Jurnal Fikrah Jilid 8, Special Issue 1, , 2017

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1 Jurnal Fikrah Jilid 8, Special Issue 1, , 2017 The Role of the Management Method of Endowments on the Supply of the Required Land of Mashhad Municipality A Case Study of the Mashhad City Comprehensive Plan Hojjatallah Shariat Madari Corresponding Author, Ph.D. candidate, Faculty of Geography Abolfazl Entezari Ph.D. candidate, Faculty of Geography Baratali Khakpour Assistant Proof, Department of Urban and geography, Mashhad Ferdowsi University, Iran ABSTRACT Endowment is a good tradition that has long existed in various forms in human history and Islam has put it in a clear, logical, targeted, progressive and precise path. (Amid, third edition) The population of Mashhad's metropolis has grown up increasingly during the past 50 years and consequently the increasing urban area in this period has required the systematic urban management within the framework of urban plans. On the other hand, the special conditions of this metropolis in terms of ownership status of the endowment lands with a share of 43% of the urban lands have made the Astan Quds Razavi as the guardian of the maintenance, conservation and management of these lands to play a special role in accompanying the urban managers in order to realize the above plans. Therefore, in this article, we try to compare the amount of major uses realized on the basis of the last comprehensive urban planning plan (Mehrazan plan) and the ratio of each of them to the urban lands and lands of the endowment. In this article the participation rate of Astan Quds Razavi to realize the above plans will be discussed and finally, a solution will be presented on how the Astan Quds Razavi Available at : ISSN Pusat Pemikiran dan Kefahaman Islam (CITU) 449

2 Jurnal Fikrah interacts with the urban managers in order to exploit the land and provide the sustainable development of the city as well as to expand the social justice. Keywords: Astan Quds Razavi, urban development plan, urban management Introduction Considering the role of the city of Mashhad as the second metropolis of the country and the presence of the shrine of the eighth Imam of Shiites, the Samen al-hajj Ali ibn Musa al-reza (AS) and turning this metropolis into the spiritual capital of the country, on the other hand, the special attention of the Shiite world to this city has led to a significant upward trend in the population growth, taking into account the increase of pilgrims and neighbors, and the consequent development of the city. Therefore, the subject of urban management and the systematic guidance of this growth and development within the framework of urban development plans was discussed as an inevitable main issue in order to establish and distribute the balanced and harmonized types of land uses and observe their levels in order to establish the social justice in the city. In Mashhad, the special situation of this metropolis due to the ownership of the urban land and the significant contribution of its area to Imam Reza's endowment, has caused Astan Quds Razavi has a special role and influence in helping to the urban management. In this paper, we tried to investigate the extent of realization of the latest development plan (comprehensive) of Mashhad city (Mehrzan, ) and the levels of urban use has compared in two parts of land with private or public ownership and lands with the endowed ownership, so the role of Astan Quds Razavi in line with the organs and institutions of urban management has been investigated. STUDY OF CHANGES IN MASHHAD DURING 50 YEARS The Mashhad metropolis with a population of in 2006 has always faced the ascending trend of population changes during the 50-year period. Since 1956, the population of 2,000,000 people in the city has increased with a growth rate of 5.5% to in In addition, the population of the city continued its upward trend with a growth rate of 5% and reached 667,800 in This incremental trend of urban population changes continued in the next two decades, with a growth rate of 13.8% in 1986, the highest growth rate in the last 50 years, and reach to 1.463,000,000 people and in the decade , with a growth rate of 2.6, increased to 1.887,000,

3 THE ROLE OF THE MANAGEMENT METHOD OF ENDOWMENTS ON THE SUPPLY OF THE REQUIRED LANDS Table 1: Annual population growth during Population Growth rate(%) Source: Iran Statistics center, 2011 Graph 1: Annual population growth during Source: Iran Statistics center, 2011 Following this increasing population trend, Mashhad city has been expanding its spatial and diverse activities in order to meet the needs of residents and pilgrims. Since 1956, the area of hectares has been significantly expanded to 30,000 hectares in This horizontal extension of the city, indicates the sensitivity of the view of how to use the urban development plans to make optimal use of land as an non-renewable asset. As mentioned above, the area of the city increased from hectares in 1956 with a growth of 200 percent to hectares in However, this increase was accompanied by population changes with a faster trend, so that the area of the city increased from hectares in 1976 to hectares in 1986 and reached to hectares in Table 2: Increasing the area of Mashhad City during Area ( hectare)) Increasing rate (%)) Source: Farnahad Counselor,

4 Jurnal Fikrah Graph 2: Increasing the area of Mashhad City during OVERVIEW OF THE URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS IN MASHHAD It is passed about half a century since the beginning of the preparation of urban development plans in order to plan the structured urban development and create the favorable conditions for the proper distribution of the land uses quantitatively and qualitatively with the goal of the access of all citizens in Iran. Plans for development and civilization, or the same comprehensive urban plans, are among these projects, which are provided by consultants and specialists with a great deal of time and money. Mashhad has been in the process of adopting two comprehensive urban development plans until spring (Segheh Eslami: 2010) The third comprehensive Plan of Mashhad has recently been approved by the Housing and Infrastructure Committee of the province. The studies of first comprehensive plan in Mashhad (Capacitive comprehensive Plan) began in 1968 and, it was approved by the Supreme Council of Urban Planning and Architecture in The area of the city in the project was 170 km 2 for a population of 1.5 million. (The same source) Fig 1: The map of First Comprehensive plan 050

5 THE ROLE OF THE MANAGEMENT METHOD OF ENDOWMENTS ON THE SUPPLY OF THE REQUIRED LANDS Studies of the second master plan (Mehrazan comprehensive plan) started in 1988, and it was approved by the Supreme Council of Urban Planning and Architecture in 1993, and its horizon is planned for The scope of the project is projected to be 270 km 2 in a year, with a population of 4.5 million. (The same source) The problems in the previous comprehensive plan and the lack of a detailed plan for the whole city made it possible to start a new comprehensive master plan for Mashhad with a structural and strategic approach by the Farnahad consultant. (The same source) SURVEYING THE LEVELS OF REALIZED LAND USES IN MASHHAD CITY BASED ON THE MEHAZAN COMPREHENSIVE PLAN IN 2011 Among the most widely used uses in the comprehensive plans are residential, commercial, educational, health and medical, administrative, police, cultural, religious, sporting, transportation, storage facilities, urban facilities and equipment (Ziari: 2002) According to the laws of the 150th and 6th session of the Second Islamic Council of Mashhad, dated , the urban uses has been divided into five main groups including profit, semi-profit, bases, semi-nonprofits and nonprofits. The table is below: Nonprofits Green space Garden Agricultural Table 3: Urban uses categories based on the economic aspect Semi-nonprofits Sporting Cultural Parking Basis Residential Facilities Higher education Urban facilities Source : Mashhad Islamic Council, 2006 Semi-nonprofits Health Sporting Administrative Storage Nonprofits Commercial Residential According to the above table, the value and cost of land and services and the urban utilities is significantly reduced from the first group (profitable) to the latter group, ie, non-profit; in other words, it can be expressed that in one hand, the greatest economic benefit from the profits use for the owners and, on the other hand, the most charges of the above categories will be achieved for the municipality as a semi-private sector. With regard to non-profit properties due to their specific characteristics, they need to be maintained, and, of course, the need for urban spaces will cost a lot to owners and less charges for the municipality. Accordingly, and considering the results of the survey on the realized percentage of the uses of the above mentioned types in the metropolitan area of Mashhad in 053

6 Education administrative Transportation & storage gardens Urban facilities commercial residential health Cultural & religious Green space sport Jurnal Fikrah accordance with the latest comprehensive urban planning plan (master plan), the share of each major use is described in the table below.: Table 4: the share of each major use based on the comprehensive plan of Mashhad of all urban lands in 2011 Uses types Source : Farnahad, % of total urban lands Fig 2: The map of the realized major uses based on Mehrazan Comprehensive Plan, 2011, Source: Municipality Studies Institute, 2011 THE POSITION OF ASTAN QUDS RAZAVI AND THE WAY OF LAND MANAGEMENT IN THE CITY OF MASHHAD As mentioned above, an endowment is a good tradition that has existed in various forms in human history for a long time and Islam has made it in clear, logical, purposeful, progressive and precise path. In the metropolitan area of Mashhad, the endowment lands of Imam Reza (AS) occupy an area of over 43% of the total urban land belonging to the Astan Quds Razavi as a trustee of the endowment and the type of its exploitation is managed under the urban management. As mentioned above, considering the special conditions of Mashhad metropolis in terms of land ownership, Astan Quds Razavi has played a special role in coordination and co-operation with urban managers in various organizations in 050

7 Education administrative Transportation & storage gardens Urban facilities commercial residential health Cultural & religious Green space sport THE ROLE OF THE MANAGEMENT METHOD OF ENDOWMENTS ON THE SUPPLY OF THE REQUIRED LANDS order to implement and perform the urban development projects; as long as this organization has been active, continuous and effective on urban issues in the provincial working groups and commissions (Khorasan Razavi). Based on this view and the emphasis on management of Astan Quds Razavi on compliance with city codes and laws of urban development plans in the lands of the endowment, which spread almost throughout the city of Mashhad, the feasibility and conditions have been greatly increased for the realization of urban projects. The below table shows the amount of endowed land shares from urban utilities in terms of realized land uses in accordance with the Mehrazan comprehensive plan in the status quo of the endowed urban land: Table 5: Share of the realized major uses based on the comprehensive plan of Mashhad in the endowed land and its comparison to the all urban lands in 2011 Uses types % of total lands According to the above table, residential use with a share of 34% of endowment lands has the highest amount of land area and following the transport and storage with 12.9% of the total land of the endowment in second rank. By comparing Tables 4 and 5, the share of each land use in urban areas, as well as the share of each of the similar uses, was observed in the endowed lands. The above table shows the higher proportion of each major service use, including educational, administrative, transportation and storage, gardens, facilities and equipment, urban amenities, and green spaces is dedicated to the lands of the endowment than the ratio of each of the similar uses in the urban land. Urban consumption, while the proportion of commercial use to the total land area of the endowment is approximately 50% less than the proportion of this use in urban lands. 055

8 Jurnal Fikrah CONCLUSION Based on the figures provided, the proportion of the share of each urban uses, including profit, semi-profit and... on the lands with the endowment ownership of the Astan Quds Razavi and other properties. A: In terms of profit use, such as residential, which account for 32.4% of the urban land, it should beincluded 13.9% of the endowed lands, which is currently equal to 14.6% of the total endowed land area, which this can be attributed to the share of Astan Quds Razavi's to the residential issue. On the other hand, for business use, which accounts for 1.8% of urban land, only 0.7% of this use is located in endowment lands, which, of course, is also a matter of precaution. B. For semi-profit and nonprofit uses intended solely for the provision of services to the city and citizens, including the use of gardens, which accounts for 3.6% of the urban land, more than 2.8% of this use located in the lands of the endowment, which in comparison to 1.5% share of the endowment lands is about twice as large, which indicates the Astan Quds Razavi's attention to the health, beauty and vitality of the city. Finally, regarding this category of uses, it is important to point out that at present, from 14.8% of non-profit and non-profit shares in the city, about 10.7%, or in other words, more than 70% of these uses are located in the lands with endowment ownership, which this subject to be considered wall. With regard to the above, and comparing the proportion of each use in the city, it is clear that the high share of semi-nonprofit and non-profitable uses, which mostly includes service use and the public use, is located in the lands of the endowment. In other words, these figures indicate that Astan Quds Razavi has always tried to keep away from the economic point of view, for the proper exploitation of land, observance of the rules and regulations of approved projects, and especially the appropriate distribution of the Urban utilization levels in consistent with urban managers. On the other hand, one of the realities of urban physical development is the agreement and interaction with landlords for land acquisition and implementation of projects, which sometimes involve considerable time and cost, it seems that the constructive interaction of Astan Quds Razavi to the urban managers aims to create the desired space, including types of use, with the aim of expanding social justice throughout the city, as well as creating a special and suitable potential in city. On the other hand, urban managers will be able to provide the opportunity to create the right opportunity to participate in the development of this metropolitan area and, using this potential, take a step forward a boom in urban development. 059

9 THE ROLE OF THE MANAGEMENT METHOD OF ENDOWMENTS ON THE SUPPLY OF THE REQUIRED LANDS REFERENCES Amid Dictionary, Endowement word, third edition Farnadeh Engineering Engineers (2007) Summary of the Report of Mashhad Urban Complex Project, Housing and Urban Development Organization of Khorasan Razavi Province. Mehrzan Consulting Engineers (1993) Development & Civil Project and Influencing Area of Mashhad, Housing and Urban Development Organization of Khorasan Razavi Province. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development (1355), Comprehensive Master Plan. Reviewing the experiences of the preparation and implementation of urban development projects in Iran, Sharmand Consulting Engineers, 1999, Center for Urban Planning Studies, Office of Planning and Development. Sharahi al-islam, 1, 4th edition. The study of the growth and expansion of Mashhad city in contemporary period, Dr. Amid al-islam Imam Ali-Eslami, 2010, Tagh Pub Urban land use planning, Dr. Karamat Allah Ziyari, 2002, Yazd University. 058

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