GEOSYNTHETICS IN TRANSPORTATION

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1 Presented to 64th Annual School for Highway Superintendents By L. David Suits, Executive Director, North American Geosynthetics Society GEOSYNTHETICS IN TRANSPORTATION

2 OVERVIEW OF PRESENTATION Introduction Brief Historical Perspective Overview of Geosynthetics ti in Transportation ti Overview of Manufacturing of Geosynthetics Applications of Geosynthetics in Transportation Specifications Discussion/Questions

3 INTRODUCTION L. David Suits Retired, NYSDOT Geotechnical Engineering Bureau Soil Mechanics Laboratory Supervisor Responsible for all soil foundation design testing Responsible for testing and approval of geosynthetics for use on NYSDOT Projects Past chair of ASTM International Committee D35 on Geosynthetics Current chair of ISO Committee TC 21 on Geosynthetics TRB Activities Past chair of following: Subsurface Drainage Committee Geosynthetic Committee Soil Mechjanics Section Design and Construction Group AASHTO Activities TF 25 Developed AASHTO Specification M-288 for Geosynthetics Past chair the AASHTO NTPEP Geosynthetics Panel Currently: Executive Director of NAGS Adjunct Professor at RPI FHWA/NHI Geosynthetics Course Instructor

4 NORTH AMERICAN GEOSYNTHETICVS SOCIETY The mission of NAGS is to provide leadership in advancing the education and research of geosynthetics, in strong cooperation with IGS, via the following ways: Organization of and participation in technical conferences, seminars and workshops. Development and dissemination of tools for geosynthetics education. Recognition of technical contributions and innovations regarding geosynthetics. Stimulation of geosynthetics research and their applications through the NAGS Awards of Excellence Program.

5 NORTH AMERICAN GEOSYNTHETICS SOCIETY Individual Member Society (230 +) Academia Industry Consultants Geosynthetic Suppliers Others

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12 Geotextiles Geogrids Geomembranes Geonets GCLS Geowebs. Geocomposites Geodrains Geomeshs Geosynthetic erosion control mats and blankets

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17 MANUFACTURING OVERVIEW Geotextiles Non-woven Woven Geogrids Biaxiali Uni-axial

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25 SEPARATION

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28 Fines Migration/Pumping HMA Base Subgrade

29 AGGREGATE PENETRATION HMA Base Subgrade

30 Stabilization

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32 Base Reinforcement

33 BASE REINFORCEMENT APPLICATION A C BASE GEOSYNTHETIC SUBGRADE Structural t component Impacts operational life of roadway Contrasted against subgrade stabilizationation

34 APPLICATIONS OF REINFORCED EMBANKMENTS OVER SOFT FOUNDATION SOILS New embankments Embankment widening i Temporary construction access OVER LOCAL ANOMALIES

35 SOFT FOUNDATIONS

36 NEW EMBANKMENTS SCDOT Project

37 EMBANKMENT WIDENING

38 REINFORCED SOIL SLOPES Improve stability for steepened slopes Improve stability for slope repair Compaction aids

39 APPLICATIONS

40 Steepened Slope to stay out of wetlands

41 Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls (MSEW)

42 MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH STRUCTURES (MSEW)

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44 THE FOUNDERS MEADOWS STRUCTURE (I-25, EXIT 184)

45 GEOSYNTHETICS FOR IMPROVED DRAINAGE

46 APPLICATIONS IN PAVEMENT DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Geotextile filters for edge drains and underdrains Geocomposite vertical edge drain

47 APPLICATIONS IN PAVEMENT DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Geotextile til separation/filter for free draining base and/or subbase layers Geocomposite horizontal drainage layers (to replace or augment free draining base)

48 PAVEMENT OVERLAYS Lesson 16

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50 GEOTEXTILES FUNCTIONS Moisture Barrier Stress-Relieving Interlayer

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53 SILT FENCES

54 TURBIDITY CURTAIN

55 NYS DOT SPECIFICATION FOR GEOTEXTILES Must be on the Approved List Applications Separation Stabilization Drainage Slope Protection Bedding Silt Fence Turbidity Curtain

56 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Separation

57 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Stabilization

58 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Drainage/ Filtration

59 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Slope Protection (Erosion Control)

60 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Bedding

61 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Silt Fence

62 NYS DOT EXAMPLES Turbidity Curtain

63 NYS DOT APPROVED LIST Basis for Acceptance Must be tested through the AASHTO National Transportation Product Evaluation Program NYS DOT Geotechnical Engineering Bureau, Soil Mechanics Laboratory the testing lab of the program. Material Requirements Based on AASHTO M-288 Specification for Geotextiles Detailed explanation available at: repository/directive.pdf All testing per ASTM Standards

64 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS General Strength Requirements 1 Property Geotextile Class 2 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Elongation Elongation Elongation Elongation Elongation Elongation < 50% > 50% < 50% > 50% < 50% > 50% Grab Str. 315 lbf lbf 247 lbf 157 lbf 180 lbf 112 lbf Tear Str. 112 lbf 79 lbf 90 lbf 4 56 lbf 67 lbf 40 lbf Puncture 112 lbf 79 lbf 90 lbf 56 lbf 67 lbf 40 lbf 1 Values are minimum average value for specimens tested. 2 Class of geotextile required for specific applications is designated in the application tables which follow (Tables 2-8). 3 Soft Conversion: 1lb = 4.45 N 4 For woven monofilament geotextiles the minimum average value is 250 N (56 lbs).

65 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

66 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

67 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

68 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

69 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

70 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

71 NYS DOT REQUIREMENTS

72 NYS DOT APPROVED LIST Go to NYS DOT WEB

73 NYS DOT SUBMISSION PROTOCOL As stated before, must go through the AASHTO- NTPEP process Application made by the manufacturer to AASHTO for testing NYS DOT notified of application Arranges for samples to be taken by a DOT representative in the State where the plant is located Sample sent to NYS DOT Geotechnical Engineering Bureau

74 NYS DOT SUBMISSION/APPROVAL PROTOCOL NTPEP process (cont) NYS DOT Lab tests according to AASHTO Specification M-288, with addition of Mass/unit area test Geosynthetic Research Institute Accrdited Manufacturer notified of test results May challenge result and ask for re-test Once manufacturer satisfied with results, they are published through AASHTO-NTPEP for use by all State DOTs(Not all states use them however.) NYS DOT reviews results and approves/disapproves as per previous requirements

75 PROJECT PROTOCOL Review of material received at the project site Ensure that product designation agrees with Approved List If visually the same as the material tested, accepted for that project If one or both of the criteria above isn t met, rejected Sample also sent to Lab for QA testing

76 RESOURCES Numerous Conference Proceedings through IFAI Two Journals Geotextiles til and Geomembranes Geosynthetics International Free electronic subscription with NAGS membership Text Books Designing with Geosynthetics 5 th Edition; Dr. Robert Koerner Geosynthetic Engineering Drs. Robert Holtz, Barry Christopher, Ryan Berg FHWA/NHI Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines

77 QUESTIONS/DISCUSSION THANK YOU NAGS WEBSITE: nags-igs.org Dave Suits contact:

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