511 - RIP RAP - OPSS 511 ROCK PROTECTION - OPSS 511 GRAVEL SHEETING - OPSS 511 GEOTEXTILE - OPSS 511

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1 OPSS 511 ROCK PROTECTION - OPSS 511 GRAVEL SHEETING - OPSS 511 GEOTEXTILE - OPSS GENERAL Rip Rap Rock Protection Excavation for placing Rip Rap, Rock Protection and Gravel Sheeting is part of each individual tender item. Rip rap is a special application of rock protection. It consists of rocks, broken rocks, cobbles, stones, boulders or concrete debris placed together in a set and stable manner to a specified thickness for the protection of earth slopes and surfaces. It is used in areas where erosion is a problem or anticipated, or where the appearance of the placed rocks is an important factor. Areas of Rip Rap applications may include: a) Earth slopes b) Culvert and sewer ends c) Streambeds and slopes d) Ditches with gradients 5% and greater e) Around manholes, catch basins or ditch inlets constructed in ditches or on ditch slopes. Rip rap is commonly used in conjunction with a filter medium such as geotextile or gravel sheeting. These prevent loss of fines from beneath the rip rap and subsequent collapse of the protection scheme. Rock protection consists of broken rocks, rocks, cobbles, boulders and/or concrete debris dumped or placed in random but stable manner. The primary use of rock protection is to protect ditches and channels from erosion, including the banks and underwater portions. Rock protection is laid to a specified depth and elevation and commonly placed in conjunction with a filter medium B511-1

2 Gravel Sheeting Gravel sheeting consists of a surface layer of granular material which has to conform to a specified gradation. It is used for erosion protection and also applied in areas of ground water seepage. The decision to include "Gravel Sheeting" into the contract rests with the Regional Geotechnical Section Geotextile Geotextile is a synthetic fabric. The prime function of this material is: (a) (b) (c) (d) To separate two types of soils of different sizes and structures which would readily mix under the influence of load and water migration. To filter or to hold back soil particles while allowing the passage of water. To drain or to ensure the rapid removal of moisture without buildup of hydrostatic pressures. To reinforce mainly by tensile strength of fabrics and their resistance to puncture (burst), tear and shear forces. The term "filter cloth" in conjunction with Geotextile is used for woven filter fabrics. The prime characteristic of filter cloth is the uniformity of size and frequency of openings. The term "mat" is used for non-woven fabrics in which the water must pass through channels instead of holes. Typical applications of Geotextile Fabric are: - Under rip rap - Under rock protection - Under gravel sheeting - Under fill on soft foundations - With french drains - Behind gabions The application of Geotextile is designated by its: 1. Strength class (i.e. Class I or II) 2. Fabric structure (woven or non-woven) B511-2

3 3. Equivalent opening size 4. Minimum nominal thickness The decision to place Geotextile on a contract is the responsibility of the Regional Geotechnical Section. If surface conditions, on which geotextile will be placed, are such that it is not possible to place the geotextile in a reasonably level manner (undulating ground or high water level) a levelling layer of approved material shall be placed to provide a satisfactory surface. In the case of a high water level, the levelling layer shall be placed to provide 0.3 m of freeboard above the swamp water level Reference Publication Tender Items 1. A comprehensive write-up on the use of Geotextiles is contained in the MTO publication "The Geotechnical use of Filter Fabrics in Highway Construction" Report EM-13 and Engineering Geotextiles Report EM Various aspects of the above tender items are discussed in the MTO Drainage Manual in Chapters: C-(Channels), D-(Culverts), G-(Subdrainage) and I-(Bridges). - Rip Rap - Rock Protection - Gravel Sheeting - Geotextile Specifications Special Provisions Standard Drawings The requirements for the above tender items are covered by OPSS 511. The designer should refer to Chapter "E" of this manual to review the applicable special provisions. A non-standard special provision must be included to advise the Contractor of a specific class of geotextile to be used on a contract. Rip Rap treatment with Geotextile for Ditch Inlet Manholes and for Sewer and Culvert Outlets is identified on the standard drawings in the 800 series B511-3

4 There are no standard drawings available for Rock Protection and Gravel Sheeting. However, a typical application of Rock Protection is illustrated in the Structural Manual, drawing number SS COMPUTATION These are Plan Quantity Payment items Source of Information Construction recommendations for the above tender items are found in the Geotechnical Report as prepared by the Regional Geotechnical Section. The need for the application of Geotextiles with any of the associated tender items should be reviewed with the Geotechnical Section and should not be included automatically Method of Calculation 1. Rip Rap B511-4 The unit of measurement for Rip Rap is square metre. The areas recommended for Rip Rap are scaled from the plans. Slope measurements are to be scaled from cross-sections. The computation of the area is based on the width times length. 2. Rock Protection The unit of measurement for Rock Protection is cubic metre. The computation of the volume for Rock Protection is based on the area (average width times length) times the recommended depth. Areas and slope measurements are scaled from cross sections. 3. Gravel Sheeting 4. Geotextile The unit of measurement for Gravel Sheeting is square metre. The depth of Gravel to be applied, the depth of excavation required, and the possible use of geotextile are determined by the Regional Geotechnical Section. Gravel Sheeting does not require compaction. Slope measurements are scaled from cross-sections. The unit of measurement for Geotextile is square metre. Slope measurements are to be scaled from cross-sections. The computation of

5 the area is based on the width times length. No allowance is made for material overlap DOCUMENTATION Areas for the above tender items are shown on the construction plan sheets. Typical sections are to be included on the drawings to clarify complex applications. The depth of Gravel Sheeting and Rock Protection is identified on either a typical section or on the Quantities Sheet. Quantities for Gravel Sheeting and Geotextile are listed on any Miscellaneous Quantities sheet. Quantities for Rip Rap and Rock Protection are listed on the Quantities 1 or Quantities 2 sheet. Quantity entries for each tender item are totalled. These totals are the tender totals and are transfered to the tender documentation DOCUMENTATION ACCURACY Stations and quantity entries are recorded to the nearest whole number metre. Offsets are recorded in 0.1 of a metre B511-5

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