HORTSCIENCE 49(7):

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HORTSCIENCE 49(7):"

Transcription

1 HORTSCIENCE 49(7): Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture for Rapid Propagation of Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) Using Immature Cuttings Fucheng Shan 1 and Kevin Seaton Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Irrigated Agriculture Innovaton, 3 Baron-Hay Court, South Perth, WA 6151, Australia Additional index words. immature single-node, Merlot, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, rooting, Savagnin, Tempranillo, Verdejo Abstract. Rapid expansion of grapevine plantings in many parts of the world has led to increased demand for desirable planting stocks. In countries that rely on importing new varieties and have strict quarantine rules, such as Australia, vines need to stay under quarantine for 2 years before they are released, at which time there is very limited wood available. Hence, rapid expansion of propagating stock after release is the key to multiplying up new varieties. A novel method, referred to as Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture (SSTC) using immature single-node, was established and evaluated as a way of rapid expansion of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) planting stock. In the SSTC method, immature single-node were surface-sterilized using methylated spirits and then cultured in the root pulsing medium [1/2 Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 40 mm indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)] for 24 hours. They were then planted in sterilized aerobic rooting medium (sphagnum peat:coarse river sand:perlite = 0.5:1:2) and cultured in a tissue culture room for 4 weeks for root initiation and development. The rooted immature single-node were then transferred to normal propagation beds in a greenhouse and potted on for acclimatization. Tube stock generated by SSTC easily acclimatized with a 15 times higher root strike rate than cutting propagation. It also took at least 50% less time than fully sterilized micropropagation methods to produce planting stocks. The advantages of the SSTC method are that it can be conducted under semisterilized conditions, avoiding degeneration and bacterial contamination problems encountered in micropropagation methods. By removing the time-consuming steps of the explant establishment, proliferation, and maintenance in vitro, the propagation process was simplified compared with conventional sterile tissue culture procedures. The SSTC procedure removed the need for high operator skill levels, reducing expense and allowing easier commercial adoption. Increasing international market demand for wine and grapes has resulted in expanded plantings in many parts of the world. One consequence in some countries has been a shortfall in desirable planting stocks. This is especially true where the industry is based on imported cultivars such as in New Zealand, South Africa, Chile, India, China, and Australia with strict quarantine regulations governing the importation of grapevines. The Australian wine and grape industry has developed and greatly benefited from Received for publication 9 Apr Accepted for publication 5 May We thank the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, for the resources through which this work was conducted. In particular, we thank Chris McMullan and George Morris for potting up and looking after the rooted vines, Jan Hooper for media preparation and help in the laboratory, Mario D Antuono for help with statistical analysis, and Georgina Wilson for proofreading of the manuscript. We are also grateful to the WA grape industry for supply of clonal material, particularly Neil Delroy, Director of Agribusiness Research and Management, Western Australia. 1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed; selection of imported clonal material suited to particular Australian wine grape-growing areas (Dry, 2004). Having new clones available as quickly as possible and being able to multiply these new varieties up for further propagation to supply growers is critical to keeping Australia at the cutting edge of varietal development. However, Australia has strict quarantine rules, which require imported to be held under quarantine for 2 years until they pass virus indexing (Anonymous, 2013). Grapevine virus indexing is a process of visual disease screening when the imported dormant are rooted and grown in closed quarantine facilities at government post-entry quarantine establishments. On release from quarantine, very limited cane material is available for. Consequently, it takes several years to obtain sufficient material to build up numbers sufficient to establish new planting blocks using traditional propagation procedures. Traditional propagation methods, involving the establishment of mother vines from which dormant are taken for rooting or bench grafting, are relatively slow and not suited to rapid multiplication for commercial cultivation for newly released cultivars (Singh et al., 2004). Mother vines are generally planted from dormant rootlings or potted plants. Commercial-scale numbers of are not produced from mother vines for at least 3 years depending on the variety (Walker and Golino, 1999). Mist propagation of herbaceous has been practiced for rapid propagation of grapevines (California Association of Winegrape Growers, 1998). This method involves collecting multiple green and rooting them under mist. Warmth, humidity, and light are critical for success with this technique. The work best with at least two nodes and two lateral buds. The maturity is critical for rooting. Very young or greatly lignified often fail to root (Walker and Golino, 1999). Semimature partially lignified are required for this method. This method provides a possibility to use immature for propagation; however, the multiplication rate could be improved if single-node immature could be used and if both the semimature partially lignified and softer could be used. In vitro micropropagation is an economically feasible method for rapid multiplication of desirable plant genotypes (Gray and Fisher, 1985; Murashige, 1974; Read, 2007) and has been suggested as a means of propagating scarce or hard-to-propagate planting stock of grape clones and varieties (Gray and Fisher, 1985; Lee and Wetzstein, 1990; Lewandowski, 1991; Singh et al., 2004; Walker and Golino, 1999). From the 1970s to early 1990s, success was reported in vitro multiplication in grapes using different explants such as shoot apices, axillary bud, meristem, etc. (Barlass and Skene, 1978; Gray and Benton, 1991; Harris and Stevenson, 1982; Novak and Juvova, 1983), but the commercial aspect was not worked out in most cases with problems of vitrification of many small shoots and callus formation at the base of the cultures (Singh et al., 2004). Later, grape plantlet multiplication was achieved through axillary shoot proliferation using protocols developed in muscadine grapes (Thies and Graves, 1992; Torregrossa and Bouguet, 1995) and in V. vinifera grapes (Mhatre et al., 2000), but this technique was not reproducible when commercially tested (Singh et al., 2004). In the 2000s, a technique of rapid in vitro multiplication of V. vinifera L. cultivars was developed, which enabled fast multiplication of thousands of plantlets per annum (Singh et al., 2004). In our micropropagation of the imported grape variety Pinot Gris, to improve rooting in micro harvested from in vitro culture, we modified the micropropagation protocol by changing the conventional agar rooting medium to an aerobic rooting medium, an autoclaved propagation mix composed of sphagnum, peat, coarse sand, and perlite (Newell et al., 2003, 2005). Using this technique, more than 2000 rooted vines of Pinot Gris were produced within 2 years from limited material from mother vines (Shan and Seaton, 2007). Although the micropropagation technique is straightforward (Monette, 1988), except for an established infrastructure, it needs practiced skills requiring substantial HORTSCIENCE VOL. 49(7) JULY

2 amounts of time and labor (Walker and Golino, 1999). In addition, during our micropropagation of Pinot Gris and other varieties such as Merlot 181, it was observed that in vitro explants would easily turn yellow and die after a couple of subcultures. This problem has also been reported on micropropagation of V. vinifera L. cv. Napoleón (Ibáñez et al., 2003). Other considerations of this method are control of plant-associated bacterial contamination and the labor required for frequent (often at 2-week intervals) subculturing. Rapid propagation can significantly speed up supply of a large amount of planting stock and offer large economic advantages (Walker and Golino, 1999). Therefore, development of rapid propagation techniques may offer a solution to improvement in grapevine propagation where scarce stock plant material is available such as plants received through quarantine. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel technique termed SSTC for fast propagation of planting stocks of imported grapevines using immature single-node from limited source material. Central to this technique was the elimination of the need for explants initiation and in vitro maintenance as required by micropropagation tissue culture protocols and the need for multinodal by use of single fresh nodes as compared with ex vivo propagation techniques. Materials and Method Plant materials and preparation All the plant propagation materials were maintained in pots in a greenhouse at the Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, South Perth. The grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) tested in experiments were sourced from plants that had passed through quarantine after importation by the wine industry. A total of 10 genotypes of wine grapes (V. vinifera L.) were tested: Verdejo clone; Pinot Gris clone; Pinot Noir clone; Tempranillo clone A; Tempranillo clone B; Tempranillo clone C; Tempranillo clone D; Tempranillo clone E; Merlot clone; and a Savagnin clone. Immature single-node cutting preparation Young shoots of 2 to 6 mm thickness in diameter were harvested from mother plants. Shoots were cut into 3 to 4 cm long single node and leaves removed. For the from the terminal shoot tip of a cane, one to two very small leaves remained intact. Experiments Experiments consisted of: 1) establishment of SSTC method; 2) comparison on rooting effect between propagation and SSTC method; and 3) application of SSTC protocol to different genotypes. Expt. 1: Establishment of SSTC method. The genotype Verdejo clone was used in this experiment. The SSTC method involved surface sterilization of immature single-node, root pulsing, root development, and acclimatization. Surface sterilization. The immature single-node were immersed in 0.1% Tween 80 (Rowe Scientific Pty. Ltd.) and shaken for 2 min and rinsed under running tap water for 30 min. Then three different sterilization treatments of deionized (DI) water (control), 70% methylated spirits, and 70% methylated spirits followed by 0.5% chlorine treatment were tested for effectiveness (Table 1). The experiment was a completely randomized design with a minimum 10 per treatment replicated three times. Root pulsing. After sterilization, the immature single-node were inserted base first in root pulsing medium to a depth of 15 mm and then kept in the dark at 20 C for 24 h. The root pulsing medium was halfstrength MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) with 10 g L 1 sucrose and 8 g L 1 grade J3 powdered agar (Gelita Australia Pty. Ltd.) with ph adjusted to 6.5 before autoclaving and supplemented with 40 mm IBA. Root development. After root pulsing, immature single-node were planted in sterilized punnets ( cm) containing an aerobic rooting medium made by autoclaving a propagation mix composed of sphagnum peat, coarse river sand (1 to 3 mm diameter), and perlite (horticulture-grade, P500, large grain) in a ratio of 0.5:1:2 with a pre-autoclave ph of 6. Punnets were put in a clean non-sterilized food container (under sterile conditions) and placed in a culture room maintained at a constant temperature of 22 C with a 16-h photoperiod at 1 light intensity of 50 mmol m 2 s for 4 weeks until roots developed (Newell et al., 2003, 2005). After 4 weeks, the immature single-node were assessed for rooting rate, quality, death, and contamination rate. Rooted vine acclimatization. Punnets with rooted immature single-node were placed in a nursery tray and transferred onto a sand propagation bed with bottom heated to 24 to 26 C. Clouch covers (wet muslin cloth) were placed over the sand beds holding the plant punnets to maintain humidity while reducing excessive water being deposited on. In the propagation house, a misting system was programmed to come on every few minutes to maintain a damp film on the clouch covers. Humidity was maintained at 80% under the clouch covers. The rooted remained there for 15 to 20 d, and 5 to 7 d before moving, the were potted up using a mix of polystyrene grist: perlite:peat = 1:1:0.5 to 1 in tree tubes (12 cm long). The tube potted vines were then moved off the propagation bed into the greenhouse under 50% living shade. The vines were considered ready for delivery after17to25dwhentheywere15to20cm long with five to seven fully expanded leaves as shown in Figure 1. Statistical analysis and best protocol determination. A generalized linear model was applied assuming binomial distribution of data (i.e., immature single-node rooted/total number of immature single-node tested) to compare the treatments (Payne, 2010). Analysis of variance was conducted and t tests were used to compare against the control using GenStat for Windows, Edition 16 (< DI water was used as a control, to which other treatments were compared. The best protocol was determined in Expt. 1 and used in subsequent experiments as the established SSTC method. Expt. 2: Comparison of rooting effect between propagation and SSTC method. A total of 40 immature single-node of Tempranillo clone A were used for propagation. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design with 10 immature single-node per treatment replicated four times. Immature single-node were dipped in 3 g L 1 Clonex rooting hormone gel (Growth Technology, Western Australia) and planted in propagation potting mix (polystyrene grist: perlite:peat = 1:1:0.5 to 1) contained in plant punnets. The punnets were put into a nursery tray and placed on sand propagation beds with the bottom heated to 24 to 26 C. The propagation beds were covered with a clouch, which was kept damp to provide a highhumidity environment. These beds were in a mist house, which had a 75% of living shade. The established SSTC method was used as a control. A total of 40 immature single-node of Tempranillo clone A were used with four replicates of 10 Table 1. Sterilization treatments of Verdejo clone immature single-node. replicates treated Treatment description DI water (control) 3 34 Rinsed with sterilized deionized (DI) water 4 to 5 times and then planted into root pulsing medium Methylated spirits 3 33 Immersed in 70% methylated spirits (Diggers, Australia) and shaken for 30 s, rinsed with sterilized DI water 4 to 5 times, and then planted into root pulsing medium Methylated spirits + chlorine 3 45 Immersed in 70% methylated spirits and shaken for 30 s followed with immersing in 0.5% liquid pool chlorine (Premier Chlor, Australia) and shaken for 20 min, during which vacuum once for 1 min, rinsed with sterilized DI water 4 to 5 times, and then planted into rooting pulsing medium 950 HORTSCIENCE VOL. 49(7) JULY 2014

3 immature single-node per replicate. Rooting rate, quality, and rotting/death rate were recorded 3 weeks after treatments. Statistical analysis. A generalized linear model was applied assuming binomial distribution of data (e.g., number of rooted/total number of tested) to compare the treatments (Payne, 2010). Analysis of variance was conducted and t tests were used to compare with the control using GenStat for Windows, Edition 16 (< The SSTC method was used as a control, to which the propagation method was compared. Expt. 3: Application of SSTC protocol to other genotypes. The SSTC method was applied to a total of 887 immature singlenode for 10 genotypes. The experiment was laid out in a complete randomized design with approximately one-third of the total number of immature single-node per treatment replicated three times. Eighty-five immature single-node from the Verdejo clone were used as a control. Other were 80 immature singlenode from Pinot Gris ; 83 from Pinot Noir ; 96 from Tempranillo clone A; 128 from Tempranillo clone B; 96 from Tempranillo clone C; 95 from Tempranillo clone D; 70 from Tempranillo clone E; 30 from Merlot clone; and 124 from Savagnin clone. Rooting rate, quality, death rate, and contamination rate were measured 4 weeks after treatments. Statistical analysis. A generalized linear model was applied assuming binomial distribution of data (e.g., number of rooted/total number of tested) to compare the treatments (Payne, 2010). Analysis of variance was conducted and t tests were used to compare with the control using GenStat for Windows, Edition 16 (< The Verdejo clone was used as a control, against which other varieties/clones were compared. Results SSTC method development. In Expt. 1, immature single-node formed roots 4 weeks after treatments (Table 2), but rooting rates differed. The best treatment was 70% methylated spirits and shaken for 30 s with the highest rooting percentage of 90% and relative low death and contamination rate. Rinsing with DI water had slightly lower rooting rate, higher death, and contamination rates than the 70% methylated spirits treatment although not significant at the 5% level. Seventy percent methylated spirits shaken for 30 s plus immersion in 0.5% liquid pool chlorine and shaken for 20 min did not alleviate contamination compared with the treatments of DI water or 70% methylated spirits. The cutting death rate was more than five times higher than treatment of DI water and more than eight times higher (P < 0.05) than that with 70% methylated spirits leading to a significantly (P < 0.05) lower rooting rate of 46.7% (Table 2). Methylated spirits plus chlorine treatment was found to retard root formation with 1 week for the first rooting observed compared with the methylated sprits or DI water treatment (data not shown). Four weeks after putting onto rooting medium was long enough for root development in grape immature singlenode. In the methylated spirits plus chlorine treatment, it needed 1 or 2 more weeks for root development in grape immature single-node before being transferred to a propagation bed. Root quality was similar in the treatments of DI water and methylated spirits, which was much better than in the methylated spirits plus chlorine treatment (Table 2). The protocol with 70% methylated spirits and shaken for 30 s proved to be the best procedure in establishing the SSTC method. The whole cycle of propagation (the period from an immature single-node cutting preparation to the point where rooted vines were ready for delivery) took 59 to 80 d. The procedure of the SSTC method is briefly described in Figure 2. Comparison of rooting effect between propagation and SSTC method. The average rooting rate in the SSTC method was 82.5%, which was more than 16 times higher than in the propagation method (Table 3). The low rooting rate in the propagation was caused by rotting and death of immature single-node. Although a few immature singlenode struck roots in the propagation, root quality was poor (Table 3; Fig. 3). In addition, the rooted immature single-node in the propagation method often were partially rotten at cutting ends. In comparison, the root quality of SSTC produced was robust as showninfigure3. Application of SSTC method. The established SSTC method based on the Verdejo clone was universally applied to all the genotypes tested in Expt. 3 (Table 4). Compared with the Verdejo clone, all the other genotypes had similar (P < 0.05) rooting quality with rooting rates ranging from 80% to 93.8%. Contamination was low or non-existent. The position in a vine where immature single-node was collected affected rooting performance. Most immature single-node from vine tips were dead and almost all nodal immature singlenode survived. Discussion The most important aspect of a rapid propagation system is its ability to quickly provide relatively large amounts of planting stock to grape growers (Walker and Golino, 1999). The established SSTC method met Table 2. Rooting performance of the Verdejo clone immature single-node (4 weeks after treatment). tested rooted Number of dead contaminated Means of rooted (%) ± SE Means of death (%) ± SE Means of contamination (%) ± SE Root Treatments quality z Deionized water (control) ± ± ± 0.43 Methylated spirits ± 4.54 NS 6.1 ± 0.26 NS 3.0 ± 0.09 NS Methylated spirits + chlorine ± 3.46** 51.1 ± 3.83*** 2.2 ± 0.05 NS z Grade 1 to 5 from poor to good in terms of root number and lengths: 1 = started to root, 1 or 2 roots can be seen; 5 = sufficient quality roots are present for plants to be ready for nursery. A generalized linear model to the binomial data to compare the treatments. Approximate t tests were used to compare against the control using GenStat for Windows. The deionized water treatment was used as control, to which the other treatments were compared. NS Nonsignificant; *significant at 5% level; **significant at 1% level; ***significant at 0.1% level. Table 3. Rooting performance of Tempranillo clone A immature single-node (3 weeks after treatment). Treatments tested rooted Root quality z dead Means of rooted (%) ± SE Means of death (%) SSTC ± Cuttings propagation method ± 0.17*** 95 z Grade 1 to 5 from poor to good in terms of root number and lengths: 1 = started to root, 1 or 2 roots can be seen; 5 = sufficient quality roots are present for plants to be ready for nursery. A generalized linear model to the binomial data to compare the treatments. Approximate t tests were used to compare against the control using GenStat for Windows. SSTC was used as a control, to which the propagation method was compared. ***Significant at 0.1% level. SSTC = Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture. HORTSCIENCE VOL. 49(7) JULY

4 this requirement and was established over a number of varieties as suitable for bulking up source materials quickly from limited mother vines. It only took 2 months from the preparation to availability to the propagators/ growers in the SSTC method as shown in Figure 2, whereas it takes 3 months (Singh et al., 2004) to 6 months (Mhatre et al., 2000) in reported micropropagation techniques involving explant initiation to the point ready for transferring planting out in the field. The immature single-node were much thicker than used in vitro micro from Fig. 1. Seedlings of Tempranillo clone A ready for delivery, propagated by Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture (SSTC). Fig. 2. Diagram of stages of the Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture (SSTC) propagation process (number of days listed applies to the spring and summer seasons in Perth, Australia). Fig. 3. Rooting performance of Tempranillo clone A in Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture (SSTC) and comparison with propagation method. (A) Rooted immature single-node 21 d after treatment in the SSTC method; (B) rooted and dead immature single-node 21 d after planting in propagation potting mix in the propagation method. comparisons with previous experience using micropropagation techniques on grapevines, giving the immature single-node more accumulated carbohydrates available for use in root strike and growth processes (Gordon, 2009; Read, 2007). As a result, this may have allowed the immature single-node to generate roots more easily taking less time to grow to the desired size as shown in Figure 1. Significant time was also saved in the SSTC method by excluding explants initiation, in vitro establishment, and proliferation, which are mandatory in the micropropagation method. In the SSTC method, the sterilization requirement was not as strict as in micropropagation, which made this method easy to operate. In micropropagation, 100% of sterilization of is required, whereas in the SSTC method, the explants (immature one-node ) did not have to be 100% sterilized, which appeared to have little effect on the ability to root because of the short time in culture. There was also the added advantage that single nodal were healthier as a result of not suffering damage from chlorine as used in stricter sterilization procedures. In the SSTC method, the sterilization needed to be sufficient to remove pathogens but not too severe to damage tissues causing rotting and death or affecting root formation in immature. If sterilization was too light, contamination of explants would be severe resulting in a lower successful rate as a result of explants being destroyed such as in the DI water treatment in Expt. 1. If too harsh, explants would die resulting in lower rooting rate such as in the treatment of methylated spirits plus chlorine in Expt. 1 (Table 2). In addition, the treatment that included a chlorine solution retarded root formation. The contamination rate in Expt. 1 was generally low. There was no significant improvement in the treatment with methylated spirits plus chlorine compared with the treatment with methylated spirits only in Expt. 1, indicating that treatment with bleach was not necessary in controlling contamination in the SSTC method. Immature one-node used in the SSTC method were sourced from potted plants in the glasshouse where the pathogen population was generally low. Light sterilization was sufficient, having the advantage of producing robust growth and rooting ability. If the were to be sourced from the plants in an open field, a harsh sterilization procedure would be considered as a result of their exposure to more potential pathogens. The SSTC procedure developed simplifies propagation by removal of explant initiation, in vitro establishment, multiplication, and maintenance like in the micropropagation method. This is less demanding of high tissue culture expertise and skills. In addition, the new technique avoided the degeneration and bacterial contamination problems occurring in the tissue culture process because explant initiation and maintenance were no longer required. The simplified technique was less expensive and 952 HORTSCIENCE VOL. 49(7) JULY 2014

5 easy to adopt as a commercial propagation approach. Immature single-node were used for propagation in the SSTC method, which improved cutting yield from cutting material. In the mist propagation, herbaceous with at least two nodes and two lateral buds had to be used (Walker and Golino, 1999). This efficiency was critical when source material was limited such as for grapevines released from quarantine. Because immature single-node failed to root and were of poor quality, the propagation method could not be effectively used. One of the possible reasons why the tender immature single-node failed was because they could not tolerate the high moisture in the potting mix and high humidity, which has been found to have an important role in green propagation when using herbaceous such as in mist propagation (Walker and Golino, 1999). Micropropagation is a tried and tested approach to achieve a high multiplication rate in some vines. To achieve this, addition of cytokinins to the culture medium was essential for culture initiation (Singh et al., 2004) and for the sprouting and formation of multiple shoots (Ibáñez et al., 2003) in vinifera cultivars. Good proliferation rates were achieved by applying cytokinins at high concentrations ranging from 5 to mm 6- benzylamino purine (BAP) or 6-benzyladenine (Gray and Fisher, 1985; Heloir et al., 1997; Ibáñez et al., 2003; Mhatre et al., 2000; Singh et al., 2004). During micropropagation of Pinot Gris, supplementation of 5 mm BAP led to two to three shoots generated per explant per subculture. However, further transfers beyond two to three subcultures induced vitrification and degeneration of the in vitro explants (data not shown). This has also been reported by other researchers (Heloir et al., 1997; Ibáñez et al., 2003). The SSTC method is advantageous because it minimizes the in vitro handling procedure and avoids the problems associated with tissue culture. Good root quality is important for micro survival after being deflasked (de Fossard, 1981) and poor rooting is a major obstacle in micropropagation (De Klerk, 2002). Poor rooting causes losses at the acclimatization stage, which reduces output making the product too expensive to be commercially viable (Barlass and Hutchinson, 1996; Simmonds, 1983). The roots formed using the SSTC method were robust and already established in the propagation medium with less than 5% loss of rooted vines during acclimatization. During this research we found the stage of shoot growth of source material was important and that shoot tips at the top 2 to 5 cm of a shoot were too immature for this new method. Similarly, from the most succulent tissues often failed to root in mist propagation of young (Walker and Golino, 1999). This might be caused by a low carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, which has been found in other plants (Brandon, 1939; Kraus and Kraybill, 1918; Starring, 1924). Shoot tips with the fastest growth rate would be rich in nitrogen resulting in low C:N ratio, which might have led to their rooting difficulty. The high moisture environments might cause their rotting and death. Although that are high in stored carbohydrates have the capacity to develop good root systems (Gordon, 2009), collected from shoots of source plants undergoing active growth may have been low in carbohydrates and therefore root production was poor. The C:N ratio is just one of the many factors that influence success in plant propagation. There are many others such as proactive control of petri diseases, choice of optimum source materials, and application of correct practices (Fourie and Halleen, 2004, 2006; Gordon, 2009). There are some limitations in the SSTC method because it relies on the generation and growth of new shoots, which are affected by seasons. Propagation using SSTC could not be done in winter when the source plant went dormant. Placing the source plants into a warm glasshouse did not greatly extend the growth time to make immature available for propagation. The micropropagation method, supposedly allowing all year-round production as an advantage, is also limited by seasonality in explants as found for barley (Sharma et al., 2005). Our experience also showed that it was difficult to maintain normal growth and multiplication of grapevine micro in vitro in winter when the vines normally went dormant in open fields, and this seasonality problem was not overcome by tissue culture. It seemed that the built-in biological clock was still controlling plants development and able to switch vegetative and reproductive modes on and off when the temperature and daylength (photoperiod) were constant under tissue culture conditions at least in some plant species, if not all. This is supported by evidence from other crops. For instance, in another study (unpublished data), Dampiera sp., an Australian native plant, also had a seasonal response, although they had been maintained in vitro for several years. The reproductive development initiated at the similar date as in nature with flowering occurred in vitro if the flower buds were not removed. This led to little growth, no multiplication, and easy death of shoots after flowering. It suggests that the circadian rhythms (Yakir et al., 2007) remember seasons and this can disrupt tissue culture multiplication and explant growth. In summary, a novel semisterilization method using immature single-node, SSTC, was developed to allow rapid propagation of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.). SSTC was more efficient with a 16 times higher root strike rate than the propagation method and took at least 50% less time than the micropropagation method to produce robust planting stocks. The propagation procedure in the SSTC method engaged a shorter time in culture as a result of removal of explant initiation and in vitro explant establishment/ proliferation/maintenance processes than in micropropagation methods. It allowed use of much less robust and smaller than traditional cutting methods maximizing yield from limited source material. The demand on tissue culture expertise and skill was not as critical any more as in the micropropagation method. In addition, the new technique avoided the degeneration and bacterial contamination problems occurring in the tissue culture process. The simplified procedure was less expensive and easy to be adopted as a commercial propagation approach. This technique was also tested successfully on cassava with a rooting rate at almost 100% (unpublished) Table 4. Rooting performance of grape varieties/clones using Semi-sterilized Tissue Culture (4 weeks after treatment). Variety/clone tested rooted Root quality z dead contaminated Means of rooted (%) ± SE Means of death and contamination (%) Verdejo clone (control) ± Pinot Gris clone ± 2.97 NS 10.0 Pinot Noir clone ± 3.37 NS 14.5 Tempranillo clone A ± 3.25 NS 17.7 Tempranillo clone B ± 2.64 NS 14.8 Tempranillo clone C ± 2.78 NS 7.3 Tempranillo clone C ± 2.50 NS 7.4 Tempranillo clone E ± 3.84 NS 17.1 Merlot clone ± 4.95 NS 10.0 Savagnin clone ± 2.85 NS 18.5 Total z Grade 1 to 5 from poor to good in terms of root number and lengths: 1 = started to root, 1 or 2 roots can be seen; 5 = sufficient quality roots are present for plants to be ready for nursery. A generalized linear model to the binomial data to compare the treatments. Approximate t tests were used to compare against the control using GenStat for Windows. The performance of the Verdejo clone was used as control, to which the performance of other varieties/clones was compared. NS Nonsignificant; *significant at 5% level; **significant at 1% level; ***significant at 0.1% level. HORTSCIENCE VOL. 49(7) JULY

6 indicating this method could be transferred to other crops. Literature Cited Anonymous AQIS web site for import of Vitis spp. as listed (Dormant ). 15 Nov < asp?intnodeid= &intcommodityid= 28264&Types=none&WhichQuery=Go+to+ full+text&intsearch=1&logsessionid=0>. Barlass, M. and J.F. Hutchinson Commercial micropropagation of Australian native plants, p In: Taji, A.M. and R.R. Williams (eds.). Tissue culture of Australian plants. Barlass, M. and K.G.M. Skene In vitro propagation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) from fragmented shoot apices. Vitis 17: Brandon, D Seasonal variations of starch content in the genus Rosa and their relation to propagation by stem cutting. J. Pomol. Hort. Sci. 145: California Association of Winegrape Growers Grape acreages for 1997 increase. The Crush 26 (May issue 6). de Fossard, R Nuclear stocks, multiplication rates and economic considerations of tissue culture propagation of horticultural species. Symp. Plant Tissue Culture. p De Klerk, G.J Rooting of micro: Theory and practice. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 38: Dry, P.R Chapter 6: Grapevine varieties, p In: Dry, P.R. and B.G. Coombe (eds.). Viticulture Vol. 1 Resources. 2nd Ed. Winetitles. Fourie, P.H. and F. Halleen Proactive control of petri disease of grapevine through treatment of propagation material. Plant Dis. 88: Fourie, P.H. and F. Halleen Chemical and biological protection of grapevine propagation material from trunk disease pathogens. Eur. J. Plant Pathol. 116: Gordon, I Propagation From stem. Hort. J. 2: Gray, D.J. and C.M. Benton In vitro micropropagation and plant establishment of muscadine grape cultivar (Vitis rotundifolia). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 27:7 14. Gray, D.J. and L.C. Fisher In vitro propagation of grape species, hybrids and cultivars. Proc. Florida State Hort. Soc. 98: Harris, R.E. and J.H. Stevenson In vitro propagation of Vitis. Vitis 21: Heloir, M.-C., J.-C. Fournioux, L. Oziol, and R. Bessis An improved procedure for the propagation in vitro of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir) using axillary-bud micro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 49: Ibáñez, A., M. Valero, and A. Morte Influence of cytokinins and subculturing on proliferation capacity of single-axillary-bud micro of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Napleón. Ann. Biol. 25: Kraus, E.J. and H.R. Kraybill Vegetation and reproduction with special reference to the tomato. Oregon Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul.: 149. Lee, N. and H.Y. Wetzstein In vitro propagation of Muscadine grape by Axillary shoot proliferation. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 115: Lewandowski, V.T Rooting and acclimatization of micropropagated Vitis labrusca Delaware. HortScience 26: Mhatre, M., C.K. Salunkhe, and P.S. Rao Micropropagation of Vitis vinifera L: Towards an improved protocol. Sci. Hort. 84: Monette, P.L Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), p In: Bajaj, Y.P.S. (ed.). Biotechnol. Agr. For. Vol. 6. Crops II. Springer-Verlag. Murashige, T Plant propagation through tissue cultures. Ann. Rev Plant Physiol. 25: Murashige, T. and F. Skoog A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant. 15: Newell, C., D.J. Growns, and J.A. McComb The influence of medium aeration on in vitro rooting of Australian plant micro. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 75: Newell, C., D.J. Growns, and J.A. McComb A novel in vitro rooting method employing an aerobic medium. Austral. J. Bot. 53: Novak, F.J. and Z. Juvova Clonal propagation of grapevine through in vitro axillary bud culture. Sci. Hort. 18: Payne, R A guide to regression, nonlinear and generalized linear models in GenStat. VSN International, Hertfordshire, UK. Read, P.E Micropropagation: Past, present and future. Acta Hort. 748: Shan, F. and K. Seaton Micropropagation of the grape imported from overseas while under quarantine using tissue culture and IVS system Benefits WA viticulture industry. Wine Industry Newsletter 85:6. Sharma, V.K., R. Hänsch, R.R. Mendel, and J. Schulze Seasonal effect on tissue culture response and plant regeneration frequency from non-bombarded and bombarded immature scutella of barley (Hordeum vulgare) harvested from controlled environment. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 81: Simmonds, J Direct rooting of micropropagated M26 apple rootstocks. Sci. Hort. 21: Singh, S.J., R.N. Khawale, and S.P. Singh Technique for rapid in vitro multiplication of Vitis vinifera L. cultivars. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 79: Starring, C.C Influence of carbohydrate nitrate content of upon the production of roots. Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 20: Thies, K. and C.H. Graves, Jr Meristem micropropagation protocols for Vitis rotundifolia Michx. HortScience 27: Torregrossa, L. and A. Bouguet In vitro propagation of Vitis x Muscadinia hybrids by micro or axillary budding. Vitis 34: Walker, M.A. and D.A. Golino Rapid propagation of grape planting stock. Practical Vinery & Vineyard Journal. May/June: Yakir, E., D. Hilman, Y. Harir, and R.M. Green Regulation of output from the plant circadian clock. FEBS J. 274: HORTSCIENCE VOL. 49(7) JULY 2014

RAPID MICROPROPAGATION OF GRAPEVINE CV. AGIORGITIKO THROUGH LATERAL BUD DEVELOPMENT

RAPID MICROPROPAGATION OF GRAPEVINE CV. AGIORGITIKO THROUGH LATERAL BUD DEVELOPMENT e-περιοδικό Επιστήµης & Τεχνολογίας 31 RAPID MICROPROPAGATION OF GRAPEVINE CV. AGIORGITIKO THROUGH LATERAL BUD DEVELOPMENT G. Banilas*, E. Korkas Laboratory of Plant Biology & Viticulture, Department of

More information

Micro propagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) through auxiliary buds

Micro propagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) through auxiliary buds Micro propagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) through auxiliary buds P S \Varakagoda, S Subasinghe, D L C Kumari and T S Neththikumara Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University

More information

VETIVER PROPAGATION. Nurseries and Large Scale Propagation. Dr Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia

VETIVER PROPAGATION. Nurseries and Large Scale Propagation. Dr Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia VETIVER PROPAGATION Nurseries and Large Scale Propagation Dr Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia 1. INTRODUCTION The Vetiver Network promotes the use of sterile vetiver cultivar to avoid

More information

Adult Plants and Juvenile Seedlings of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.)

Adult Plants and Juvenile Seedlings of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 63(3) : 537-541. 1994. Comparison of Growth Rooting Characteristics of Micropropagated Adult Plants Juvenile Seedlings of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.) Ryutaro Tao, Jun Ito Akira

More information

TISSUE CULTURE AND EX-VITRO ACCLIMATION OF RHODODENDRON sp.

TISSUE CULTURE AND EX-VITRO ACCLIMATION OF RHODODENDRON sp. Buletin USAMV-CN, 64/2007 (-) ISSN 1454-232 TISSUE CULTURE AND EX-VITRO ACCLIMATION OF RHODODENDRON sp. Clapa Doina, Al. Fira Fruit Research Station Cluj, 5 Horticultorilor Str. Horticultorilor nr.5, 400457

More information

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF DREPANOSTACHYUM FALCATUM AN IMPORTANT HILL BAMBOO-A RAPID MEANS OF MICROPROPAGATION

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF DREPANOSTACHYUM FALCATUM AN IMPORTANT HILL BAMBOO-A RAPID MEANS OF MICROPROPAGATION SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS OF DREPANOSTACHYUM FALCATUM AN IMPORTANT HILL BAMBOO-A RAPID MEANS OF MICROPROPAGATION I.D.Arya, R. Sharma & Sarita Arya Forest Genetics & Tree Propagation Division, Arid Forest Research

More information

Title: Development of Micropropagation and Acclimation Protocols for the Commercialization of a New Bonsai Ornamaental Tree for the California Market.

Title: Development of Micropropagation and Acclimation Protocols for the Commercialization of a New Bonsai Ornamaental Tree for the California Market. Title: Development of Micropropagation and Acclimation Protocols for the Commercialization of a New Bonsai Ornamaental Tree for the California Market. Authors: Dan E. Parfitt 1, Helen M. Chan 2, and Ali

More information

AVOCADO CALLUS AND BUD CULTURE

AVOCADO CALLUS AND BUD CULTURE Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 96:181-182. 1983. AVOCADO CALLUS AND BUD CULTURE M. J. Young University of Florida, IF AS, Fruit Crops Department, Gainesville, FL 32611 Additional index words, tissue culture,

More information

MATERIALS AND METHODS

MATERIALS AND METHODS 393 Evaluation of an Alternative Method of Rooting Hormone Application in Cutting Propagation 1 Eugene K. Blythe, Jeff L. Sibley, and Ken M. Tilt Auburn University, Department of Horticulture, Auburn,

More information

The application of leafy explant micropropagation protocol in enhancing the multiplication ef ciency of Alstroemeria

The application of leafy explant micropropagation protocol in enhancing the multiplication ef ciency of Alstroemeria Scientia Horticulturae 85 (2000) 307±318 The application of leafy explant micropropagation protocol in enhancing the multiplication ef ciency of Alstroemeria Hsueh-Shih Lin 1, Marjo J. De Jeu *, Evert

More information

THE ROLE OF TISSUE CULTURE IN THE AVOCADO PLANT IMPROVEMENT SCHEME

THE ROLE OF TISSUE CULTURE IN THE AVOCADO PLANT IMPROVEMENT SCHEME South African Avocado Growers Association Yearbook 1984. 7:25-26 THE ROLE OF TISSUE CULTURE IN THE AVOCADO PLANT IMPROVEMENT SCHEME Review DOROTHEA D NEL AND JM KOTZÉ DEPT OF MICROBIOLOGY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY,

More information

Mária Gabriela Ostrolucká 1, Gabriela Libiaková 1, Emília Ondrußková 2, Alena Gajdoßová 1

Mária Gabriela Ostrolucká 1, Gabriela Libiaková 1, Emília Ondrußková 2, Alena Gajdoßová 1 Acta Universitatis Latviensis, Biology, 2004, Vol. 676, pp. 207 212 In vitro propagation of Vaccinium species Mária Gabriela Ostrolucká 1, Gabriela Libiaková 1, Emília Ondrußková 2, Alena Gajdoßová 1 1

More information

Title: Enhancement of Bramble Production in the Southeastern U.S. Through Micropropagation, Virus Indexing, and Field Evaluation for Trueness to Type

Title: Enhancement of Bramble Production in the Southeastern U.S. Through Micropropagation, Virus Indexing, and Field Evaluation for Trueness to Type Title: Enhancement of Bramble Production in the Southeastern U.S. Through Micropropagation, Virus Indexing, and Field Evaluation for Trueness to Type Progress Report SRSFC Project #2006 01 Research Proposal

More information

EFFECT OF NAA AND IBA ON ROOTING OF CAMELLIA CUTTINGS

EFFECT OF NAA AND IBA ON ROOTING OF CAMELLIA CUTTINGS Int. J. Agric.Sc & Vet.Med. 2014 J S Wazir, 2014 Research Paper ISSN 2320-3730 www.ijasvm.com Vol. 2, No. 1, February 2014 2014 www.ijasvm.com. All Rights Reserved EFFECT OF NAA AND IBA ON ROOTING OF CAMELLIA

More information

Efficient micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Andr. under influence of thidiazuron, zeatin and coconut milk

Efficient micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Andr. under influence of thidiazuron, zeatin and coconut milk Indian Journal of Biotechnology Vol 3, January 2004, pp. 113-118 Efficient micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Andr. under influence of thidiazuron, zeatin and coconut milk P Giridhar and G A Ravishankar*

More information

Growing Grapes From Cuttings

Growing Grapes From Cuttings Growing Grapes From Cuttings Grapes are very easy to grow from cuttings. With proper care, a dormant cutting can be started in the spring and by fall will give a vine large enough to bear a cluster or

More information

Question Bank Vegetative Propagation

Question Bank Vegetative Propagation Question Bank Vegetative Propagation 1. Define vegetative reproduction. Ans. Vegetative reproduction is the formation of a new individual from any vegetative part of the plant body. 2. Mention any two

More information

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON MERISTEM TIP CULTURE OF LOCAL POTATO CVS DESIREE AND PATRONES

EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON MERISTEM TIP CULTURE OF LOCAL POTATO CVS DESIREE AND PATRONES ISSN 1023-1072 Pak. J. Agri., Agril. Engg., Vet. Sci., 2011, 27 (2): 143-149 5 EFFECT OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON MERISTEM TIP CULTURE OF LOCAL POTATO CVS DESIREE AND PATRONES A. Yasmin 1, A. A. Jalbani 2

More information

Rooting of Orthotropic Stem Cuttings under Greenhouse Conditions

Rooting of Orthotropic Stem Cuttings under Greenhouse Conditions Rooting of Orthotropic Stem Cuttings under Greenhouse Conditions Semi-hardwood Stock Plant Production 1. Juvenile somatic embryo plants at the sapling stage (at or near jorquette height) should be used

More information

EX-SITU CONSERVATION OF LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA USING IN VITRO TECHINQUES. BY Dr. D. LEELAVATHI MES COLLEGE,MALLESWARAM, Bangalore

EX-SITU CONSERVATION OF LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA USING IN VITRO TECHINQUES. BY Dr. D. LEELAVATHI MES COLLEGE,MALLESWARAM, Bangalore EX-SITU CONSERVATION OF LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA USING IN VITRO TECHINQUES BY Dr. D. LEELAVATHI MES COLLEGE,MALLESWARAM, Bangalore-560 003 INTRODUCTION Lavandula Angustifolia L., is an important aromatic,

More information

Plant Propagation. Asexual Plant Propagation. Asexual Propagation. Benefits of Asexual Propagation. Where Can Cuttings be Taken From?

Plant Propagation. Asexual Plant Propagation. Asexual Propagation. Benefits of Asexual Propagation. Where Can Cuttings be Taken From? Asexual Plant Propagation Plant Propagation The reproduction of new plants from seeds or vegetative parts of a plant. Asexual Propagation The reproduction of new plants from the stems, leaves, or roots

More information

VETIVER SYSTEM. Propagation and Nursery. Dr. Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia

VETIVER SYSTEM. Propagation and Nursery. Dr. Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia VETIVER SYSTEM Propagation and Nursery Dr. Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia www.uqconnect.net/veticon All materials in this document remain the property of Veticon Consulting P/L. Permission

More information

Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks

Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks Indian Journal of Experimental Biology Vol. 45, September 2007, pp. 824-829 Factors affecting induction and development of in vitro rooting in apple rootstocks T Sharma, M Modgil* & M Thakur Department

More information

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION

VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION CHAPTER 7 7.1. INTRODUCTION A species perpetuates within the ecosystem by sexual and / or asexual reproduction. The former involves the fusion of male and female gametes, and the

More information

VETIVER SYSTEM PROPAGATION AND NURSERY. The Vetiver Network International. Brisbane, Australia

VETIVER SYSTEM PROPAGATION AND NURSERY. The Vetiver Network International. Brisbane, Australia VETIVER SYSTEM PROPAGATION AND NURSERY Dr. Paul Truong The Vetiver Network International Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia All materials in this document remain the property of Veticon Consulting

More information

Establishing new trees possible impacts of rootstock propagation method on young tree growth Ute Albrecht

Establishing new trees possible impacts of rootstock propagation method on young tree growth Ute Albrecht Establishing new trees possible impacts of rootstock propagation method on young tree growth Ute Albrecht Southwest Florida Research and Education Center UF/IFAS, Immokalee, FL Rootstock breeding programs

More information

USE OF THE ETIOLATION TECHNIQUE IN ROOTING AVOCADO CUTTINGS

USE OF THE ETIOLATION TECHNIQUE IN ROOTING AVOCADO CUTTINGS California Avocado Society 1971-72 Yearbook 55: 97-109 USE OF THE ETIOLATION TECHNIQUE IN ROOTING AVOCADO CUTTINGS Edward F. Frolich and Robert G. Platt Technician IV, Department of Agricultural Science.

More information

Plant Tissue Culture. Dr. Alain Lemansour UAE University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept.

Plant Tissue Culture. Dr. Alain Lemansour UAE University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. Plant Tissue Culture By Dr. Alain Lemansour UAE University Date Palm Development Research Unit Dept. What is it? Tissue culture is the term used for the process of growing cells artificially in the laboratory

More information

Micropropagation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.)

Micropropagation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 10:47-55 (1987) Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht - Printed in the Netherlands 47 Short communication Micropropagation of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) TSENG SHENG

More information

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF THE BALKAN ENDEMIC SPECIES VERBASCUM ERIOPHORUM GODR. Abstract. Introduction

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF THE BALKAN ENDEMIC SPECIES VERBASCUM ERIOPHORUM GODR. Abstract. Introduction 767 Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, 22 (No 5) 2016, 767 771 Agricultural Academy IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF THE BALKAN ENDEMIC SPECIES VERBASCUM ERIOPHORUM GODR. Zh. P. YORDANOVA *, M. A. ROGOVA

More information

Selection of mother plant. Preparation of explants. Fresh inoculation. Multiplication. Rooting. Planting out. Primary hardening. Secondary hardening

Selection of mother plant. Preparation of explants. Fresh inoculation. Multiplication. Rooting. Planting out. Primary hardening. Secondary hardening 7.6 Protocol for micropropagation of banana 153 PROTOCOL FOR MICROPROPAGATION OF BANANA Joy P. P., Anjana R. & Prince Jose, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala Agricultural University), Vazhakulam-686670,

More information

AN ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR MASS PROPAGATION OF IXORA COCCINEA

AN ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR MASS PROPAGATION OF IXORA COCCINEA Pak. J. Bot., 36(4): 751-756, 2004. AN ECONOMICAL AND EFFICIENT METHOD FOR MASS PROPAGATION OF IXORA COCCINEA SAIFULLAH KHAN, MARIAM IFTIKHAR AND BUSHRA SAEED Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology Division,

More information

Asexual Propagation? A= without Therefore asexual= without sex Without sex = No pollination

Asexual Propagation? A= without Therefore asexual= without sex Without sex = No pollination Asexual Propagation Asexual Propagation? A= without Therefore asexual= without sex Without sex = No pollination How? Clones the parent plant to create identical replicas of the plant. Uses plant parts

More information

The effects of BA and NAA on multiplication of Butterwort (Pinguicula gigantea) in vitro

The effects of BA and NAA on multiplication of Butterwort (Pinguicula gigantea) in vitro Journal of Agricultural Technology 2011 Vol. 7(5): 1349-1354 Journal of Agricultural Available Technology online http://www.ijat-aatsea.com 2011, Vol.7(5): 1349-1354 ISSN 1686-9141 The effects of BA and

More information

In Vitro Formation of Gerbera (Gerbera hybrida Hort.) Plantlets through Excised Scape Cultures

In Vitro Formation of Gerbera (Gerbera hybrida Hort.) Plantlets through Excised Scape Cultures J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 52(1) : 45-50. 1983. In Vitro Formation of Gerbera (Gerbera hybrida Hort.) Plantlets through Excised Scape Cultures Chien-young CHU and Min-chang HUANG Department of Horticulture,

More information

Direct Regeneration of Shoot from Axillary Bud of Citrus Reticulate

Direct Regeneration of Shoot from Axillary Bud of Citrus Reticulate Available online http://www.ijat-aatsea.com ISSN 1686-9141 Direct Regeneration of Shoot from Axillary Bud of Citrus Reticulate Shende, C. B. and Manik, S. R. Department of Botany Mohsinbhai Zaweri Arts,

More information

Micropropagation of GF-677 rootstocks (Prunus amygdalus x P. persica)

Micropropagation of GF-677 rootstocks (Prunus amygdalus x P. persica) Micropropagation of GF-677 rootstocks (Prunus amygdalus x P. persica) Kamali K., Majidi E., Zarghami R. in Ak B.E. (ed.). XI GREMPA Seminar on Pistachios and Almonds Zaragoza : CIHEAM Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes;

More information

INMULTIREA IN VITRO A PORTALTOIULUI DE CIRES GISELA 5 IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF GISELA 5 CHERRY ROOTSTOCK

INMULTIREA IN VITRO A PORTALTOIULUI DE CIRES GISELA 5 IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF GISELA 5 CHERRY ROOTSTOCK INMULTIREA IN VITRO A PORTALTOIULUI DE CIRES GISELA 5 IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF GISELA 5 CHERRY ROOTSTOCK Doina Clapa 1, Alexandru Fira 1, Manuela Simu 1, Vlăduţ Codruţ Horga 2 1 Research Station for Fruit

More information

Unit E: Plant Propagation. Lesson 3: Propagating Plants by Cuttings

Unit E: Plant Propagation. Lesson 3: Propagating Plants by Cuttings Unit E: Plant Propagation Lesson 3: Propagating Plants by Cuttings 1 Terms Asexual propagation Growing medium Hardwood cuttings Herbaceous cuttings Leaf cutting Leaf-bud cutting Root cutting Semi-hardwood

More information

VETIVER GRASS PROPAGATION. Dr. Paul Truong Veticon Consulting Brisbane, Australia.

VETIVER GRASS PROPAGATION. Dr. Paul Truong Veticon Consulting  Brisbane, Australia. VETIVER GRASS PROPAGATION Dr. Paul Truong Veticon Consulting www.uqconnect.net/veticon Brisbane, Australia. All materials in this document remain the property of Veticon Consulting Pty Ltd. Permission

More information

Harmonizing Grapevine Nursery Stock Certification Programs in the Pacific Northwest

Harmonizing Grapevine Nursery Stock Certification Programs in the Pacific Northwest Harmonizing Grapevine Nursery Stock Certification Programs in the Pacific Northwest Boiseweekly Objectives Compare quarantines and certification programs Design a harmonized certification program and a

More information

TISSUE CULTURE II. Organogenesis. PlSc 300 LAB Learn tissue culture techniques that promote organ formation.

TISSUE CULTURE II. Organogenesis. PlSc 300 LAB Learn tissue culture techniques that promote organ formation. 76 TISSUE CULTURE II Organogenesis PlSc 300 LAB 11 REFERENCE: Text: 663 666; 706 712; 717 718. OBJECTIVES: 1. Learn tissue culture techniques that promote organ formation. 2. Practice making leaf and shoot

More information

Rootstock-scion interactions of selected Annona species

Rootstock-scion interactions of selected Annona species Rootstock-scion J.Natn.Sci.Foundation interaction Sri Lanka in Annona 9 species 7 ():7-7 7 SHORT COMMUNICATION Rootstock-scion interactions of selected Annona species H.M.S. Heenkenda *, B.L. Gunathilaka

More information

MULTIPLE SHOOT REGENERATION IN DENDROBIUM FIMBRIATUM HOOK AN ORNAMENTAL ORCHID ABSTRACT

MULTIPLE SHOOT REGENERATION IN DENDROBIUM FIMBRIATUM HOOK AN ORNAMENTAL ORCHID ABSTRACT Kabir et al., The Journal of Animal & Plant Sciences, 23(4): 13, Page: J. 1140-1145 Anim. Plant Sci. 23(4):13 ISSN: 1018-7081 MULTIPLE SHOOT REGENERATION IN DENDROBIUM FIMBRIATUM HOOK AN ORNAMENTAL ORCHID

More information

Micropropagation of Chlorophytum borivilliens through direct organogenesis

Micropropagation of Chlorophytum borivilliens through direct organogenesis Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Advances in Applied Science Research, 2010, 1 (2): 41-46 ISSN: 0976-8610 CODEN (USA): AASRFC Micropropagation of Chlorophytum borivilliens through direct

More information

An efficient protocol for clonal micropropagation of Mentha piperita L. (Pipperment)

An efficient protocol for clonal micropropagation of Mentha piperita L. (Pipperment) Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2012, 2 (4):518523 ISSN : 22497412 CODEN (USA): AJPSKY An efficient protocol for clonal micropropagation

More information

application in propagating Butterfly attracting Plants

application in propagating Butterfly attracting Plants Plant Tissue Culture and its application in propagating Butterfly attracting Plants Kodiswaran Kandasamy Tissue Culture Unit Forest Biotechnology Division FRIM kodiswaran@frim.gov.my Cratoxylon formosum

More information

MICROPROPAGATION OF PAULOWNIA SPECIES AND HYBRIDS

MICROPROPAGATION OF PAULOWNIA SPECIES AND HYBRIDS Annuaire de l Université de Sofia St. Kliment Ohridski Faculte de Biologie 2015, volume 100, livre 4, pp. 223-230 First National Conference of Biotechnology, Sofia 2014 MICROPROPAGATION OF PAULOWNIA SPECIES

More information

What is Plant Propagation? Propagation of Horticultural Plants. Woody Plant Crop Improvement. Plant Propagation History

What is Plant Propagation? Propagation of Horticultural Plants. Woody Plant Crop Improvement. Plant Propagation History What is Plant Propagation? Propagation of Horticultural Plants Multiplication of plants and preservation (maintaining) their unique qualities for human use Purposeful act of reproducing plants via sexual

More information

Propagation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Seedlings

Propagation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Seedlings American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (9): 1117-1121, 2012 ISSN 1818-6769 IDOSI Publications, 2012 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.aejaes.2012.12.09.1875 Propagation of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) by Seedlings

More information

The Potato micropropagation

The Potato micropropagation The Potato micropropagation Rolot Jean-Louis www.cra.wallonie.be Armstatehydromet and Ministry of Agriculture Yerevan, March 2012 Some characteristics of the potato multiplication Vegetative reproduction:

More information

Establishing a Source of Disease Free, True-to- Type Muscadine Vines

Establishing a Source of Disease Free, True-to- Type Muscadine Vines Establishing a Source of Disease Free, True-to- Type Muscadine Vines Zvezdana Pesic Van Esbroeck, Bill Cline, Benny Bloodworth, Rose Caldwell, Christie Almeyda Plant Pathology, NCSU Purpose: The purpose

More information

The Effects of Precooling Temperatures and Durations on Forcing of Lilium longiflorum, Nellie White

The Effects of Precooling Temperatures and Durations on Forcing of Lilium longiflorum, Nellie White The Effects of Precooling Temperatures and Durations on Forcing of Lilium longiflorum, Nellie White Frankie L. Fanelli 1 Department of Horticultural Science North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC

More information

IMPROVED MICROPROPAGATION AND ROOTING OF DWARFING PEAR ROOTSTOCKS

IMPROVED MICROPROPAGATION AND ROOTING OF DWARFING PEAR ROOTSTOCKS PROJECT REPORT YEAR: 2 IMPROVED MICROPROPAGATION AND ROOTING OF DWARFING PEAR ROOTSTOCKS PI: Barbara M. Reed Organization: USDA/ARS Telephone: 54-78-426 Email: Barbara.Reed@ars.usda.gov Address: 447 Peoria

More information

Clean planting material - an effective strategy to prevent diseases in grape vines

Clean planting material - an effective strategy to prevent diseases in grape vines Hemant Gohil, Ph.D. County Agent III Co-operative Extension of Rutgers University Clean planting material - an effective strategy to prevent diseases in grape vines 3 February, 2016 Mid-Atlantic Fruit

More information

In vitro Micropropagation of Syngonium podophyllum

In vitro Micropropagation of Syngonium podophyllum Available online at www.ijpab.com ISSN: 2320 7051 Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 2 (4): 88-92 (2014) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PURE & APPLIED BIOSCIENCE Research Article In vitro Micropropagation of Syngonium

More information

Grafting Techniques for Watermelon 1

Grafting Techniques for Watermelon 1 HS1075 Grafting Techniques for Watermelon 1 Kent Cushman 2 Grafting of watermelon scions on squash, pumpkin, or bottle gourd (Lagernaria spp.) rootstocks is practiced in many of the major watermelon production

More information

Effects of Seedling Container Size and Nursing Period on the Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Cut Flowers in Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L.

Effects of Seedling Container Size and Nursing Period on the Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Cut Flowers in Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L. Original Paper Environ. Control Biol., 44 (1), 51-58, 2006 Effects of Seedling Container Size and Nursing Period on the Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Cut Flowers in Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus L.)

More information

Potentiality of Different Varieties of Fig for Rooting of Cuttings under Open and Shade House Conditions in Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Potentiality of Different Varieties of Fig for Rooting of Cuttings under Open and Shade House Conditions in Northern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 6 Number 11 (2017) pp. 1763-1768 Journal homepage: http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2017.611.212

More information

We observed a better response to the hormone treatments with the

We observed a better response to the hormone treatments with the GENETIC ENGINEERING OF I NONPAREIL I ALMOND Abhaya M. Dandekar l Thomas M. Gradziel l John Driver l Archie Tang l Sandra L. Uratsu. This project is aimed at developing genetic engineering technologies

More information

Albino Regenerants Proliferation of Dendrocalamus Asper In vitro

Albino Regenerants Proliferation of Dendrocalamus Asper In vitro World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10 (1): 09-13, 2014 ISSN 1817-3047 IDOSI Publications, 2014 DOI: 10.5829/idosi.wjas.2014.10.1.1755 Albino Regenerants Proliferation of Dendrocalamus Asper In vitro

More information

IN VITRO MASS MULTIPLICATION OF NONI (Morinda citrifolia L.) THROUGH NODAL SEGMENT EXPLANTS

IN VITRO MASS MULTIPLICATION OF NONI (Morinda citrifolia L.) THROUGH NODAL SEGMENT EXPLANTS Journal of Cell and Tissue Research Vol. 15(1) 4877-4882 (2015) (Available online at www.tcrjournals.com) ISSN: 0973-0028; E-ISSN: 0974-0910 Original Article IN VITRO MASS MULTIPLICATION OF NONI (Morinda

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOL FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF TWO ELITE VARIETIES OF SUGARCANE THROUGH MICROPROPAGATION.

DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOL FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF TWO ELITE VARIETIES OF SUGARCANE THROUGH MICROPROPAGATION. Received: 10 th Jan-2014 Revised: 13 th Feb-2014 Accepted: 16 th Feb-2014 Research article DEVELOPMENT OF PROTOCOL FOR MASS MULTIPLICATION OF TWO ELITE VARIETIES OF SUGARCANE THROUGH MICROPROPAGATION.

More information

American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6(4): , 2012 ISSN Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Regeneration in Amla

American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6(4): , 2012 ISSN Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Regeneration in Amla American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 6(4): 417-421, 212 ISSN 1995-748 417 ORIGINAL ARTICLE Somatic Embryogenesis and Plantlet Regeneration in Amla L. Al-Sabah, C. Sudhersan and S. Jibi

More information

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN IN VITRO REGENERATION SYSTEM SUITABLE FOR AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF KABULI TYPE CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.

ESTABLISHMENT OF AN IN VITRO REGENERATION SYSTEM SUITABLE FOR AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF KABULI TYPE CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L. Legume Res., 29 (3) : 163-168, 2006 ESTABLISHMENT OF AN IN VITRO REGENERATION SYSTEM SUITABLE FOR AGROBACTERIUM MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION OF KABULI TYPE CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.) P. Das and B.K. Sarmah*

More information

May. The group, however, has never risen to prominence in this country,

May. The group, however, has never risen to prominence in this country, ARNOLDIA A continuation of the BULLETIN OF POPULAR INFORMATION of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. VOLUME 20 JANUARY 15, 1960 NuMaEe 1 ROOTING GHENT AZALEAS UNDER PLASTIC GHENT azaleas have long

More information

Research Update. Maintaining plant visual appearance and vigor in the retail environment

Research Update. Maintaining plant visual appearance and vigor in the retail environment January 15, #15.1 Research Update Seaweed Extract Drenches Increase Postharvest Drought Tolerance of Bedding Plants by Neil Mattson Maintaining plant visual appearance and vigor in the retail environment

More information

B. C. D. B. C. D. B. C. D. B. C. D.

B. C. D. B. C. D. B. C. D. B. C. D. Student Name: Teacher: Date: Test: 9_12 Agriculture AP41 - Horticulture I Test 1 Description: Unit C-Plant Physiology District: Wake County Form: 501 1. Water loss from leaf surface through evaporation

More information

THE EFFECTS OF MINITUBER SIZE AND HARVEST DATE ON GERMINATION, TUBER SET, AND YIELD OF RUSSET BURBANK POTATOES. Steven R. James '

THE EFFECTS OF MINITUBER SIZE AND HARVEST DATE ON GERMINATION, TUBER SET, AND YIELD OF RUSSET BURBANK POTATOES. Steven R. James ' THE EFFECTS OF MINITUBER SIZE AND HARVEST DATE ON GERMINATION, TUBER SET, AND YIELD OF RUSSET BURBANK POTATOES Steven R. James ' ABSTRACT An experiment was established in 1985 at Powell Butte to evaluate

More information

DECIDUOUS HARDWOOD CUTTINGS. PlSc 300 Lab Compare root initiation and bud growth of cuttings in two different propagation environments.

DECIDUOUS HARDWOOD CUTTINGS. PlSc 300 Lab Compare root initiation and bud growth of cuttings in two different propagation environments. 0 DECIDUOUS HARDWOOD CUTTINGS PlSc 00 Lab REFERENCE: Text pp. - 0; 7-8. OBJECTIVES:. Learn how to make deciduous hardwood stem cuttings.. Compare root initiation and bud growth of cuttings in two different

More information

EPPO Standards SCHEMES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HEALTHY PLANTS FOR PLANTING NURSERY REQUIREMENTS. PM 4/7(2) English. oepp eppo

EPPO Standards SCHEMES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HEALTHY PLANTS FOR PLANTING NURSERY REQUIREMENTS. PM 4/7(2) English. oepp eppo EPPO Standards SCHEMES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF HEALTHY PLANTS FOR PLANTING NURSERY REQUIREMENTS PM 4/7(2) English oepp eppo European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization 1, rue Le Nôtre, 75016

More information

Using Gibberellins to Prevent Leaf Yellowing in Cut Lilies

Using Gibberellins to Prevent Leaf Yellowing in Cut Lilies This article was originally published in Greenhouse Product News 12(1): 30-34, 2002. Using Gibberellins to Prevent Leaf Yellowing in Cut Lilies Anil P. Ranwala and William B. Miller Flowerbulb Research

More information

Stem propagation of goldfish plants Video summary

Stem propagation of goldfish plants Video summary Florence Pomerleau-Lacasse Plant Propagation PLNT 31 Objectives: Stem propagation of goldfish plants Video summary Demonstrate the steps involved in the vegetative propagation of goldfish plants (Nematanthus

More information

Studies on Vegetative Propagation ~.f Tulips Regeneration of Bulblets in Bulb Scale Segments Culturt. 1 in vitro

Studies on Vegetative Propagation ~.f Tulips Regeneration of Bulblets in Bulb Scale Segments Culturt. 1 in vitro J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci. 49(2) : 235-24u. ' QR0. Studies on Vegetative Propagation ~.f Tulips IV. Regeneration of Bulblets in Bulb Scale Segments Culturt. 1 in vitro Yoshlo NISHIUCHI Hokkaido University

More information

Effect of explant type and growth regulators on in vitro micropropagation of Begonia rex

Effect of explant type and growth regulators on in vitro micropropagation of Begonia rex International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. Vol., 3 (4), 896-901, 2012 Available online at http://www.irjabs.com ISSN 2251-838X 2012 Effect of explant type and growth regulators on in

More information

Plant Breeding and Propagation

Plant Breeding and Propagation Plant Breeding and Propagation Outline Crop Plant Evolution Plant Breeding Sexually Compatible Germplasm Sexually Incompatible Germplasm - Bacterial Gene Cloning Transgenic Plants Seed Propagation Asexual

More information

Selection of Clonal Avocado Rootstocks in Israel for High Productivity under Different Soil Conditions

Selection of Clonal Avocado Rootstocks in Israel for High Productivity under Different Soil Conditions Proc. of Second World Avocado Congress 1992 pp. 521-526 Selection of Clonal Avocado Rootstocks in Israel for High Productivity under Different Soil Conditions A. Ben-Ya'acov, Esther Michelson, and Miriam

More information

Chapter 21. Micropropagation of Cordyline terminalis. Tui Ray, Prasenjit Saha, and Satyesh C. Roy. Abstract. 1. Introduction

Chapter 21. Micropropagation of Cordyline terminalis. Tui Ray, Prasenjit Saha, and Satyesh C. Roy. Abstract. 1. Introduction Chapter 21 Micropropagation of Cordyline terminalis Tui Ray, Prasenjit Saha, and Satyesh C. Roy Abstract This protocol describes an ef fi cient and rapid method for large-scale multiplication of Cordyline

More information

Callus induction and somatic embryogenesis of Phalaenopsis

Callus induction and somatic embryogenesis of Phalaenopsis Plant Cell Reports (1998) 17: 446 450 Springer-Verlag 1998 Y. Ishii T. Takamura M. Goi M. Tanaka Callus induction and somatic embryogenesis of Phalaenopsis Received: 11 June 1997 / Revision received: 6

More information

Propagating Dumbcane. (Dieffenbachia spp.) By: Charise VanDyke

Propagating Dumbcane. (Dieffenbachia spp.) By: Charise VanDyke Propagating Dumbcane (Dieffenbachia spp.) By: Charise VanDyke Dumbcane, or Diffenbachia spp., hails from Brazil. It is a common indoor plant that found its beginning indoors during the Victorian period

More information

Vegetative propagation of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

Vegetative propagation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Vegetative propagation of Robinia pseudoacacia L. Dini O., Panetsos C. in Papanastasis V. (ed.), Stringi L. (ed.). Fodder trees and shrubs Zaragoza : CIHEAM Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes; n. 4 1994

More information

GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE RISK OF DISEASE IN A GREENHOUSE

GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE RISK OF DISEASE IN A GREENHOUSE GUIDE TO EVALUATING THE RISK OF DISEASE IN A GREENHOUSE The following is a guide to assessing the various procedures and equipment used in a greenhouse, keeping in mind the risk of pathogen, mite, and

More information

Abstract. Keywords: Controlled biochamber, PLC, Biochamber, Controlled Environment.

Abstract. Keywords: Controlled biochamber, PLC, Biochamber, Controlled Environment. A PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) Controlled Biochamber For Micropropagation Of In-vitrio Tissue Cultured Plants. Norlida Buniyamin 1, Zainuddin Mohamad 2, Rofina Yasmin Othman 3, Norzulaani Khalid

More information

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ROSE CULTIVARS (ROSA HYBRIDA L.) ROOTING USING CONVENTIONAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY APPROACHES

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ROSE CULTIVARS (ROSA HYBRIDA L.) ROOTING USING CONVENTIONAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGY APPROACHES Annuaire de l Université de Sofia St. Kliment Ohridski Faculte de Biologie 2015, volume 100, livre 4, pp. 191-199 First National Conference of Biotechnology, Sofia 2014 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT

More information

In vitro callus induction, regeneration and micropropagation of Solanum lycopersicum

In vitro callus induction, regeneration and micropropagation of Solanum lycopersicum ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 2 Number 12 (2013) pp. 192-197 http://www.ijcmas.com Original Research Article In vitro callus induction, regeneration and micropropagation of Solanum lycopersicum Indrani Chandra*,

More information

Callus induction and plant regeneration from leaf explants of Spilanthes acmella Murr. : An endangered medicinal plant

Callus induction and plant regeneration from leaf explants of Spilanthes acmella Murr. : An endangered medicinal plant Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com Annals of Biological Research, 2014, 5 (9):66-71 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN 0976-1233 CODEN (USA): ABRNBW Callus induction

More information

Growing Strawberries - Under Cover Practices Last Updated Wednesday, 31 August :47 INTRODUCTION:

Growing Strawberries - Under Cover Practices Last Updated Wednesday, 31 August :47 INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION: Strawberries are a tricky crop, mainly because of its historical genetic development which dictates its requirements for successful plant development and high production. SB developed from

More information

Plant Propagation-The Union of

Plant Propagation-The Union of Plant Propagation-The Union of Art and Science I would like to start my presentation with a word of sincere appreciation to arboreta and botantical gardens in general and the Arnold Arboretum in particular

More information

Introduction. Plant growth regulators are the critical media components in determining the developmental pathway of the plant cells.

Introduction. Plant growth regulators are the critical media components in determining the developmental pathway of the plant cells. Introduction Callus is defined as an unorganized tissue mass growing on solid substrate. Callus forms naturally on plants in response to wounding, infestations, or at graft unions (Bottino, 1981). Callus

More information

IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF TARO (Colocasia esculenta var. globulifera) AS INFLUENCED BY MANNITOL M. K. R. BHUIYAN 1, M. J. HOSSAIN 2 AND M. M.

IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF TARO (Colocasia esculenta var. globulifera) AS INFLUENCED BY MANNITOL M. K. R. BHUIYAN 1, M. J. HOSSAIN 2 AND M. M. ISSN 0258-7122 (Print), 2408-8293 (Online) Bangladesh J. Agril. Res. 41(1): 67-74, March 2016 IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF TARO (Colocasia esculenta var. globulifera) AS INFLUENCED BY MANNITOL M. K. R. BHUIYAN

More information

Plant Propagation PLS 3223/5222

Plant Propagation PLS 3223/5222 Plant Propagation PLS 3223/5222 Guest Web Lecture Dr. Michael Kane Environmental Horticulture Department PLANT MICROPROPAGATION 1 Micropropagation Rapid clonal in vitro ( in glass ) propagation of plants

More information

Side Grafting Tomatoes

Side Grafting Tomatoes Side Grafting Tomatoes 955 Benton Ave., Winslow, ME 04901 Phone: 1-877-564-6697 Fax: 1-800-738-6314 Email: service@johnnyseeds.com Web Site: Johnnyseeds.com Grafting desirable fruiting varieties to vigorous,

More information

A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF "CYCOCEL" AND TIPPING ON FRUIT SET IN VITIS VINIFERA L. [Manuscript received February 19, 1969J.

A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF CYCOCEL AND TIPPING ON FRUIT SET IN VITIS VINIFERA L. [Manuscript received February 19, 1969J. A COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTS OF "CYCOCEL" AND TIPPING ON FRUIT SET IN VITIS VINIFERA L. By K. G. M. SKENE* [Manuscript received February 19, 1969J Summary Rooted cuttings of V. vinifet'a cv. Cabernet Sauvignon

More information

Evaluation of mini-cuttings as a propagation system for Eucalyptus hybrids

Evaluation of mini-cuttings as a propagation system for Eucalyptus hybrids Evaluation of mini-cuttings as a propagation system for Eucalyptus hybrids D. Naidu a and N. Jones Sappi Forest Shaw Research Centre, Howick, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Abstract Clonal asexual propagation

More information

EFFECT OF CYTOKININS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN THREE ELITE SUGARCANE VARIETIES

EFFECT OF CYTOKININS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN THREE ELITE SUGARCANE VARIETIES Pak. J. Bot., 41(4): 1651-1658, 2009. EFFECT OF CYTOKININS ON SHOOT MULTIPLICATION IN THREE ELITE SUGARCANE VARIETIES SABAZ ALI KHAN 1, HAMID RASHID 2*, M. FAYYAZ CHAUDHARY 1, ZUBEDA CHAUDHRY 3, ZARRIN

More information

Postharvest Life of Cut Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Relation to Chemicals, Wrapping Material and Storage Conditions

Postharvest Life of Cut Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Relation to Chemicals, Wrapping Material and Storage Conditions Tropical Agricultural Research Vol. 26 (1): 195 201 (2014) Short Communication Postharvest Life of Cut Chrysanthemum Cultivars in Relation to Chemicals, Wrapping Material and Storage Conditions Gunjan

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT CALLUS INITIATION OF MALTA (Citrus sinensis) THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT CALLUS INITIATION OF MALTA (Citrus sinensis) THROUGH TISSUE CULTURE ISSN: 2224-0616 Int. J. Agril. Res. Innov. & Tech. 1 (1&2): 64-68, December, 2011 Available at http://www.ijarit.webs.com DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT CALLUS INITIATION OF MALTA (Citrus sinensis) THROUGH TISSUE

More information

ANTHER CULTURE OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) : COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECT OF THE GENOTYPE

ANTHER CULTURE OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) : COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECT OF THE GENOTYPE ANTHER CULTURE OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L.) : COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECT OF THE GENOTYPE V.N. Rodeva 1, T.P. Irikova 2, V.J. Todorova 1 Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv 1 Plovdiv

More information

IN VITRO INDUCTION OF HAPLOID IN EGGPLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.)

IN VITRO INDUCTION OF HAPLOID IN EGGPLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.) 146 Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter 22 (2003): 147-150. IN VITRO INDUCTION OF HAPLOID IN EGGPLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.) Sanjeev Kumar, Major Singh, Prabhavathi K. and Amit Mathews Indian Institute of

More information

SUNFLOWER COMPETITION

SUNFLOWER COMPETITION School of Agriculture and Food Sciences SUNFLOWER COMPETITION Experiment Booklet 2017 uq.edu.au/agriculture/sunflower-competition With sunflower seeds, some simple steps and expert information, the UQ

More information