab Strength 110 lb 4. AOS Approx No. 70 sieve 2.03 SEWING THREAD (To be supplied by Installer) A. Polymeric thread with strength properties equal to or greater than the geotextile. B. Chemical resistant. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Verify that underlying geomembrane layer is complete and in accordance with the technical specifications prior to geotextile installation. B. No rocks or other particles will be allow to be trapped between the geomembrane and geotextile GEOTEXTILE PLACEMENT A. Place geotextile in accordance with manufacturer s instructions. B. Place geotextile with the machine direction (lengthwise) of the roll oriented down the slope. C. Place geotextile with sufficient tension to prevent excessive overlapping, insufficient overlapping, wrinkles, and folds. Overlap geotextile panels with sufficient material to create a prayer fold for sewing operations. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

47 D. Ballast geotextile during placement operations and leave ballast in place until geotextile is covered with the overlying cover soil layer. E. Temporary anchorage is the responsibility of CONTRACTOR. F. Remove damaged geotextile or repair by sewing or heat bonding. G. Please extra layers of geotextile cushion in pipe troughs GEOTEXTILE SEAMING A. All geotextile seams must be sewn unless otherwise approved by the ENGINEER. Approval will be given for heat seaming of geotextile cushion if INSTALLER demonstrates proper seaming equipment will be used in a manner that does not damage geosynthetics. B. Overlap panels a minimum of 3-inches, create prayer fold within the overlap, and sew prayer fold with a 401 two-thread chain stitch. END SECTION GEOTEXTILE Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, April 20, Geotextile

48 SECTION GEOMEMBRANE PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Supplying and Installing geomembrane RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Geotextile. B. Section Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL) REFERENCES A. ASTM D 638 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics. B. ASTM D 746 Standard Test Method for Brittleness Temperature of Plastics and Elastomers by Impact. C. ASTM D 792 Standard Test Methods for Specific Gravity and Density of Plastics by Displacement. D. ASTM D 1004 Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of Plastic Film and Sheeting. E. ASTM D 1204 Standard Test Method for Linear Dimensional Changes of Nonrigid Thermoplastic Sheeting or Film at Elevated Temperature. F. ASTM D 1505 Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique. G. ASTM D 1603 Test Method for Carbon Black in Olefin Plastics. H. ASTM D 3895 Standard Test Method for Copper Induced Oxidative Induction Time of Polyolefins by Thermal Analysis. I. ASTM D 4437 Standard Practice for Determining the Integrity of Field Seams Used in Joining Flexible Polymeric Sheet Geomembranes. J. ASTM D 4833 Standard Test Method for Index Puncture of Geotextiles, Geomembranes, and Related Products. K. ASTM D5321 Standard Test Method for Determining the Coefficient of Soil and Geosynthetic or Geosynthetic Friction by the Direct Shear Method L. ASTM D 5397 Notched Constant Tensile Load Test for Geomembrane. M. ASTM D 5596 Standard Test Method for Microscopic Evaluation of the Dispersion of Carbon Black in Polyolefin Geosynthetics. N. ASTM D 5616 Standard Test Method for Multi-Axial Tension Test for Geosynthetics. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

49 O. ASTM D 5994 Standard Test Method for Measuring Core Thickness of Textured Geomembrane. P. GRI GM-12 Measurement of the Asperity Height of Textured Geomembranes Using a Depth Gage. Q. GRI GM-13 Standard Specification for Test Properties, Testing Frequency and Recommended Warranty for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Smooth and Textured Geomembranes. R. FTMS 101C Puncture Resistance MANUFACTURER SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following with Bid. 1. Sample warranty meeting requirements of Part Product data sheets and complete description of geomembrane material that meet or exceed the product requirements of Parts 2.02, 2.03, and 2.04 of this Section. B. Submit the following before geomembrane is shipped from the point of manufacture to the site. 1. Geomembrane Rolls. a. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for primary geomembrane rolls delivered to the site. At a minimum, tests specified in GRI-GM-13 and Table must be included in the testing reports. b. Certification stating that all geomembrane rolls are furnished by one supplier and that all rolls are manufactured from one resin type obtained from one resin supplier, and that material meets the requirement of this specification. c. Samples of geomembrane materials. 2. Instructions for handling, storing, installing, and repairing geomembrane. 3. Extrusion Welding Beads and Rod. a. Certificate of Compliance with product requirements of Part 2.04 of this Section. C. Submit the following after geomembrane delivery. 1. Manufacturer warranties in compliance with Part 1.06 of this Section INSTALLER SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following 14 days prior geomembrane installations. 1. Proposed Geomembrane Panel Layout Drawings. a. Drawings showing the proposed primary geomembrane panel layout and penetration details in compliance with Drawings and this Section. b. Drawings showing the proposed secondary geomembrane panel layout and penetration details in compliance with Drawings and this Section. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

50 c. Drawings showing the proposed tertiary geomembrane panel layout and penetration details in compliance with Drawings and this Section. 2. Geomembrane Installation Quality Control Manual. 3. Geomembrane Installer Qualifications. a. Resumes must include number of lineal feet of seam welded. b. Resume of geomembrane installation superintendent. c. Resume of geomembrane master welder. d. Resume of welding and quality control crew. B. Submit at the completion of the geomembrane installation. 1. Installation warranties in compliance with Part 1.06 of this Section. 2. Completed geomembrane panel layout drawings in compliance with Part 3.06 of this Section WARRANTIES A. Provide 5-year material warranty. B. Two year nonprorata installation warranties for geomembrane installations against defects QUALIFICATIONS A. The following are prequalified geomembrane manufacturers. Prequalification does not relieve the geomembrane Manufacturer or Installer of compliance with the Specifications. GSE, Inc. Gundle Road Houston, Texas (800) PolyAmerica West Marshall Drive Grand Prairie, Texas (217) B. The following are prequalified geomembrane Installers. Prequalification does not relieve the geomembrane Manufacturer or Installer of compliance with the Specifications. (to be updated) 1.08 DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING A. Owner will unload and store geomembrane deliveries prior to commencement of project. B. Notify ENGINEER of geomembrane shipment deliveries. Provide ENGINEER with copy of packing list. C. Unload, handle, transport geomembrane rolls with nylon or other cloth straps that do not damage the geomembrane rolls. D. Prepare a bedding layer surface in an area indicated by ENGINEER to store the geomembrane rolls. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

51 E. Only stack the geomembrane rolls three high. F. Leave a 3-foot wide access path between the stacked geomembrane rolls. G. Separate damaged or rejected geomembrane rolls as directed by ENGINEER QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING A. ENGINEER will sample geomembrane every 100,000 to 200,000 square feet of material, unless otherwise noted, from point of manufacture or as delivered to the site, and perform the following quality assurance verification testing to verify compliance with the product requirements of this Section. 1. Tensile Properties (ASTM D638). 2. Density (ASTM D 792 or ASTM D 1505). 3. Carbon Black Content (ASTM D 1603). 4. Carbon Black Dispersion (ASTM D 5596). 5. Sheet Thickness (ASTM D5994) 6. Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) 7. Asperity Height (GRI GM-12) (tested every 50,000 sq ft) B. CQA MONITOR will perform laboratory seam analysis approximately every 500 to 1000 lineal feet of welded geomembrane seam in accordance with Part 3.07 of this Section. OWNER s acceptance of welded geomembrane seams will be based on results of the CQA MONITOR s seam analysis. CQA Monitor will observe Installer s testing on site. C. Assist CQA MONITOR with seam analysis sampling and testing procedures by cutting samples and repairing sample locations, and performing the test at 70 deg +10 deg. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 GEOMEMBRANE A. High density polyethylene (HDPE). B. Double-sided textured. Aggressive texturing. Texture cannot be sprayed on. C. Preferred, but not required: Non-textured edges along roll length. D. Preferred, but not required: Co-extruded top white surface. Top white surface can not be laminated. White material made from the same resin as the black geomembrane. E. Materials produced in the United States or Canada. F. Meeting the specifications and MQC testing frequency stated in GRI GM-13, except as superceded or amended by Table TABLE Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

52 REQUIRED GEOMEMBRANE PROPERTIES THAT SUPERCEDE, CLARIFY, OR ARE IN ADDITION TO THOSE SPECIFIED BY GRI GM-13 MATERIAL PROPERTY TEST METHOD REQUIRED VALUE (PER GRI GM-13 UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED) Sheet Thickness (ASTM D 5994) Asperity Height (GRI GM-12) 60-mil minimum 22 mils (MARV) 2.05 EXTRUSION WELDING BEADS OR ROD A. Made from same resin as the geomembrane. B. Thoroughly disperse additives throughout beads or rod. C. Containing 2 to 3 percent carbon black. D. Free of contamination by moisture or foreign materials FIELD TESTING EQUIPMENT A. Field tensiometer capable of measuring seam strength for trial welds. Calibrated and accurate within 2 pounds. B. One-inch (width) x six-inch (length) cutting die for cutting seam specimens for testing trial welds. C. Vacuum boxes with new gaskets and capable of holding 5 psi suction with accurate gage. D. Air pressure needles and gages for testing double fusion welds capable of holding 60 psi pressure. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 EXAMINATION OF GEOMEMBRANE SURFACE A. Complete and sign Subgrade Acceptance form provided by CQA MONITOR, verifying that the surface the geomembrane will be installed on is acceptable. CQA MONITOR will also verify subgrade acceptance PREPARATION A. Prepare adequate number of sandbags to ballast the geomembrane during deployment operations. Use OWNER supplied sand to fill sandbags. B. Coordinate anchor trench excavation with Earthwork CONTRACTOR. Do not rely on anchor trenches shown on the Drawings to secure the geomembrane during construction. INSTALLER is responsible for temporary anchorage during construction. C. Prior to welding operations, prepare trial welds for each welding machine that will be used during the day. Trial welds will be prepared for both fusion and extrusion welding machines. At a minimum, trial welds will be prepared the beginning of the shift and at mid-shift. Trial weld samples for fusion welding machines will be a minimum of 6-feet in length and samples for Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

53 extrusion guns will be a minimum of 3-feet in length with the trial weld centered down the length of the sample. D. Allow trial weld to cool to ambient conditions. After cooling, cut excessive material from the beginning and the end of the trial weld sample (approximately 4-inches from each end). Using the cutting die, cut four 1-inch specimens, spaced evenly along the length of the trial weld. E. Using the field tenisometer, test the specimens for peel adhesion (peel) and bonded seam strength (shear). Alternate the specimens peel, shear, peel, shear. Peel test both sides of the weld for fusion welded samples. The rate of separation for both the peel and the shear test is 2-inch per minute. Test specimens only when the CQA Monitor is present. Each specimen must pass their respective test (peel or shear). Peel test specimens must meet all three of the following criteria: 1. The break is a film tearing bond (FTB). 2. There is no more than 10 percent peel penetration into the weld ppi for fusion seams; 78 ppi for extrusion seams Shear test specimens must meet both of the following criteria: 1. The quantitative value for elongation is a minimum of 200% during the shear test. The 200% elongation is defined by setting each grip one inch from the edge of the weld, and requiring that whatever side starts yielding first to stretch to a minimum 3-inch distance before breaking ppi F. If any of the four test specimens fail either peel or shear testing, the entire trial weld is considered failing. Repeat the above trial weld procedure and field testing if any of the four specimens fail in either peel or shear. If the trial weld repeats in failure, do not use the failing welding machine until proper adjustments are made or the machine is repaired. Repeat trial weld failures must pass two peel and shear test consecutively. If the welding machine continually fails field testing, tag and completely remove the machine from service. G. Conduct additional trial welds at mid-day, and whenever adjustments are made to the welding machines DEPLOYMENT A. Deploy panels parallel to the slope, running the panels down the entire length of the slope. Correct or make adjustments to panels that become askew to the parallel line of the slope. B. Overlap panels a minimum of 4-inches. Keep the alignment of the overlap consistent by marking overlap indicator points. C. Do not damage geomembrane during handling, transport, or deployment operations. Remove or repair damaged geomembrane. Do not drive on the geomembrane unless approved by CQA monitor with light equipment that will not cause damage. D. Do not damage underlying soil layers, GCL installation, or geotextile installation. Repair damaged soil layers, GCL installation, or geotextile installation. Any method involving driving equipment on the underlying GCL must be approved by both the ENGINEER and the GCL manufacturer in writing. In general, the drier the condition of the GCL, the more leniency will be Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

54 granted to allow equipment on the GCL. This concession also required a firm, smooth subgrade. E. When deploying textured geomembrane above a geotextile, or a GCL, always use a slip sheet to avoid snagging and weakening the geotextile fibers, or damaging the bentonite surface. F. Only deploy the quantity of geomembrane that can be completely welded and secured in one day. Securely ballast (sandbag) the geomembrane at the end of the day. If wind conditions are high use geomembrane rolls as extra ballast. INSTALLER is responsible for temporary anchorage during construction. G. Avoid excessive wrinkles and compensate for stress bridging during deployment operations. Remove and repair excessive wrinkles and stress bridging. Excessive wrinkles and stress bridging will be removed and repaired even if these conditions occur during placement operations of the succeeding soil or geosynthetic layer. H. Immediately after panels running through drainage troughs are welded, place sandbags end-toend along the entire length of the flow line to prevent geomembrane stress bridging through the drainage trough. I. Completely cover the underlying GCL installation with the primary geomembrane at the end of each day. Completely patch and extrusion weld all T-joints and other holes created as part of installation operations at the end of each day. J. Create minimum 1-foot high up-turn on perimeter as shown on the Drawings to create a bathtub effect with the geomembrane. K. Cut existing Cell geomembranes at tie-in and overlap a minimum of 4-inches. Weld new geomembranes to existing Cell geomembranes. Some cleaning, scrubbing, and grinding will be necessary FUSION WELDING A. Welding operations will only take place when the ambient temperature is between 40F and 110F. Measure ambient temperature 6-inches above the in-place geomembrane. Special weather seaming plans must be submitted and approved by ENGINEER to weld outside this range. B. Fusion weld all seams. Extrusion welding will only be used for repair and patching operations. C. Fusion welding machines must complete trial weld procedures and pass field testing as specified in Part 3.02 of this Section prior to welding operations. D. Use power source capable of producing sufficient and constant voltage under the combined line load of other welders and equipment. E. Thoroughly clean welding surface. F. Weld panels at the same speed, temperature, rollers pressure, and gauge settings used to prepare the trial weld. Adjust the above settings as temperature conditions indicate. Record welding machine number, operator, machine settings, time, and date on each seam welded. G. The total thickness of a fusion weld shall not be less than 90% of the sum of the thickness of the individual sheets being welded together EXTRUSION WELDING Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

55 A. Extrusion guns must complete trial weld procedures and pass field testing as specified in Part 3.02 of this Section prior to welding operations. B. Overlap geomembrane a minimum of 4-inches. C. Cut square repair patches with rounded corners large enough to extend a minimum of 4-inches in all directions over the repair area. D. Tack-weld geomembrane or repair patches in place to prevent movement during grinding and extrusion welding operations. E. Disc grind the outer edge of overlapped geomembrane or repair patches and the adjacent underlying geomembrane to remove surface debris and oxidation. Do not grind parallel to seam. F. Purge nozzle of extrusion gun to remove solidified extrudate. G. Completely cover the entire width of the grind area with extrusion weld. Extend extrusion safety welds 4-inches up the intersecting fusion weld (if applicable). H. Extrusion weld repair (safety) patches at all fusion welded seam intersections, and at extrusion tee intersections. I. Care shall be excercised not to overheat extrusion seams, and the CQA monitor shall observe the speed of extrusion welding and perform destructive testing on patches and tie-ins periodically QUALITY CONTROL A. General Quality Control 1. Perform all quality control procedures and testing in accordance with the Installer s Geomembrane Installation Quality Control Manual, except where amended or modified by the ENGINEER or this Section. 2. Maintain geomembrane panel layout drawings during installation. Include in the drawing; 1) roll and panel numbers; 2) seam numbers; 3) geomembrane limits; 4) anchor trench locations; and 5) seam analysis sample locations. Submit final drawing at end of project that is reproducible, neat, and drawn to scale. Show north arrow and scale-bar. B. Deployment Quality Control 1. Coordinate with CQA MONITOR in assigning panel identification and corresponding seam numbering system. 2. Maintain daily deployment logs and panel layout drawings as the deployment progresses. Record panel and seam numbers, panel dimensions, seam lengths, and deployment quantities. Submit daily logs to CQA MONITOR, and a final summary of these items at the end of the job. C. Fusion Welding Quality Control 1. Maintain daily welding logs. Record welding machine number, operator, machine settings, time, and date for each seam welded. Submit daily welding logs to CQA MONITOR. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

56 2. Air pressure test each fusion welded seam. Provide air pump capable of generating and maintaining 60 psi of pressure equipped with a regulator and pressure gauge. Provide pressure feed needles with pressure gauges accurate to 1 psi. Perform the following air pressure test procedure. a. Seal both ends of the fusion welded seam with vise-grip plate clamps or extrusion weld. Heat may be applied to the seam ends to aid in sealing the seam in conjunction with the clamps. Due to the potential hazard of igniting landfill gas, DO NOT use propane torches or any other flame producing device. b. At one end of the seam, insert air pressure needle into the fusion weld channel. c. Pressurized channel to 40 psi. Maintain pressure for 5 minutes. d. Release air from the opposite end of the seam to verified that the entire length of the fusion weld channel was pressurized. If channel does not maintain pressure with a maximum allowable pressure loss of 2 psi over the 5 minute test period or does not stabilize at all, locate defective area, isolate, and repeat air pressure test procedures in both directions from the defective area. e. Maintain air pressure test logs. Record seam numbers, beginning and ending air pressures, beginning and ending test times, lengths of tested seam, and defective areas. D. Extrusion Welding Quality Control 1. Maintain daily welding logs. Record welding machine number, operator, machine settings, time, and date. Submit daily welding logs to CQA MONITOR. 2. Vacuum test each extrusion welded repair and length of seam. Provide vacuum pump capable of generating and maintaining 30 inches of mercury equipped with a regulator and vacuum gauge. Provide vacuum box with a clean view window, and vacuum gauge accurate to 1 psi. Perform the following vacuum test procedure. a. Saturate extrusion weld with soap/water solution. b. Place view box over the saturated weld, create an air tight seal, and apply vacuum to the weld. c. Maintain vacuum for 10 seconds and examine weld for leaks. Leaks are detected by the presence of excessive bubbles. Mark detected leaks for follow up extrusion weld repair. Re-vacuum test detected leaks after repair operations to verify that the leaks were successfully repaired. d. Maintain repair logs. Assign and record repair numbers, vacuum test dates, and vacuum test results. E. Destructive Seam Analysis Sampling Procedures 1. The intent of destructive seam testing is to provide a high level of assurance that good welds are being made, without cutting holes in good welds only to repair them with inferior patches. The following procedures should be managed and observed by the CQA monitor. 2. Collect destructive seam samples 12 inches wide by 48 inches long every 500 feet on a random basis. These samples should be tested using the installer's field tensiometer, and Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

57 observed by the field CQA personnel, under temperature-controlled conditions, and tested for peel and shear. Test 5 specimens in peel and 5 in shear. All 5 out of 5 must pass. 3. The Method of Attributes may be used to lessen (or increase) the frequency of destructive testing. 4. If there is a failing test, follow the procedures described in the next Section CQA monitor maintains the right to request destructs at any location, including the tie-in seam. 6. It is unnecessary to send destructive seam samples to a 3rd party laboratory. The field tensiometer is adequate as long as it is able to apply a constant strain rate and achieve the amount of elongation required by the specifications, and ambient air temperatures are controlled to close to 70F (+ 10 degrees). Good seams can be judged by evaluating (a) the lack of peel penetration in a peel test, and (b) adequate elongation in the shear test described in 3.02.E LABORATORY SEAM ANALYSIS A. CQA Monitor will observe Installer seam analysis in the field in accordance with the following procedures. 1. Seam analysis will be performed in the field using Installer s tensiometer. 2. Seam analysis includes peel adhesion and bonded seam strength (ASTM D4437) at a temperature of 70 F In general, test seams in the morning when the temperature is stabilized. 3. Both sides of fusion welded seams will be tested for peel adhesion. B. OWNER s acceptance of welded geomembrane seams will be based on the results of fieldtested seam analyses in accordance with 3.02.E FAILED SEAM ANALYSIS PROCEDURES A. Perform the following procedures in the event of a seam analysis sample failure determined by field testing or laboratory seam analysis. 1. Track the welded seam 10-feet in both directions away from the failed seam analysis sample location. Cut a small 12-inch wide by 12-inch long sample from each location. Cut one 1-inch specimen from each end of the sample, and field test specimens for peel adhesion in accordance with Part 3.02 of this Section. If these specimens pass the field peel test, submit a 12-inch wide by 18-inch long re-test sample from both locations for laboratory seam analysis. If either of the specimens fail the field peel test at either location, continue tracking the welded seam at 10-foot intervals until specimens successfully pass the field peel tests and a sample can be submitted for laboratory seam analysis. If specimens continually fail field peel tests at 10-foot intervals, the entire seam or portion of the welded seam will be repaired at the discretion of the CQA MONITOR. 2. Repair the failed length of seam determined by field peel testing with a 18-inch wide cap strip. Extrusion weld the cap strip in accordance with Part 3.04 of this Section. Tack and extrusion welding the leading flap of the fusion welded seam is not permitted. Vacuum test extrusion welded cap strip in accordance with Part 3.05 of this Section. 3. If the re-test sample fails laboratory seam analysis, repeat the above procedures. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

58 B. Seam analysis samples will be taken from extrusion welded cap strips exceeding 100-feet in length, at the CQA MONITOR s discretion. END SECTION GEOMEMBRANE Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 9/23/ Geomembrane

59 SECTION GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINER (GCL) PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Supplying and Installing geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Geotextile. B. Section Geomembrane. C. Section Geomembrane Electric Leak Location Survey REFERENCES A. ASTM D 4632 Standard Test Method for Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles (Grab Method). B. ASTM D 5084 Standard Test Method of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter. C. ASTM D 5261 Standard Test Method for Measuring Mass Per Unit Area of Geotextiles. D. ASTM D 5321 Standard Test Method for Determining the Coefficient of Soil and Geosynthetic or Geosynthetic Friction by the Direct Shear Method. E. ASTM D 5887 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Index Flux Through Saturated GCL Specimens Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter. F. ASTM D 5888 Standard Guide for Storage and Handling of GCLs. G. ASTM D 5890 Standard Test Method for Swell Index of Clay Mineral Component of GCLs. H. ASTM D 5891 Standard Test Method for Fluid Loss of Clay Mineral Component of GCLs. I. ASTM D 5993 Standard Test Method for Mass Per Unit Area of GCLs. J. ASTM D 6072 Standard Guide for Obtaining Samples of GCLs. K. ASTM D6102 Standard Guide for Installation of GCLs. L. ASTM D6243 Test Method for Determining Internal and Interface Shear Resistance of Geosynthetic Clay Liner by the Direct Shear Method 1.04 SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following with Bid. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

60 1. Product data sheet, and complete description of GCL that meet or exceed the product requirements of Part 2.04 of this Section. B. Submit the following before GCL is shipped from the point of manufacture to the site. 1. Base Bentonite. a. Certificate of Compliance with bentonite product requirements of Part 2.01 of this Section. b. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for bentonite delivered to the GCL manufacturer. At a minimum, bentonite tests specified in Table of this Section must be included in the testing reports. 2. Geotextile Component. a. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for geotextile rolls delivered to the GCL manufacturer. At a minimum, geotextile tests specified in Table of this Section must be included in the testing reports. 3. GCL Rolls. a. Manufacturer s quality control testing reports for GCL rolls delivered to the site. At a minimum, GCL tests specified in Table of this Section must be included in the testing reports. b. Instructions for handling, storing, installing, and repairing GCL. 4. GCL Installation Quality Control Manual QUALIFICATIONS A. The following are prequalified GCL manufacturers. Prequalification does not relieve the GCL Manufacturer or Installer of compliance with the Specifications. Product tradenames are in parenthesis. Colloid Environmental Technologies Company (CETCO) 1500 West Shure Drive Arlington Heights, IL (708) (Bentomat ) GSE, Inc. Gundle Road Houston, Texas (800) SHIPMENT, DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING A. Ship GCL rolls with waterproof opaque protective coverings in closed trailer. B. Notify ENGINEER of GCL shipment deliveries. Provide ENGINEER with copy of packing list. C. Unload, handle and transport rolls with nylon or other cloth straps that do not damage the GCL or the protective coverings, in strict accordance with manufacturers instructions. D. Store GCL rolls on prepared bedding layer surface that meets subgrade requirements and is well drained. Cover GCL rolls with plastic sheeting. Ballast plastic sheeting. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

61 E. Protect rolls from damage. Replace damaged protective coverings. F. Only stack the GCL rolls three high. G. Leave a 3-foot wide access path between the stacked GCL rolls. H. Separate damaged or rejected GCL rolls as directed by ENGINEER. I. Fork lifts shall not be allowed for moving rolls. Rolls shall be moved either with a core bar and spreader bar, or with a carpet pole. The carpet pole shall be of adequate length to penetrate the entire roll so that the end of the roll is not cantilevered and subject to breaking the core QUALITY ASSURANCE VERIFICATION TESTING A. ENGINEER will sample material every 100,000 to 200,000 square feet of material, from point of manufacture or as delivered to the site, and will perform the following quality assurance verification testing to verify compliance with the product requirements of this Section. 1. Bentonite Mass Per Unit Area (ASTM D 0% moisture content) and Moisture Content. 2. Permeability (ASTM D 5084) and / or Index Flux (ASTM D5887). 3. Peel Strength (ASTM D 4632). B. Coordinate with ENGINEER for point of manufacture sampling or assist ENGINEER with sampling procedures at the site by separating selected rolls during unloading operations. C. OWNER s acceptance of the GCL will be based on results of quality assurance verification testing. Allow 7 days to complete testing. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 GCL BASE BENTONITE A. Greater than 80 percent sodium montmorillonite clay. B. Granular form. C. Meeting the product requirements specified in Table SEAMING BENTONITE A. Granular form. B. Meeting the base bentonite product requirements specified in Table UPPER AND LOWER GEOTEXTILES A. Non-woven, continuous or staple-filament, needle punched, polypropylene or polyester fabric; yarn oriented into a stable network that maintains its structure during handling, placement, and long term service. B. Resistant to soil chemicals. C. No recycled materials. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

62 D. Meeting the minimum average roll values (MARV) specified in Table GCL A. Bentonite granules, containing no adhesives, supported by individual geotextiles on the upper and lower surfaces that are needle punched throughout or stitch-bonded to form a stable composite. B. Rolls marked with continuous, water-proof laplines and matchlines offset 6 inches from the edge of the rolls. C. Supplied on center-cores that can fully support the weight of the GCL without bending or buckling. D. Meeting the minimum average roll values (MARV) specified in Table TABLE GCL PROPERTIES Material Property Test Method Minimum Requirement MQC (1) Testing Frequency Base Bentonite Free Swell ASTM D ml/2g (min.) 1 per 50 tons Fluid Loss ASTM D ml (max.) 1 per 50 tons Upper and Lower (2) Geotextiles Mass Per Unit Area ASTM D oz/yd 2 1 per 200,000 ft 2 GCL (2) Grab Strength MD ASTM D lb 1 per 200,000 ft 2 Peel Strength Bentonite Mass Per Unit Area ASTM D 4632 (also provide test results for ASTM D6496) ASTM D 0% moisture content 35 lb/4-inch 1 per 50,000 ft lb/ft 2 1 per 50,000 ft 2 Bentonite Moisture Content ASTM D 5993 <35% when installed 1 per 50,000 ft 2 Index Flux (3) ASTM D x 10-8 m 3 /m 2 /sec 1 per job lot Peak Internal Shear Strength ASTM D degrees 1 per job lot Parameter (4) Interface Shear Strength with Geomembrane See section Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

63 (1) Manufacturing Quality Control. (2) Minimum valves for geotextiles and GCL are Minimum Average Roll Valves (MARV). (3) This index-flux value is equivalent to a permeability of 5x10-9 cm/sec for a bentonite thickness of 3 mm. (4) Internal shear strength shall be determined at normal stresses of 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, and 16,000 psf. Samples shall be soaked under 1 psi normal stress for 24 hours, consolidated for 24 hours under test normal stress, and sheared at 0.04 in/min by Engineer-approved laboratory (Vector Engrg; SGI; TRI; or Geotesting Express). PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 EXAMINATION OF GCL SURFACE A. Complete and sign Subgrade Acceptance form provided by ENGINEER, verifying that the surface that the GCL will be installed on is acceptable. ENGINEER will also verify that underlying geosynthetic installations are completed in accordance with the technical specifications PREPARATION A. INSTALLER is responsible for temporary anchorage during construction DEPLOYMENT A. Deploy panels parallel to the slope, running the panels down the entire length of the slope. Correct or make adjustments to panels that become askew to the parallel line of the slope. B. Overlap panels such that a minimum of 6-inches along the length (sides) and a minimum of 12- inches along the width (ends) of the panels will be in place at the time of covering the geomembrane with gravel. Overlap panels placed in drainage troughs a minimum of 12-inches in all directions. Keep the alignment of the overlap consistent against the lapline printed on the GCL. C. Do not damage GCL during handling, transport, or deployment operations. Remove or repair damaged GCL. D. Do not damage the underlying geosynthetic installations. Repair damaged geosynthetic installations. E. Avoid wrinkles during deployment operations. Remove and repair wrinkles. Wrinkles will be removed and repaired even if these conditions occur during placement operations of succeeding geosynthetic layers. F. Protect GCL from becoming excessively hydrated (rain). GCL with moisture content greater than 80 percent may be required to be removed at INSTALLER S expense. G. Only deploy the quantity of GCL that can be completely covered by the overlying primary geomembrane and secured in one day. Securely anchor the GCL and primary geomembrane at the end of the day. If wind conditions are high use geomembrane rolls as extra ballast during deployment. INSTALLER is responsible for temporary anchorage during construction SEAMING A. Overlap panels such that a minimum of 6-inches along the length (sides) and a minimum of 12- inches along the width (ends) of the panels will be in place at the time of covering the geomembrane with gravel. Overlap panels placed in drainage troughs a minimum of 12-inches in all directions. Keep the alignment of the overlap consistent against the lapline printed on the GCL. Overlap new GCL on existing GCL at tie-in a minimum of 12 inches. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

64 B. All overlapped panels will be augmented with seaming bentonite unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. C. Clean overlaps. D. Place seaming bentonite within the overlapped panels at a rate of 4 ounces per lineal foot. E. All overlapped seams are to be heat-tacked using a quick pass of a flame torch followed by quick application of a pressure such as roller, foot pressure, or other means REPAIRS A. Repair holes or tears by patching. B. Extend patch 12-inches beyond the edges of the hole or tear. C. Place seaming bentonite within the overlapped patch at a rate of 4 ounces per lineal foot. All overlapped patches must be augmented with seaming bentonite QUALITY CONTROL (performed by the Installer) A. Perform all quality control procedures and testing in accordance with GCL Installation Quality Control Manual, except where amended or modified by the ENGINEER or this Section. B. Continually inspect the installation surface and remove materials that could damage the GCL or adversely effect the hydraulic conductivity of the GLC. C. Continually inspect the GCL panels and overlaps for damage, needles, thin areas, excessively hydrated areas and other items that could damage the GCL or adversely effect the hydraulic conductivity of the GLC ACCEPTANCE A. INSTALLER retains ownership and responsibility of GCL until acceptance by OWNER. B. OWNER accepts GCL installation when: 1. GCL installation is complete and covered with the completed geomembrane installation. 2. All required documentation (Part 1.05; Submittals) from the GCL manufacturer and INSTALLER is received and accepted. 3. All required testing reports from the GCL manufacturer and INSTALLER is received and accepted. 4. All required CQA testing is complete and accepted. END SECTION GEOSYHTHETIC CLAY LINER (GCL) Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0, 4/20/ Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)

65 SECTION GEOMEMBRANE ELECTRIC LEAK LOCATION SURVEY PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION INCLUDES A. The geomembrane shall be surveyed by Owner using the dipole electrical leak location method (ASTM D-7007) to detect for the presence of leaks due to damage to the geomembrane after the placement of the gravel drainage layer. This procedure may cause a construction delay of up to 5 working days between the placement of the gravel and placement of the operations layer. The CONTRACTOR shall account for this in his schedule. B. A third party consultant will be hired under a separate contract with the OWNER to perform the geomembrane electric leak location (ELL) testing. The CONTRACTOR shall provide support to the ELL consultant as described within this Section RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Granular Drainage Layers. B. Section Geotextile. C. Section Geomembrane. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 Not applicable. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.1 PREPARATION AND SUPPORT A. The CONTRACTOR is responsible for preparing the landfill for the ELL surveys. The preparation consists of, but is not limited to, the following: 1. Provide the ELL consultant the liner installation schedule via the OWNER S construction management. 3. Contractor to provide stable source of 115 VAC, 60 Hz, 500 kva electrical power at the edge of the cell (generator). 4. At the time of the ELL survey, the perimeter of the lined area must show exposed geomembrane so that the gravel surface will not electrically short to the surrounding subgrade soil. Therefore, the CONTRACTOR will make provisions for removing access roads, or using geomembrane flaps, where these roads are used for construction. 5. Provide water, water truck and driver, and wet the survey area prior to and during the dipole survey to ensure that there is adequate moisture in the gravel layer for the dipole leak detection testing. To detect a leak, moisture must exist in the leak and be in contact with material above and below the liner. Therefore, the gravel layer must be wetted with water immediately prior to conducting the leak detection survey. In order to achieve uniform moisture distribution, the CONTRACTOR shall add water as Technical Specifications Section Revision Geomembrane Leak Detection Testing

66 the ELL survey progresses across the cell. A water truck must be available at all times as it may be necessary to wet the surface just in advance of the survey. 6. The CONTRACTOR shall uncover (hand shovel), expose and any leaks detected for repair by the INSTALLER in accordance with the Specifications. 3.2 DIPOLE LEAK LOCATION SURVEY A. The dipole leak detection survey shall be performed after the placement of the gravel drainage layer. B. The ELL consultant is responsible for calibrating all equipment utilized to achieve optimum data quality and sensitivity for the site conditions. This will require digging up the gravel, cutting holes or installing artificial leaks, burying the leaks, and uncovering the leaks again. The CONTRACTOR shall provide laborers to assist in this duty. C. All work shall be performed in accordance with current industry and ASTM standards. D. Manual measurements shall be made to verify leak signals and to pinpoint the leak positions on top of gravel layer for excavation while the survey personnel are on site. The CONTRACTOR s laborers shall hand excavate possible leak locations to expose the liner. E. Additional manual measurements should be made to guide the CONTRACTOR s personnel while they excavate the leak, if required. F. Leak locations shall be logged, visibly marked, and reported for repair. The CONTRACTOR shall repair all leaks identified during the leak detection survey. G. The ELL consultant shall report the general results of the survey to the Lead CQA Monitor, CONTRACTOR and OWNER during the daily progress of the field work. H. Prior to the demobilization of the survey personnel from the site, the ELL consultant shall submit a list of locations of the leaks detected to the Lead CQA Monitor, OWNER, CONTRACTOR and INSTALLER. I. The ELL consultant shall be remobilized (if necessary) to retest areas of severe damage where smaller leaks may have been masked by strong signals. Any new leaks shall be marked and repaired immediately. END OF SECTION Technical Specifications Section Revision Geomembrane Leak Detection Testing

67 SECTION PLYWOOD COVER PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Furnishing and installing plywood cover along geomembrane termination RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Geotextile. PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 PLYWOOD A. 5/8-inch thick. 4-feet by 8-feet. B. CDX plywood (mill reject). C. Check with OWNER for possible source at time of procurement. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 INSTALLATION A. Install plywood cover to dimensional cross-sections and at locations shown on the Drawings. B. Place plywood sheets end to end. Do not overlap. END SECTION PLYWOOD COVER Technical Specifications Section Rev. 0: 4/20/ Plywood Cover

68 SECTION UPDATED HYDROSEEDING PART 1 GENERAL 1.01 SECTION SUMMARY A. Hydroseeding disturbed and stockpile areas. Hydroseeding materials include seed, fertilizer, mulch, and tackifier RELATED SECTIONS A. Section Temporary Erosion and Sediment Control 1.03 SUBMITTALS A. Submit the following 21 days prior to hydroseeding operations. 1. Product data sheet and 1-lb. sample of seed mix. 2. Product data sheet and 1-lb. sample of fertilizer. 3. Product data sheet and 0.5-lb. sample of mulch. 4. Product data sheet for tackifier. 5. Certifications that seed mix is free of noxious seed HYDROSEEDING WINDOW A. Complete hydroseeding between September 15 and October 15, PART 2 PRODUCTS 2.01 SEED MIX A. 40% Perennial Rye 40% Red Fescue 10% Redtop Bentgrass 10% White Dutch Clover B. Certified free of noxious seed. C. Apply at a rate of 120 lbs per acre MULCH A. Degradable green-dyed wood cellulose fiber for hydromulching. B. Apply at a rate of 2,000 lbs per acre TACKIFIER A. Derived natural organic plant sources containing no growth or germination inhibiting materials. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 1, June 25, Hydroseeding

69 B. Hydrate in water and readily blend with other slurry materials. C. Apply at a rate of 45 lbs. per acre WATER D. Obtain from onsite filling station FERTILIZER A. Soluble form that permits complete suspension of insoluble particles in water, suitable for application by power sprayer. B N-P-K ratio. C. Apply at a rate of 520 lbs per acre where 135 lbs is Nitrogen (N) with 50% Duration Slow- Release; 60 lbs is Phosphoric Acid (P), 60 lbs is Soluble Potash (K), and the balance is filler HYDROSEEDING EQUIPMENT A. Hydroseeder that utilizes water as carrying agent and maintains continuous agitation of seed mix. B. Hydroseeder with operating capacity sufficient to agitate, suspend, and mix specified products into a homogeneous slurry. C. Distribution and discharge lines large enough to prevent clogging. D. Spray nozzles which provide a uniform distribution of slurry. PART 3 EXECUTION 3.01 PREPARATION AND EXAMINATION A. Notify OWNER 2 days prior to hydroseeding operations B. Verify areas and stockpiles to receive hydroseed are graded and track-walked with dozer cleats perpendicular to the grade and slope. C. Verify hydroseed areas are not damaged by construction activity. Correct damaged areas at no additional cost to the OWNER. D. Coordinate hydroseeding operations with landfill operations. E. Do not hydroseed when winds affect the distribution of seed application. F. Do not hydroseed when the ground is frozen, excessively wet, or otherwise unsuitable APPLICATION RATES A. Given in Part HYDROSEED APPLICATION A. Achieve uniform visible coat distributed over entire hydromulch-seeding areas in specified proportions. Technical Specifications Section Rev. 1, June 25, Hydroseeding

70 B. Do not drive hydroseeding equipment on completed areas. C. Hand seed where hydroseeding is impractical or is inaccessible to equipment CLEANING AND REPAIR A. Remove excess material and waste from site. B. Repair damaged areas at no additional cost to Owner WARRANTY AND ACCEPTANCE A. Completed areas will be inspected after hyroseeding operations. Completed areas will conditionally accepted based on compliance with specified materials, application rates, execution, and maintenance. Conditional acceptance will be by individual area. B. All completed areas must be guaranteed for one year from the date of conditional acceptance to be in healthy, stable, and flourishing condition. C. At the end of the one-year warranty period, OWNER and CONTRACTOR will perform additional inspection of completed areas. D. Repair and/or replace defective areas noted. END SECTION HYDROSEEDING Technical Specifications Section Rev. 1, June 25, Hydroseeding

71 Engineering Report: Appendix G Volume 3 Example CQA Manual COWLITZ COUNTY HEADQUARTERS LANDFILL PROJECT COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON

72

73 CONSTRUCTION QUALITY ASSURANCE (CQA) MANUAL GENERIC CELL CONSTRUCTION COWLITZ COUNTY HEADQUARTERS LANDFILL PROJECT COWLITZ COUNTY, WASHINGTON Prepared for COWLITZ COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS October 2011 Prepared by PO Box 1010 Oregon House, CA (530)

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