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1 Fire Flow Water Consumption In Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings: An Assessment of Community Impacts Prepared by: Code Consultants, Inc. The Fire Protection Research Foundation One Batterymarch Park Quincy, MA, USA Copyright Fire Protection Research Foundation February 2012

2 FOREWORD Over the past thirty years, selected municipal water authorities have implemented strategies, including stand by fees and other policies, to recover costs for water consumed in fires in sprinklered buildings. Typically these fees are not directly related to sprinkler fire flows but rather are recognition of the fact that these flows are not metered and thus not accounted for in conventional water cost recovery mechanisms. In contrast, water consumption at fires at unsprinklered properties is typically not subject to fees nor metered at the hydrant. With the growing adoption of residential sprinkler ordinances in communities across the country, the National Fire Protection Association commissioned this study to assess the relative community impacts of water consumption in sprinklered and unsprinklered properties. The study considered standard estimates of the amount of water expected to be used in various building types with and without automatic sprinkler protection during a fire condition and also estimated the water used per year for commissioning, inspection, testing and maintenance of buildings with systems for each building type. The total amount of water anticipated to be used for fire protection was compared with fees in sample jurisdictions; methods were developed to calculate fire water fees that are proportional to the anticipated volume of fire water used. The Foundation acknowledges the contributions of the Project Technical Panel and NFPA sponsor representatives listed on the following page, and Will Smith and Erin Crowley, Code Consultants staff. The content, opinions and conclusions contained in this report are solely those of the authors.

3 Fire Flow Water Consumption In Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings: An Assessment of Community Impacts Technical Panel Anthony Apfelbeck, City of Altamonte Springs, FL Fred Brower, Insurance Services Office, Inc. (ISO) Jeff Feid, State Farm Insurance Dawn Flancher, American Water Works Association Russell Fleming, National Fire Sprinkler Association Marc Gryc, FM Global Tonya Hoover, CAL FIRE Ed Kriz, City of Roseville, CA Gary Keith, NFPA staff liaison Matt Klaus, NFPA staff liaison Sponsor National Fire Protection Association Project Contractor Will Smith, Erin Crowley, Code Consultants, Inc.

4 Fire Flow Water Consumption in Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings: An Assessment of Community Impacts Prepared for: The Fire Protection Research Foundation 1 Batterymarch Park Quincy, MA Prepared by: CODE CONSULTANTS, INC Woodland Parkway, Suite 300 Saint Louis, MO CCI Project No February 10, Fire Protection Research Foundation

5 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table of Contents Page I. Executive Summary... 1 II. Introduction... 7 A. Background... 8 B. Research Objective... 8 C. Tasks... 8 III. Community Selection A. Population B. Building Types C. Water Fee Structure D. Summary IV. Assessment of Fire Flow Fees A. Johnstown, OH [11] B. St. Charles, MO [12] C. Orlando, FL [13] D. Rochester, NY [14] E. Denver, CO [15] F. Los Angeles City, CA [16] V. Characteristic Set of Buildings A. Residential Buildings, One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes (NFPA 13D) B. Residential Buildings, Residential Occupancies Up to and Including Four Stories in Height (NFPA 13R) C. Business Buildings D. Assembly Buildings E. Institutional Buildings F. Mercantile Buildings G. Storage Buildings H. Summary VI. Calculation of Fire Water Volume VII. Calculation of Water Usage for Commissioning, Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance A. Commissioning CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page i

6 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 B. Inspection C. Testing D. Maintenance VIII. Fire Probability and Frequency A. U.S. Census Bureau B. NFPA Structure Fires by Occupancy C. Determining Fire Probability and Fire Frequency per Occupancy D. Number of Fires per Occupancy in each Jurisdiction IX. Compiled Data (Probability and Volume) X. Calculation of Fire Fees XI. American Water Works Association (AWWA) XII. References Appendix A - Community Data Appendix B - Supporting Data for Fire Flow Calculations Appendix C - Supporting Data for Calculating Commissioning, Inspection, Testing and Maintenance Volume Appendix D - Source Data Probability Appendix E - Compiled Data (Probability and Volume) Appendix F - New Fire Fees for Johnstown, OH Appendix G - New Fire Fees for St. Charles, MO Appendix H - New Fire Fees for Rochester, NY Appendix I - New Fire Fees for Orlando, FL Appendix J - New Fire Fees for Denver, CO Appendix K - New Fire Fees for Los Angeles City, CA Appendix L - AWWA Example Calculation CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page i

7 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 I. Executive Summary A study has been conducted to analyze the estimated total fire protection water used in various building types. The study considered the water used in buildings with and without automatic sprinkler protection during a fire condition and estimated the water used per year for commissioning, inspection, testing and maintenance (CITM) of buildings with sprinkler systems. The anticipated water used for fire protection was compared with fees in sample jurisdictions; methods were developed to calculate fire water fees that are proportional to the anticipated volume of fire water used. The study provides a detailed analysis for calculating the fire water demand required in sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. This report shows that in all scenarios studied, the calculated water used during a fire when a building has a sprinkler system is less than that of an unsprinklered building. Additionally, the analysis indicates that in most of the scenarios studied the fire water used during a fire in an unsprinklered building exceeds the total water used in an otherwise similar sprinklered building for both CITM and a fire condition. These findings conclude that an owner of an unsprinklered building receives the full benefit of unlimited water through the public water system in a fire scenario without an increased cost, while the owner of a sprinklered building pays for the water used for CITM and a means that will reduce the amount of water required from private water system during a fire condition. In both cases, the cost of the water is typically not differentiated between sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings regardless of the reduction. Guidance on the volume of water is provided by the International Code Council (ICC)[1], various National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) codes and standards[2][3], and Insurance Services Office (ISO) guidelines[4]. These documents define the required fire flow and duration based on the construction type, use or occupancy, and area of a building. The anticipated fire water usage has been compared with the current fire water fees in six sample jurisdictions. The sample jurisdictions were selected based on populations, range of building types, and fee structures. Surveys were conducted to determine the fee structure in each of the sample jurisdictions. Methods used to charge for fire water included: direct usage charge at a fixed rate based on metering, direct usage charge at a rate that varies by season based on metering, fixed tap fee, initial capacity charge based on water line size, and monthly capacity charge based on water line size. Two of the sample jurisdictions included a discount for the installation of a sprinkler system. One of the sample jurisdictions permitted sprinkler systems with less than 20 sprinklers to be connected to domestic water lines without additional charges and the other allowed a reduction in the capacity charge to one fifth the normal capacity charge rate. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 1

8 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 A characteristic set of buildings were developed to compare fire flow water consumption and fire flow fees in each of the sample jurisdictions. The characteristic set of buildings included each of the following building types: Residential, One- and Two- Family Dwelling Residential, Up to and Including Four Stories in Height Business Assembly Institutional Mercantile Storage The fire flows for each of the building types was calculated based on the IFC[1], NFPA 1[2], NFPA 13[3], NFPA 13D [5], NFPA 13R [6] and ISO[4] guidelines. The IFC and NFPA 1 include fire flow requirements for both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. The required fire flow for a building protected with a sprinkler system is typically permitted to be reduced by 50% for oneand two-family dwellings and 75% for buildings other than one- and two-family dwellings. Available studies of fire water usage in sprinklered and unsprinklered residential buildings show the volume of water to be conservative and indicate a reduction of water used in a sprinklered home to be approximately 90% less than that of an unsprinklered home. The volume of water required for all of the various building types studied ranged from 60,000 to 585,000 gallons for unsprinklered buildings and from 30,000 to 480,000 gallons for sprinklered buildings when calculated according to the IFC and NFPA 1. With some exceptions, the ISO guidelines typically require less water than NFPA 1 or the IFC for unsprinklered buildings. The ISO guidelines indicate that a minimum fire water volume of 500 gpm for 2 hrs or the volumes required by NFPA 13 whichever is greater. For light-hazard occupancies, such as residential, business, assembly and institutional, the volume of water required by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R, or NFPA 13D, as applicable, was in the range of 182 to 7,500 gallons, which was significantly less than the volume required by the IFC or NFPA 1 for a sprinklered building. In some instances for occupancies with a greater hazard classification, such as mercantile and storage, the volume of fire water required by NFPA 13 was greater than the volume required by IFC and NFPA 1. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 2

9 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 The installation of automatic sprinkler systems has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of water needed during a fire condition. Automatic sprinkler systems, however, require water for commissioning, inspection, testing, and maintenance (CITM) that would not be required for a building without an automatic sprinkler system. The water required for CITM was estimated for each of the characteristic building types. Over a hundred year period the volume of water required per year for CITM ranged from a low of approximately 14 gallons for a oneand two-family dwelling to a high of more than 94,000 gallons for a covered mall. The total anticipated fire water used per year was calculated for each of the characteristic building types based on the required volume of fire water, the probability of a fire, and, for sprinklered buildings, the average CITM. For instance, in a typical one- and two-family dwelling, the fire water used for sprinklered buildings is between 4 and 10% of the fire water used for unsprinklered buildings. Sprinklered apartment buildings used approximately 30% of the fire water used by unsprinklered apartment buildings. The water savings can be seen in several of the building types. The fees passed to the end user can be categorized into two basic categories: those fees related to construction costs and those fees related to the cost of the commodity. This report concentrated on the fees related to the cost of the commodity. However, both could be accounted for with slight modifications. The fees related to construction costs would be inclusive of but not limited to tapping fees and installation fees. Likewise, the fees associated with the commodity would be billed monthly, or billed as a one-time commodity charge, or capacity charge. To adequately relate a fee for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings, the current fee structure was calculated for sprinklered buildings and redistributed to sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings based on the estimated quantity of fire water used for each. The amount of water used in sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings was identified by: The volume of water required by IFC, NFPA 1, ISO, NFPA 13, NFPA 13R and NFPA 13D for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. The quantity of water based on the probability of a fire by the total number of buildings in each of the occupancies. The estimated volume of water used in sprinklered buildings during CITM. Fees relating to construction cost were not included since they have no direct relationship with the quantity of water to be used by the connection. Further, the fees associated with standpipes in non-sprinklered buildings were also not considered since the intent of this study was to CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 3

10 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 compare the fire protection water used in sprinklered and non-sprinklered buildings. As such, non-sprinklered buildings have been assumed to be completely unprotected. The total fee structure for water in each of the jurisdictions has been assessed per the number of sprinklered buildings in each of the occupancies. 9,000 Fire Volume Water Required 8,000 7,000 6,000 Volume in Gallons 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Figure 1. Fire Water Required in Gallons for Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings = Sprinklered = Unsprinklered The compiled graph in Figure 1 indicates that unsprinklered buildings use more water than sprinklered building when comparing a single building. The volume of water required in one and two family dwellings is negligible when compared to other buildings within a community. The Water Research Foundation documents that the daily indoor per capita water use is approximately 69.5 gallons. [7] The average CITM for a sprinklered house per year varies from CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 4

11 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, to 28 gallons per year. The analogy illustrates how little water is used to maintain a residential sprinkler system. In all cases, the volume of water required for a sprinklered building vs an unsprinklered building when comparing a single building is calculated to be less, based on the assumptions made. In most cases the total water required for CITM in a community with sprinklered buildings will be less than that required during a fire scenario for unsprinklered buildings. Factors specific to a building type or low water pressures in a community may also impact fire water usage. When pressures supplied by a purveyor are low, the amount of water required by a fire protection system could be increased by the following factors: Low pressures may require larger pipe sizes to reduce pressure losses, which increase the volume of the systems and therefore the amount of water used in commissioning, testing and flushing. Increased number of fire pumps which increases the volume of water used in CITM. Fire water usage may also be influenced by the following factors based on building type: Local codes that required additional safety factors beyond those prescribed in NFPA 13. Malls require multiple tenants and have many systems to account for CITM. Large warehouses have many sprinkler systems and private fire service mains that require additional CITM. Some warehouses are governed by insuring authorities and require multiple sources (i.e. tanks or reservoirs) High rise building where multiple standpipe systems are required in conjunction with fire pumps. High rises that have no sprinkler systems, however are fitted with automatic standpipe systems. Fire protection systems can be very complex, as such; each building should be assessed appropriately. The commodity of water is being sold to the end user. By virtue of this study, the only time water is used, is during a fire or during CITM. Therefore, if both are accounted for by volume, and fire service departments will use the water regardless of whether a building is protected by a sprinkler system or not, then the water used should be distributed to both buildings and not borne by the owner that provides a means for reducing the water used. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 5

12 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 As stated before, fire water fees should be associated with those buildings that use the water for fire protection (This would include all buildings). As shown in the report, it would be appropriate to distribute the fees between both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. The fee structure drafted for each community could differ; however, the basic concept is to charge fees for fire water that are proportional to the anticipated fire water used based on building type and the presence of a fire sprinkler system. This report provides an estimate of fire water used for both fire conditions, including CITM, to allow communities to develop fire water fees for both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings that are proportional to the anticipated fire water usage. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 6

13 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 II. Introduction Water used by fire protection systems is typically provided by a local purveyor. The local purveyor distributes water for use in residential, commercial and industrial buildings through delivery systems that usually include elevated gravity tanks, ground storage tanks and pumping systems, or a combination of both. Water is provided to the end user for a fee charged by the local purveyor. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), [8] an estimated 410 billion gallons of water per day (Bgal/d) where used in the United States based on data from Of that, the leading users were thermo-electric power generation and irrigation. Public use was estimated at 44.2 Bgal/d, approximately 13% of all fresh water used in a day, and 21% of all freshwater used excluding thermo-electric power generation. The amount of water used by the public increased from 2000 to 2005 by 2%, while the population increased by more the 5%. Water used for fire protection is a fraction of the overall public use of water. While fire protection systems have an impact on water use, this study is provided to help water purveyors and others evaluate water usage for fire protection and provides perspective on the amount of water used for fire protection compared with other uses. Fire water flow requirements for buildings in the United States are typically based on model codes and standards published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) or International Code Council (ICC) as well as guidance from the Insurance Services Office (ISO). The information contained in this report is based on the required fire flow from the following documents: NFPA 1, Fire Code, 2009 Edition ICC, International Fire Code (IFC), 2012 Edition ISO, Guide for Determination of Needed Fire Flow, 2008 Edition NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2010 Edition NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 2010 Edition NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and including Four Stories in Height, 2010 Edition NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2011 Edition CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 7

14 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Actual water used for fire protection will differ due to many variables including: pressure, system design, fire department use and response time. A. Background Over the past thirty years, selected municipal water authorities have implemented strategies, including stand-by fees and other policies, to recover costs for water consumed in fires in sprinklered buildings. It is also used to fund maintenance of the distribution system, tanks, pumps and pipes necessary to get these higher than normal demands to the needed location. Typically these fees are not directly related to sprinkler flows but rather are in recognition of the fact that these flows may not be metered and thus not accounted for in conventional water cost recovery mechanisms. In contrast, water consumed at fires at unsprinklered properties is typically not subject to fees nor metered at the hydrant. With the growing adoption of residential sprinkler ordinances in communities across the country, it is appropriate to assess the relative community impacts of water consumption in sprinklered and unsprinklered properties. B. Research Objective To assess the current prevalence and structure of fire flow fees against the community impact/water usage at sprinklered and unsprinklered properties to develop a consumptionbased rational for community fire fighting resources. C. Tasks The following set of tasks is provided as a guide to help evaluate the use of water in fire protection systems. 1. Selection of at least six (6) case study communities that traditionally have had fire flow fees, with a predetermined mix of building occupancies including residential, commercial and industrial. 2. Assessment of the fire flow fee structure in these communities as well as other nationally available information. 3. Select a characteristic set of both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings within each community deemed to be representative of the building stock including residential, commercial and industrial. 4. Calculation of fire flow for sprinkler systems in these buildings as well as additional water consumption associated with sprinkler maintenance and testing. 5. Review previous documented literature to help make an assessment of water consumption for unsprinklered buildings in the case study communities. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 8

15 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, Provide a rational basis for the assessment of fire flow fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered building in the selected communities. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 9

16 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 III. Community Selection A. Population Table 1 is a list of candidate communities categorized by population. The population indicated in the table below is based on the most recent data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing produced by the U.S. Census Bureau. Table 1- Candidate Community Populations [9] Category Community Population 1 - Population less than 20, Population greater than 20,000 less than 100, Population greater than 100,000 less than 500, Population greater than 500,000 less than 1,000, Population greater than 1,000,000 Johnstown, OH 4,427 Willmar, MN 17,926 Rawlins, WY 8,633 Rolla, MO 19,599 St. Charles, MO 63,695 Rockville, MD 59,825 Bangor, ME 31,373 Palm Springs, CA 47,185 Rochester, NY 208,001 Roseville, CA 109,497 Orlando, FL 227,961 Denver, CO 600,158 Tucson, AZ 520,116 Ft Worth, TX 741,206 Los Angeles, CA 3,792,621 Philadelphia, PA 1,526,006 The communities included in Table 1 represent a range of locations through the United States, including regions with very limited water availability and those with relatively plentiful water resources. B. Building Types The range of building types in each candidate community is summarized in Table 2, below, based on data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Table 2 does not include buildings in the following categories: information, real estate rental and leasing, administrative and support, and waste management and remediation services. The data included in Table 2 indicates that communities in each of the population categories are available that include each of the building types. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 10

17 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 2 - Candidate Community Building Types (Number of Buildings per Use) [10] Community Housing Units C. Water Fee Structure Manufacturing Retail Trade Category 1 Professional Scientific and Technical Services In addition to the information on population and building types summarized in Tables 1 and 2, above, the water fee structure in each of the candidate communities was also considered. Water purveyors in each of the candidate communities were researched online and contacted directly to verify that the data collected was accurate. For many of the cities, especially the Educational Services Health Care and Social Assistance Art, Entertainment, and Recreation Accommodations and Food Services Other Services (Except Public Administration) Johnstown, OH 1, Willmar, MN 8, Rawlings City, WY 3, Rolla, MO 8, Category 2 St. Charles, MO 27, Rockville, MD 24, Bangor, ME 14, Palm Springs, CA 36, Category 3 Rochester, NY 102, Roseville, CA 43, Orlando, FL 112, ,552 1, Category 4 Denver, CO 274, ,271 3, , ,778 1,627 Tucson, AZ 225, ,080 1, , ,210 1,008 Ft Worth, TX 211, ,872 1, , Category 5 Los Angeles, CA 1,337,706 7,185 11,208 12, ,562 5,513 6,771 6,638 Philadelphia City, PA 661, ,420 2, , ,396 2,466 CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 11

18 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 larger ones, water is provided through multiple water departments; in those cases, only one water department for each community was researched for this report. The six example communities were selected to represent a variety of water fee structures. The following features were represented in the water fee structures of the candidate communities: A fee structure designed to accommodate drought conditions; A simple fee structure based on a fixed cost per water connection; and A fee structure based on metering of water usage for fire protection systems. Additional information on connection and tapping fees was reviewed for each candidate community. The concept of providing a credit to buildings protected with fire sprinkler systems was considered based on the premise that buildings protected with sprinkler systems would use less water in the event of a fire condition than fire department suppression efforts in a building not protected with sprinkler systems. However, this concept does not appear to be considered in the fee structures of most water purveyors. All of the communities interviewed charge a fee for water service to fire sprinkler systems in commercial buildings. However, some communities do not charge an additional fee for water service to fire sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings. Fire sprinkler systems protecting one- and two-family dwelling usually require only a small water service. This allows water service for fire sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings to be provided by the normal domestic water line in some communities, which then charge for water usage at the normal domestic water rates without additional fees for fire sprinkler systems. Data from the selected communities is provided in Appendix A. D. Summary Based on the methodology outlined above, the following six example communities were selected for further analysis: Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Orlando, FL Rochester, NY Denver, CO CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 12

19 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Los Angeles City, CA Data on population, location, building types, and water fee structures was considered as outlined below. Population and location o Candidate communities were divided into five categories based on population. o Example communities could not be located in a single area, but were selected to represent various regions of the United States. Building Types o Each community selected has a variety of residential, commercial, and industrial building types. Water Fee Structure Communities were selected with a variety of water fee structures, with examples that may address the following features: o o o o Drought conditions Fees per connection Metered connections Tapping fees CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 13

20 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 IV. Assessment of Fire Flow Fees All sixteen candidate communities were contacted to determine how fees are generated for the use of water in fire protection systems. This section provides information gathered from the six example communities selected for further analysis. Representatives of the water purveyors for each of the candidate communities were interviewed by phone and asked the following set of five questions: Question No. 1 Question No. 2 Question No. 3 Question No. 4 Question No. 5 Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected (by fire sprinkler systems) buildings? Is the there a fire district fee? The following is the evaluation of each of the six (6) water purveyors and how they collect fees for water used in fire protection systems: A. Johnstown, OH [11] Question No. 1 Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Answer Same as Domestic water rates see Table 3. Question No. 2 Answer Question No. 3 Answer Question No. 4 Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? No changes in fee due to drought conditions. Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? When a separate fire protection line is tapped the fee is 1/5 of the capacity charge. Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected buildings? CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 14

21 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Answer Question No. 5 Answer Hydrant water is not metered. Is the there a fire district fee? No additional Fee. Table 3 - Water Rates Fee Gallons Table 3 reflects the water rates for metered water; however, they are the same rates as $8.00 Minimum to 2000 Gallons the domestic water. Table 4 indicates the tapping fees and capacity charge fees for $ Gallons and Beyond water in fire protection systems, based on the size of the water service line. Table 4 - Tap and Connection Fees Line Size Tap Fee (Inches) Capacity Charge* ¾ $ $2, $ $5, ½ $ $11, $ $20, $ $45, $ $80, $ $180, $ $320, $ $501, $ $721, *One-fifth the capacity charge will be charged if for fire protection only. Both the capacity charge and the tap fee are onetime fees and are independent of metered water rates. The water purveyor discounts the capacity charge when the water service is fire protection only, but still charges fees for water services for fire sprinkler systems that would not be charged for buildings without sprinkler systems. B. St. Charles, MO [12] Question No. 1 Answer Question No. 2 Answer Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Fire service is not metered. Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? No changes in fee due to drought conditions. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 15

22 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Question No. 3 Answer Question No. 4 Answer Question No. 5 Answer Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? No incentives for a sprinklered building. Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected buildings? Hydrant water is not metered. Is the there a fire district fee? No additional Fee. Table 5 outlines the fees charged for water main connections supplying fire protection systems. Table 5 - Water Main Connection Fees Water Main Connection (Inches) Fee 3/4 $1,000 1 $1, /2 $2,300 2 $3,900 3 $8,600 4 $15,400 6 $34,300 8 $41, $154,000 Unmetered Main Extension $2,000 For Sprinkler systems run off a domestic 50% tap with more than 20 sprinklers increase A water main tap without a meter is $2,000 in addition to the tap fee based on the size of the connection. No additional fee is charged for a fire sprinkler system with less than twenty (20) sprinklers that are tapped off of a domestic water line. There are no monthly fees for a fire water line, but buildings with a water line supplying a fire sprinkler system are charged initial connection fees that would not be charged to for buildings without sprinkler systems. C. Orlando, FL [13] Question No. 1 Answer Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Yes, in addition to the monthly charge, if any water is used, it is charged at $1.54 per kilo gallon. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 16

23 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Question No. 2 Answer Question No. 3 Answer Question No. 4 Answer Question No. 5 Answer Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? No changes in fee due to drought conditions. Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? No incentives for a sprinklered building. Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected buildings? Hydrant water is not metered. Is the there a fire district fee? No additional Fee. Table 6 - Monthly Charge (Not Including Consumption Charge) Size of Service (Inches) Inside City Outside City Less than 2 $9.70 $ $9.70 $ $9.70 $ $9.87 $ $20.96 $ $40.08 $ $68.84 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ A meter is provided on the incoming fire service line. A monthly fee shown in Table 6 is charged for the water service and an additional fee of $1.54 per thousand gallons is charged for any water used. No incentive is provided for the installation of a fire sprinkler system. D. Rochester, NY [14] Question No. 1 Answer Question No. 2 Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Yes, water is metered & billed monthly. Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 17

24 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Answer Question No. 3 Answer Question No. 4 Answer Question No. 5 Answer No changes in fire fees due to drought conditions. Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? No incentives for a sprinklered building. Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected buildings? Hydrant water is not metered. Is the there a fire district fee? No additional Fee. Rochester, NY has two water mains available for use in fire protection. The first main provides fire protection through the domestic fire service. The second main is called a Holly-High Pressure System. The fees billed depend on which system is used. Charges for the domestic fire service system and the Holly High-Pressure System are outlined in Table 7. Metered water consumption is also billed monthly and is summarized in Table 8. Table 7 - Monthly Flat Rates Size of First Domestic Fire Service Charge Check Valve Charge per Charge per (Inches) Quarter Month Holly High-Pressure System Charge per Quarter Charge per Month 2 $35.30 $ $70.61 $23.54 $ $ $ $46.31 $ $ $ $92.60 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Table 8 - Metered Water Charge Domestic Fire Service Charge Gallons Used per Month Charge per 1,000 Gallons Holly High-Pressure System Gallons Used per Month Charge per 1,000 Gallons 0 20,000 $ ,000 $ , ,000 $ , ,000 $ ,000 10,000,000 $2.17 Over 620,000 $ ,000,000 15,000,000 $ Over 15,000,000 $ CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 18

25 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 E. Denver, CO [15] Question No. 1 Answer Question No. 2 Answer Question No. 3 Answer Question No. 4 Answer Question No. 5 Answer Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Fire service is not metered. Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? No changes in fire fees due to drought conditions. Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? No incentives for a sprinklered building. Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected buildings? Hydrant water is not metered. Is the there a fire district fee? No additional Fee. The monthly charge for a fire protection system water line is based only on the tap size. Water is not metered if used for fire protection and no additional fees are charge for water use through the fire water line. The fees for the monthly charge are shown in Table 9. Table 9 - Monthly Charge Tap Size (Inches) Monthly Charge 1 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Hydrant $17.25 CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 19

26 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 F. Los Angeles City, CA [16] Question No. 1 Answer Question No. 2 Answer Question No. 3 Answer Question No. 4 Answer Question No. 5 Answer Is there a meter charge for fire water service? Yes, water is metered & billed monthly. Does the city have any drought conditions that would affect the cost of water used in fire protection systems? Los Angeles, CA, the city does not have a drought rate vs. a normal rate. However, there is a fee billed for High Season and Low Season water use. Do you have any incentives in place when a fire sprinkler system is provided? No incentives for a sprinklered building. Is there an additional charge for water used in unprotected buildings? Hydrant water is not metered. Is the there a fire district fee? No additional Fee. Buildings in Los Angeles are charged a monthly fee based on the size of the incoming fire service line, as outlined in Table 10, in addition to a metered water rate. The metered water rate is billed depending on the location of the building (low, medium, or high Temperature Zone) and the month that the water is used (low season versus high season). Additionally, water is charged at a First Tier rate, Table 11, and a Second Tier rate, Table 12. Normal fees are billed on the First Tier Rate up to a set volume of water. The threshold is dependent upon the area and the location (low, medium, or high Temperature Zone) of the building. Once the maximum is exceeded the fees are billed at the Second Tier Rate. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 20

27 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 10 - Fire Service Monthly Charge Fire Service Monthly Charge Size of Fire Service (Inches) Size of Fire Service (Inches) 1 and smaller $ /2 $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ Table 11 - First Tier Rates (Per Hundred Cubic Feet of Metered Water) Meters Under 2 Inches High Season Low Season High Season Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Jul - Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan - Mar Apr May Jun $3.871 $3.840 $3.840 $3.840 $3.831 $3.681 $3.681 $3.681 Meters 2 Inches and Larger High Season Low Season High Season Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Jul - Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan - Mar Apr May Jun $3.871 $3.840 $3.840 $3.840 $3.831 $3.681 $3.681 $3.681 Table 12 - Second Tier Rates (Per Hundred Cubic Feet of Metered Water) High Season Low Season High Season Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Jul - Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan - Mar Apr May Jun $5.69 $5.83 $5.83 $5.83 $5.84 $5.91 $5.91 $5.91 CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 21

28 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 V. Characteristic Set of Buildings A characteristic set of buildings was developed to compare the fire water consumption for each building type. Fire water consumption was also compared between sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. Features of the characteristic set of buildings were identified to allow the required fire flow to be calculated based on the requirements of the codes, standards, and guide listed below: NFPA 1, Fire Code, 2009 Edition ICC, International Building Code (IBC), 2012 Edition ICC, International Fire Code (IFC), 2012 Edition ISO, Guide for Determination of Needed Fire Flow, 2008 Edition NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 2010 Edition NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes, 2010 Edition NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and including Four Stories in Height, 2010 Edition NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, 2011 Edition The characteristic set of buildings included each of the following building types: Residential, One- and Two- Family Dwelling Residential, Up to and Including Four Stories in Height Business Assembly Institutional Mercantile Storage CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 22

29 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Each of the occupancies listed will vary in footprint and fire flow requirements, with or without fire sprinklers. It is evident that the there are hundreds of combinations for building occupancies. It would be difficult to identify all sets of buildings in every jurisdiction. Having identified a set of building occupancies, the model codes were researched to distinguish a building that can be provided with or without sprinklers. The building sets were associated by construction type, area limitation, occupancy and whether protected or unprotected. It should be noted that not all buildings listed in this report may be designed without sprinkler protection. Buildings that require sprinklers are noted based on code requirements. A. Residential Buildings, One- and Two-Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes (NFPA 13D) Residential buildings have become a hot topic since all model codes now require residential occupancies to be provided with fire protection. However, not all jurisdictions have adopted the code revisions. The code requirements and building size are listed in Table 13. Table 13 - Code Requirements - One and Two Family Homes [17][18] One and Two Family Homes Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Residential, R 3 Residential, 1 and 2 Family Residential Construction Type Type VB Type V (000) Class 1, C 4 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A No sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A Since these buildings are not limited in size based on the fire protection requirements, we have selected two building footprints for this category. The significance of having two buildings of different size is to identify that there are different flow requirements for each building that will be identified later. One and Two Family Dwelling 1 2,000 sf One and Two Family Dwelling 2 5,000 sf CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 23

30 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 B. Residential Buildings, Residential Occupancies Up to and Including Four Stories in Height (NFPA 13R) Apartment buildings are another form of residential buildings. However, these buildings are required to follow the same guidelines for inspection, testing and maintenance as commercial buildings. It will be important to understand the additional flow due to inspection, testing and maintenance requirements. For this study there will be three different building types identified in Tables 14, 15 and 16. Table 14 - Code Requirements Apartment Building 1 [17][18] Residential Apartment Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Residential, R 2 Residential Residential Construction Type Type VB Type V (000) Class 1, C 4 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 21,000 21,000 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 7,000 7,000 N/A Table 15 - Code Requirements Apartment Building 2 [17][18] Residential Apartment Buildings Construction Classification: 2 hour exterior bearing walls Unprotected, non combustible ext. elements Unprotected, Combustible interior elements Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Residential, R 2 Residential Residential Construction Type Type IIIB Type III (200) Class 2, C 4 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 48,000 48,000 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 16,000 16,000 N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 24

31 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 16 - Code Requirements Apartment Building 3 [17][18] Residential Apartment Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Residential, R 2 Residential Residential Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 4 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 48,000 48,000 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 16,000 16,000 N/A There were two different sizes of each apartment building that could be used for each of the different construction classifications. One size is for an unsprinklered building and the other is for a sprinklered building. To compare the amount of water used in a sprinklered vs. unsprinklered building, the building size will need to be consistent between the two; therefore, the buildings that are used for this occupancy will be as follows: Apartment Building 1 7,000 sf Apartment Building 2 16,000 sf Apartment Building 3 16,000 sf C. Business Buildings For business buildings there are two (2) buildings evaluated. One is a low rise and the other is a high rise. The high rise building technically could not be built without sprinkler protection. However, it is important to show how much water is used in a high rise building with special fire protection requirements such as standpipes and fire pumps. Tables 17 and 18 identify the building type and maximum sf allowances for this building type. Table 17 - Code Requirements Low Rise, Business Building [17][18] Business Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Business, B Business N/A Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 69,000 69,000 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 23,000 23,000 N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 25

32 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 18 - Code Requirements High Rise, Business Building [17][18] Business Buildings High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Business, B Business N/A Construction Type Type IA Type I (332) Class 6, C 2 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A No sprinkler protected provided Not Permitted Not Permitted N/A For low rise business buildings there are two maximum size buildings allowed with or without sprinklers. Maintaining consistency between the two; only one size building will be used to fit both applications. For the high rise building application only one size building will be applied over a 10-story building. Each floor will be provided with automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes, designed in accordance with the given standards. The buildings are identified as follows: Business Building, Low Rise 23,000 sf Business Building, High Rise 10 Floors, 40,000 sf/floor D. Assembly Buildings As with the business buildings there are two (2) assembly buildings for much of the same reasons, one is a low rise and the other is a high rise. Assembly buildings are buildings used for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social, religious functions; recreation, food, or drink consumption or awaiting transportation[17]. Tables 19 and 20 identify the building type and maximum area allowances for this building type. Table 19 - Code Requirements Low Rise, Assembly Buildings [17][18] Assembly Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Assembly, A 2 Assembly > 1,000 N/A Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 28,500 25,500 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 9,500 8,500 N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 26

33 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 20 - Code Requirements High Rise, Assembly Buildings [17][18] Assembly Buildings High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Assembly, A 2 Assembly > 1,000 N/A Construction Type Type IA Type I (332) Class 6, C 2 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A No sprinkler protected provided Not Permitted Not Permitted N/A For low rise Assembly buildings, there are four (4) different building sizes identify. To maintain consistency with all building codes for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings, the two buildings identified for a low rise and a high rise are: Assembly Building, Low Rise 8,500 sf Assembly Building, High Rise 10 Floors, 50,000 sf/floor E. Institutional Buildings Staying within the same parameters for Business and Assembly Occupancies, two (2) Institutional Buildings are identified. Tables 21 and 22 distinguish the building type and maximum sf allowances for this building type. Table 21 - Code Requirements Low Rise, Institutional Buildings [17][18] Institutional Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Hospital, A 2 Health Care N/A Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 33,000 33,000 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 11,000 11,000 N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 27

34 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 22 - Code Requirements High Rise, Institutional Buildings [17][18] Institutional Buildings High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Hospital, A 2 Health Care N/A Construction Type Type IA Type I (332) Class 6, C 2 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A No sprinkler protected provided Not Permitted Not Permitted N/A For low rise and high rise buildings identified above, the following building sizes were chosen for the report: Institutional Building, Low Rise 11,000 sf Institutional Building, High Rise 10 Floors, 60,000 sf/floor F. Mercantile Buildings There are many different types of mercantile buildings that vary from small boutiques, big box retailers and large malls. This report identifies two (2) building types yet will have three (3) mercantile buildings included. The three (3) buildings will have three very different fire protection systems designed for each. This will provide insight that not all buildings of the same size will have the same flow requirements. The first building is a Mall; this building would not be allowed to be built without a sprinkler system. Table 23 provides information regarding the building type and construction for the covered mall. Table 23 - Code Requirements Mercantile, Mall Building [17][18] Mall Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Covered Mall Covered Mall Occupancy N/A Building Building Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 3 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A No sprinkler protected provided Not Permitted Not Permitted N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 28

35 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 The second and third mercantile buildings will look the same as far as the building type and classification. Table 24 will be the model used for the other two (2) mercantile facilities. Table 24 - Code Requirements Mercantile Buildings (Not a Mall) [17][18] Mercantile Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Mercantile, M Mercantile N/A Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 3 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 37,500 37,500 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 12,500 12,500 N/A As stated previously, there will be three (3) mercantile buildings identified by this report as follows: Mercantile Mall Building 750,000 sf Mercantile Building 1, OH 2-12,500 sf Mercantile Building 2, HPS 12,500 sf G. Storage Buildings Storage facilities can vary widely in size, shape and commodities being stored. Two (2) facilities are modeled within this report. One that can be provided with and without sprinklers under specified conditions and another that will require sprinklers, such as a distribution type warehouse. Table 25 identifies the code requirements used for the smaller of the two facilities. Table 25 - Code Requirements Storage Buildings [17][18] Storage Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Storage, S 1 Storage, Ordinary Hazard N/A Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 4 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided 52,500 52,500 N/A No sprinkler protected provided 17,500 17,500 N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 29

36 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 The second building is unlimited area storage and would be used to facilitate warehouse activities for distribution. This building would require the use of sprinkler systems to provide protection and is identified in Table 26. Table 26 - Code Requirements Storage Buildings Warehouse [17][18] Storage Building Warehouse Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Description IBC NFPA ISO Occupancy Storage, S 1 Storage, Ordinary Hazard N/A Construction Type Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 4 Protection Maximum Area (sf) Sprinkler protected provided Unlimited Unlimited N/A No sprinkler protected provided Not Permitted Not Permitted N/A The two (2) buildings used in this category are identified as follows based on the data provided above: Storage Buildings 17,500 sf Storage Building Warehouse 1,000,000 sf H. Summary Many building types and areas were defined in this section to help identify the Needed Fire Flow (NFF) requirements from the model building codes. This information is critical in providing continuity to both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings for each. Additional buildings were added to this section that will demonstrate how much water is used in a sprinklered building with special fire protection requirements such as standpipes and fire pumps. It should be noted that this set of buildings, only provides information for use in this report, and should not be used to define the building characteristics in any jurisdiction. Table 27 provides a summary of all the characteristic set of buildings to be used for identifying flow requirements for sprinklered vs. unsprinklered buildings in this project. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 30

37 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 27 - Characteristic Set of Buildings Building Type Area (sf) Sprinklers Notes One and Two Family Dwelling 1 2,000 Yes - One and Two Family Dwelling 1 2,000 No - One and Two Family Dwelling 2 5,000 Yes - One and Two Family Dwelling 2 5,000 No - Apartment Buildings (1) 7,000 Yes - Apartment Buildings (1) 7,000 No - Apartment Buildings (2) 16,000 Yes - Apartment Buildings (2) 16,000 No - Apartment Buildings (3) 16,000 Yes - Apartment Buildings (3) 16,000 No - Business Building, Low Rise 23,000 Yes - Business Building, Low Rise 23,000 No - Business Building, High Rise 40,000 Yes 10 Floors, Standpipes, Pump Business Building, High Rise 40,000 No 10 Floors, Standpipes, Pump Assembly Building, Low Rise 8,500 Yes - Assembly Building, Low Rise 8,500 No - Assembly Building, High Rise 50,000 Yes 10 Floors, Standpipes, Pump Assembly Building, High Rise 50,000 No 10 Floors, Standpipes, Pump Institutional Building, Low Rise 11,000 Yes - Institutional Building, Low Rise 11,000 No - Institutional Building, High Rise 60,000 Yes 10 Floors, Standpipes, Pump Institutional Building, High Rise 60,000 No 10 Floors, Standpipes, Pump Mercantile Building Mall 750,000 Yes Hydrants, Pump, Tenants Mercantile Building Mall 750,000 No Hydrants, Pump, Tenants Mercantile Building 1 12,500 Yes OH II Mercantile Building 1 12,500 No OH II Mercantile Building 2 12,500 Yes HPS Mercantile Building 2 12,500 No HPS Storage Buildings 17,500 Yes - Storage Buildings 17,500 No - Storage Building Warehouse 1,000,000 Yes ESFR, Hydrants, 2 Pumps Storage Building Warehouse 1,000,000 No ESFR, Hydrants, 2 Pumps CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 31

38 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 VI. Calculation of Fire Water Volume Calculation of required fire flows and volume for the model building codes for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings is derived from IFC, Appendix B and NFPA 1, Section Calculated fire flows for unsprinklered and sprinklered buildings are also derived from NFF through ISO and design densities or minimum sprinkler flows and volume required for sprinkler systems designed per NFPA 13, NFPA 13R and NFPA 13D. The volume of fire protection water is provided through a series of calculated flows (gpm) for a minimum duration (min) with detail shown in Appendix B. Table 28 - Calculated Fire Water Volumes [1][2] Building Type Area (sf) Sprks Fire Water Volume (Gallons) IFC NFPA 1 ISO NFPA 13 One and Two Family Homes 1 2,000 Yes 30,000 30,000 60, One and Two Family Homes 1 2,000 No 60,000 60, ,000 N/A One and Two Family Homes 2 5,000 Yes 120,000 30,000 60, One and Two Family Homes 2 5,000 No 240,000 60, ,000 N/A Apartment Buildings (1) 7,000 Yes 180,000 72, ,000 1,560 Apartment Buildings (1) 7,000 No 270, , ,000 N/A Apartment Buildings (2) 16,000 Yes 180,000 82, ,000 1,560 Apartment Buildings (2) 16,000 No 330, , ,000 N/A Apartment Buildings (3) 16,000 Yes 180,000 82, ,000 1,560 Apartment Buildings (3) 16,000 No 330, , ,000 N/A Business Building, Low Rise 23,000 Yes 270, ,340 60,000 5,700 Business Building, Low Rise 23,000 No 585, , ,000 N/A Business Building, High Rise 40,000 Yes 270, ,840 60,000 5,700 Business Building, High Rise 40,000 No N/A N/A 450,000 N/A Assembly Building, Low Rise 8,500 Yes 180,000 72,000 60,000 7,500 Assembly Building, Low Rise 8,500 No 240, , ,000 N/A Assembly Building, High Rise 50,000 Yes 360, ,120 60,000 7,500 Assembly Building, High Rise 50,000 No N/A N/A 450,000 N/A Institutional Building, Low Rise 11,000 Yes 180,000 72,000 60,000 5,835 Institutional Building, Low Rise 11,000 No 270, , ,000 N/A Institutional Building, High Rise 60,000 Yes 360, ,000 60,000 5,835 Institutional Building, High Rise 60,000 No N/A N/A 540,000 N/A Mercantile Building Mall 750,000 Yes 480, ,000 60,000 21,120 Mercantile Building Mall 750,000 No N/A N/A 1,440,000 N/A Mercantile Building 1 12,500 Yes 180, ,000 60,000 33,000 Mercantile Building 1 12,500 No 270, , ,000 N/A Mercantile Building 2 12,500 Yes 180, , ,000* 204,000 Mercantile Building 2 12,500 No 270, , ,000 N/A CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 32

39 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Building Type Area (sf) Sprks Fire Water Volume (Gallons) IFC NFPA 1 ISO NFPA 13 Storage Buildings 17,500 Yes 180, , ,000* 132,000 Storage Buildings 17,500 No 330, , ,000 N/A Storage Building Warehouse 1,000,000 Yes 480, , ,225* 102,225 Storage Building Warehouse 1,000,000 No N/A N/A 1,680,000 N/A *ISO requirements are derived from NFPA 13 Design Criteria when the minimums are exceeded Each of the Building Codes, Standards and ISO requirements were used to determine the correct flow, and take full advantage of any reductions of water allowed for the design of the systems. The calculated fire flows for each of the building types is listed in Table 28, and reflects only the water required for a fire scenario in total gallons. All commissioning, inspecting, testing and maintenance, requirements are not provided in these calculations and shall be addresses in the next section. Detailed calculations used for the derivation of the calculated flows are provided for reference in Appendix B. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 33

40 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 VII. Calculation of Water Usage for Commissioning, Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Flow from fire protection systems for commissioning, inspection, testing and maintenance (CITM) are calculated for each building used in the study. The flows were derived for each phase and added to Table 29 for reference. A. Commissioning Flushing the mains if required per NFPA 13 Filling the system a minimum 3 times before turning the system over to the client. o o o 1rst time fill to check for leaks 2nd time to fix any leaks 3rd time to hydrostatically test the system. Provide a single flow test per NFPA 13 Provide flow testing for a fire pump test if required Flow standpipes if required B. Inspection No Flows Required C. Testing Flow switch test (twice a year) Backflow prevention test Pump Test Hydrant Test Standpipe Test (every 5 years) D. Maintenance Obstruction investigation (every 5 years) CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 34

41 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 o Drain and fill the system The calculated volumes in Table 29 indicate the volumes of water required for years one, five and the average gallons used per year over a one hundred year period. This assumes the system will not be remodeled or that any additional repairs to the system are required. Each time a system is drained, it is required to be filled again which will add to the total flows. It should be noted that flow switches are not required per NFPA 13D. Additionally, NFPA 13D systems are not bound by the requirements of NFPA 25. However, the volume of water for a single flow test once a year is included in the calculation. Appendix C contains the calculated volumes of water for Table 29. Table 29 - Calculated Volume for CITM in Sprinkler Systems [19] Building Type Area (sf) Sprks Year 1 (gallons) Year 10 (gallons) Ave/yrs 100 yrs (gallons) One and Two Family Homes 1 2,000 Yes One and Two Family Homes 2 5,000 Yes Apartment Buildings (1) 7,000 Yes 773 3, Apartment Buildings (2) 16,000 Yes 1,003 3, Apartment Buildings (3) 16,000 Yes 1,003 3, Business Building, Low Rise 23,000 Yes 2,444 10, Business Building, High Rise 40,000 Yes 28,166 87,342 6,673 Assembly Building, Low Rise 8,500 Yes 1,508 9, Assembly Building, High Rise 50,000 Yes 36, ,241 8,275 Institutional Building, Low Rise 11,000 Yes 1,564 9, Institutional Building, High Rise 60,000 Yes 41, ,531 9,948 Mercantile Building Mall 750,000 Yes 453,415 1,272,765 94,618 Mercantile Building 1 (OH II) 12,500 Yes 4,588 12, Mercantile Building 2 (HPS) 12,500 Yes 8,297 38,604 3,404 Storage Buildings 17,500 Yes 6,492 19,699 1,505 Storage Building Warehouse 1,000,000 Yes 228, ,279 74,377 CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 35

42 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 VIII. Fire Probability and Frequency U.S. Census Bureau building data and NFPA fire data was used to determine fire probability and fire frequency per occupancy for each jurisdiction surveyed. A. U.S. Census Bureau The total number of buildings in the United States, per occupancy, was obtained from census data, which originates from tax return information supplied from the Internal Revenue Service. This census data was compiled and categorized into seven occupancies as summarized in Table 30. Table 30 - Number of Buildings in the United States [20][21] Occupancy Number of Buildings Residential, 1 & 2 family homes 76,313,410 Residential, Apartment homes 30, Business 13,649,410 Assembly 1,980,406 Institutional 1,863,430 Mercantile 2,183,678 Storage 1,300,715 The source data used to obtain the above information can be found in Appendix D of this analysis. B. NFPA Structure Fires by Occupancy The NFPA report, Structure Fires by Occupancy, was referenced to determine the total number of fires per occupancy. [22] This report provides an estimation of the average number of fires, per year, for incidents reported to local U.S. fire departments during This data was compiled and categorized into seven occupancies as summarized in Table 31. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 36

43 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 31 - Average Number of Fires per Year [22] Occupancy Number of Fires Residential, 1 & 2 family homes 264,530 Residential, Apartment homes 109,360 Business 6,705 Assembly 21,870 Institutional 7,300 Mercantile 12,895 Storage 31,510 The source data used to obtain the above information can be found in Appendix D of this analysis. C. Determining Fire Probability and Fire Frequency per Occupancy Fire Probability per Year Fire Probability describes the relative possibility that a fire will occur in any given occupancy. Fire Probability per occupancy was determined by comparing the total building data obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and NFPA fire data. For each occupancy, the average number of fires per year has been divided by the total number of buildings to determine the probability a fire will occur in that occupancy. For example, there are approximately 6,705 reported fires in Business occupancies each year. Dividing that number by the total number of Business buildings (13,649,410) results in probability of 0.05%. Therefore, a fire will occur in approximately 0.05% of all Business buildings each year. Table 32 below depicts this fire probability calculation for each occupancy surveyed: Table 32 - Fire Probability per Occupancy Occupancy Fire Probability Residential, 1 & 2 family homes 0.35% Residential, Apartment homes 0.36% Business 0.05% Assembly 1.10% Institutional 0.39% Mercantile 0.59% Storage 2.42% CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 37

44 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Fire Frequency Fire Frequency describes the rate of occurrence (per year) that a fire could be expected per building for each occupancy. Similar to Fire Probability, Fire Frequency per occupancy was determined by comparing the total building data obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau and the NFPA fire data. For each occupancy, the total number of buildings has been divided by the average number of fires per year to determine the frequency a fire will occur in that occupancy. For example, there are approximately 13,649,410 Business buildings in the United States. Dividing that number by the average number of fires in Business occupancies each year results in a frequency of approximately 2,036 years. Therefore, every Business building will experience a fire approximately every 2,036 years. The table below depicts this fire frequency calculation for each occupancy surveyed: Table 33 - Fire Frequency per Occupancy Occupancy Fire Frequency (years) Residential, 1 & 2 family homes 288 Residential, Apartment homes 279 Business 2,036 Assembly 91 Institutional 255 Mercantile 169 Storage 41 D. Number of Fires per Occupancy in each Jurisdiction Fire Probability, as determined in Section C above, has been applied to each jurisdiction to approximate the number of buildings which will experience a fire each year. For example, the probability that a fire will occur in a Business building is 0.05%. There are approximately 4,082 Business buildings in Orlando Florida, therefore it is expected that a fire will occur in 3 Business buildings per year in Orlando. Table 34 below depicts the fire probability calculation, per occupancy, for each jurisdiction surveyed per year. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 38

45 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 34 - Number of Buildings with Fires per Occupancy for each Jurisdiction per Year Occupancy Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, FL Denver City, CO Los Angeles City, CA Residential, 1 & 2 family homes ,196 Residential, Apartment homes ,653 Business Assembly Institutional Mercantile Storage CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 39

46 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 IX. Compiled Data (Probability and Volume) All data collected for probability, the number of building in each jurisdiction by occupancy, as well as the data calculated for fire flows and CITM are compiled into tables and are provided in Appendix E for reference. Each table represents a comparison of data as follows: IFC Unsprinklered vs IFC Sprinklered NFPA 1 Unsprinklered vs NFPA 1 Sprinklered ISO Unsprinklered vs NFPA 13, 13R, 13D Sprinklered IFC Unsprinklered vs NFPA 13, 13R, 13D Sprinklered NFPA 1 Unsprinklered vs NFPA 13, 13R, 13D Sprinklered Two additional tables were provided in the One- and Two-family Dwellings that include Actual data collected in the Utiskul and Wu report[23] and the Bucks County Report[24]. Utiskul and Wu report Unsprinklered vs NFPA 13D Sprinklered Utiskul and Wu report Unsprinklered vs Bucks County, PA Report Sprinklered The data was evaluated based on the flows required for each of the occupancies in each of the model building codes. Required Fire Volume Unsprinklered Buildings: Almost all IFC and NFPA 1 occupancies require the same volume of water for unsprinklered buildings with the exception of the example for One- and Two-Family Dwellings 2. The ISO process requires less water than either of the codes for unsprinklered buildings. With the exception of the one example, it should be noted that both the IFC and NFPA 1 are interchangeable. Having stated that, the most conservative model building code, or the code that requires the most water for an unsprinklered building, will be used to represent those flows required for unsprinklered buildings. Required Fire Volume Sprinklered Buildings: NFPA 13, 13R and 13D provide additional requirements on the minimum flows required by sprinkler systems to contain a fire. In all cases, the water required by NFPA 13, 13R, and 13D is considerably less than that required by the model building codes for sprinklered buildings. Additionally, the NFPA report U.S. Experience with Sprinklers provides fire sprinkler statistics and indicates that typically only one or two sprinklers are required to control a fire. [25] The CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 40

47 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 report details that 88% of reported fires involve one or two sprinklers. However, for this report, the minimum volume of water to be used should be those volumes required by a recognized standard. With this information, it was decided that the data evaluated for sprinklered buildings will be projected through the use of the required volumes from NFPA 13, 13R & 13D based on calculations and design densities. Volume of Water Required The water required for sprinklered buildings added to the water required for inspection testing and maintenance is provided in Figure 2 for each of the occupancies. Likewise, the water required for unsprinklered buildings is provided in Figure 3. These two graphs detail the water required based on; probability, hazard, occupancy and construction type as discussed within this report and will not apply to all building throughout all jurisdictions. Volume Required Sprinklered Volume in Gallons 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1, FireVolume water Required CITM Figure 2 CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 41

48 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Volume in Gallons 9, , , , , , , , , One & Two Family Dwellings: Volume Required Unsprinklered One & Two One & Two 2 Apartment R2 Business Assembly Institutional Mercantile (HPS) Mercantile (OH II) Storage Figure 3 FireVolume water Required The data collected for One & Two Family Dwellings 1 is presented in Table 35 per the IFC and NFPA 13D. Table 35 - One & Two Family Dwelling 1 (IFC and NFPA 13D) [1][5] Gallons Average Average Gallons One & Two Required Gallons Per Total Number Required Family Sprinklered Year CITM Buildings of Fires Unsprinklered Dwellings 1 Building for All Per Year Building (IFC) (NFPA 13R) Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered The last column in each of the tables represents the percent of water used if all building were sprinklered over the water used if all buildings were unsprinklered. While theoretically this is not possible, the idea details comparing the total water used if all buildings were sprinklered as opposed to unsprinklered. In the case listed above, sprinklered buildings represent approximately 7% of water used in unsprinklered buildings. For CITM the volume required assumes all buildings in each jurisdiction are sprinklered. All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 60, Johnstown, OH 1, , ,446 20,322 7% St. Charles, MO 17, ,669,631 11, , ,147 7% Rochester, NY 49, ,300,298 31, , ,594 7% Orlando, FL 47, ,785,127 29, , ,354 7% Denver City, CO 152, ,671,468 96,070 2,131,920 2,227,990 7% Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, ,748, ,636 8,868,440 9,268,076 7% CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 42

49 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 36 represents the data calculated for actual fire data collected from the reports identified earlier. Table 36 - One & Two Family Dwelling 1 (Actual Fire Data) Average Gallons Gallons Number of Required One & Two Required Total Fires Per Unsprinklered Family "Bucks Buildings Year Based "Residential Dwellings 1 County on % Fire Sprinklers - Report" Buildings Water Usage" Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Flows / Building % 3, Johnstown, OH 1, ,967 1,637 19,446 21, % St. Charles, MO 17, ,530 20, , , % Rochester, NY 49, ,971 58, , , % Orlando, FL 47, ,713 55, , , % Denver City, CO 152, ,860, ,472 2,131,920 2,311, % Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2,196 7,738, ,573 8,868,440 9,615, % It is interesting to identify that for Table 36 the percent of water used is at 124%. This would indicate that at some point, sprinklered building vs unsprinklered buildings, the number of buildings sprinklered will use more water per year than unsprinklered building based on the CITM and the probability of a fire. The data collected for One & Two Family Dwellings 2 is presented in Table 37 per the IFC and NFPA 13D. Table 37 - One & Two Family Dwelling 2 (IFC and NFPA 13D) [1][5] One & Two Family Dwellings 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 240, Johnstown, OH 1, ,155,547 1,252 19,446 20,698 2% St. Charles, MO 17, ,678,523 15, , ,918 2% Rochester, NY 49, ,201,194 44, , ,985 2% Orlando, FL 47, ,140,510 42, , ,074 2% Denver City, CO 152, ,685, ,243 2,131,920 2,269,163 2% Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, ,992, ,909 8,868,440 9,439,349 2% In this table, the percent of water usage is down to 2% because the amount of water used in unsprinklered buildings is double that of One & Family Dwellings 1. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 43

50 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Apartment Buildings: The data collected for Apartment Buildings 2 is presented in Table 38 per the IFC and NFPA 13R. Table 38 - Apartment Buildings 2 (IFC and NFPA 13R) [1][6] Apartment Buildings 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 330,000 1, Johnstown, OH ,416 2, , ,758 26% St. Charles, MO 8, ,555,749 45,173 2,418,611 2,463,784 26% Rochester, NY 52, ,847, ,368 15,653,846 15,946,214 26% Orlando, FL 64, ,097, ,734 19,260,683 19,620,417 26% Denver City, CO Los Angeles City, CA Business Buildings: 120, ,387, ,105 36,039,068 36,712,173 26% 741,201 2, ,600,287 4,139, ,619, ,758,300 26% The data collected for Business Buildings is presented in Table 39 per the IFC and NFPA 13. Table 39 - Business Buildings (IFC and NFPA 13) [1][3] Business Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklere d Buildings Gallons / Building % 585,000 5, Johnstown, OH , , , % St. Charles, MO ,549 1, , , % Rochester, NY 1, ,322 4,894 1,564,460 1,569, % Orlando, FL 4, ,173,043 11,430 3,653,390 3,664, % Denver City, CO 8, ,490,345 24,265 7,756,070 7,780, % Los Angeles City, CA 33, ,580,901 93,352 29,839,300 29,932, % For business buildings the water required for fighting fires based on probability is significantly less than that for unsprinklered buildings. However, when the water required for CITM is added, the total water for sprinklered over unsprinklered buildings increases to 312%. This would indicate that at some point, sprinklered building costs would be more than unsprinklered costs. However, the fact remains that the total fees will still be distributed to both buildings. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 44

51 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Assembly Buildings: The data collected for Assembly Buildings is presented in Table 40 per the IFC and NFPA 13 Table 40 - Assembly Buildings (IFC and NFPA 13) [1][3] Assembly Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 240,000 7, Johnstown, OH ,658 1,739 17,913 19,652 35% St. Charles, MO ,885 19, , ,111 35% Rochester, NY ,794,298 56, , ,553 35% Orlando, FL 1, ,904,801 90, ,888 1,025,663 35% Denver City, CO 2, ,159, ,483 1,982,372 2,174,855 35% Los Angeles City, CA 12, ,433,550 1,076,048 11,082,176 12,158,224 35% Institutional Buildings: The data collected for Institutional Buildings is presented in Table 41 per the IFC and NFPA 13D. Table 41 - Institutional Buildings (IFC and NFPA 13D) [1][5] Institutional Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 270,000 5, Johnstown, OH , ,438 9,689 83% St. Charles, MO ,026 4, , ,244 83% Rochester, NY ,325 11, , ,476 83% Orlando, FL ,435 20, , ,845 83% Denver City, CO 1, ,095,357 45,283 1,699,698 1,744,981 83% Los Angeles City, CA 9, ,113, ,574 8,204,196 8,422,770 83% CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 45

52 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Mercantile Buildings: The data collected for Mercantile (HPS) Buildings is presented in Table 42 per the IFC and NFPA 13. Table 42 - Mercantile (HPS) Buildings (IFC and NFPA 13) [1][3] Mercantile Buildings (HPS) Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 270, , Johnstown, OH ,181 46, , , % St. Charles, MO , ,373 1,004,180 1,359, % Rochester, NY ,108, ,236 2,365,780 3,203, % Orlando, FL 1, ,474,504 1,869,626 5,283,008 7,152, % Denver City, CO 2, ,620,876 2,735,773 7,730,484 10,466, % Los Angeles City, CA 20, ,439,605 24,509,923 69,257,784 93,767, % Again, based on the data represented above, the sprinklered building will eventually use more water per year based on CITM of the building than unsprinklered buildings by 289%. Therefore, the fees for the sprinklered buildings will be more than the fees for the unsprinklered buildings at some point. The data collected for Mercantile (OH II) Buildings is presented in Table 43 per the IFC and NFPA 13. Table 43 - Mercantile (OH II) Buildings (IFC and NFPA 13) [1][3] Mercantile Buildings (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 270,000 33, Johnstown, OH ,181 7,600 35,256 42,856 69% St. Charles, MO ,347 57, , ,167 69% Rochester, NY ,108, , , ,715 69% Orlando, FL 1, ,474, ,439 1,403,008 1,705,447 69% Denver City, CO 2, ,620, ,552 2,052,984 2,495,536 69% Los Angeles City, CA 20, ,439,605 3,964,841 18,392,784 22,357,625 69% CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 46

53 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Storage Buildings: The data collected for Storage Buildings is presented in Table 44 per the IFC and NFPA 13. Table 44 - Storage Buildings (IFC and NFPA 13) [1][3] Storage Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) Gallons Required Sprinklered Building (NFPA 13) Average Gallons Per Year CITM for All Buildings Total Gallons All Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings Gallons / Building % 330, , Johnstown, OH ,835 92,734 43, ,379 59% St. Charles, MO , , , ,109 59% Rochester, NY ,701,359 1,480, ,815 2,177,359 59% Orlando, FL ,246, , ,905 1,321,464 59% Denver City, CO ,715,208 2,686,083 1,264,200 3,950,283 59% Los Angeles City, CA 7, ,439,013 22,975,605 10,813,425 33,789,030 59% Yearly Average: The yearly average for volume of water was calculated per building type, per building, based on the probability of a fire in the jurisdiction, for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. Then the percent of water was calculated per building type for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings in Table 45 per the IFC and NFPA 13, 13D and 13R. It is interesting to note that the percent of water used in almost all cases are less than 75%. Furthermore, the water used in one- and twofamily dwelling is less than 10%, while the water used in an apartment building might be less than 30%. The two anomalies over 100% can be accounted for in the volume of water used in a fire and the number of buildings with recorded fires. For instance, the probability of a fire in a business building is extremely low; hence the amount of water calculated by probability for an unsprinklered building is low. However, the amount of water used per year in CITM is what drives the higher percentage. When reviewing the water used in a fire condition, the percentage is less than 2%. For the other anomaly in a high piled storage configuration, the water used in a fire condition with a sprinkler system exceeds that of a fire condition without a sprinkler system. In this instance, IFC, NFPA 1 and ISO do not account for the hazard within the building as a part of the calculation. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 47

54 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Table 45 - Yearly Average of water used in sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. Yearly Fire Flow - Yearly Yearly Average NFPA 13, Fire Average Building Average Fire Sprinklered 13D, 13R Probability Fire Type CITM Water over IFC (Fires/Yr) Flow (Gal/Yr) Usage (Gal/Fire) (Gal/Yr) (Gal/Yr) One and Two Family Homes 1 Yes % No 60, % % Sprinklered Building Over Unsprinklered Building 7% One and Two Family Homes 2 Apartment Buildings (1) Apartment Buildings (2) Apartment Buildings (3) Business Building Assembly Building Institutional Building Mercantile Building 1 (OHII) Mercantile Building 2 (HPS) Storage Buildings Yes % No 240, % Yes 1, % No 270, % Yes 1, % No 330, % 1, ,188 Yes 1, % No 330, % 1, ,188 Yes 5, % No 585, % Yes 7, % No 240, % 2, ,640 Yes 5, % No 270, % 1, ,053 Yes 21, % ,029 No 270, % 1, ,593 Yes 204, % 1,204 3,404 4,608 No 270, % 1, ,593 Yes 132, % 3,194 1,505 4,699 No 330, % 7, ,986 2% 29% 26% 26% 307% 35% 84% 65% 289% 59% CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 48

55 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 X. Calculation of Fire Fees As discussed throughout the report, fees related to the water used in fire protection systems are typically based on the size of the fire service connection supplying the water to the building. The cost to the end user is billed either at one time capacity charge connection fee, a flat monthly fee, a metered water fee for a minimum volume of water or a combination of any of those listed. Therefore, the current total fees a purveyor charges can be assessed by the size of the mains installed to the site. The total fees currently collected by the purveyor will be designated as C T. The fees that should not be included are; tapping fees, equipment fees or any related labor associated with the installation of the fire protection mains. Those fees are considered construction costs and are not related to the flows within the mains. C T will be different for every jurisdiction. The cost of the current fee structure will provide a starting point to distribute the cost among sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. In theory, the total cost of the new fee structure should equal the cost of the existing fee structure per the equation below. Where: C T Total cost of existing fee structure C S Cost of sprinklered buildings C U Cost of unsprinklered buildings C T = C S + C U The above referenced fees are not directly proportionate. An added variable is provided to directly relate the fees to the quantity of water distributed between sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. The value of V T or the total volume of water required for a sprinklered and unsprinklered building is provided. The volume of water was calculated previously in Section 6 for Sprinklered and Unsprinklered buildings and Section VII for CITM. Subsequently, the total volume is defined by the following equation. V T = V S + V U V T Total volume of water required in gallons by probability V S Total volume of water required in sprinklered buildings in gallons by probability V U Total volume of water required in unsprinklered buildings in gallons by probability CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 49

56 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Additionally, V S and V U can be further broken down into volumes of water in the equations below: V S = B W/S * (F * V W/S + V CITM ) Where: B w/s Total number of sprinklered buildings in the occupancy F Probability of a fire in the jurisdiction per the building type per year V w/s Volume of water estimated in a sprinklered building during a fire in gallons V CITM Volume of water required CITM per year over a one hundred year period. V U = B W/O * F * V W/O Where: B w/o Total number of unsprinklered buildings in the occupancy V w/o Volume of water estimated in an unsprinklered building during a fire in gallons Combining the two initial equations yields the final equation. C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O This is the equation that will be used to evaluate the fire fees in each of the jurisdictions. Slight modifications will be necessary to adapt the information to the style of billing for fire fees per the current fee structure in the jurisdiction. The equation above is slightly modified when the cost per connection of an unsprinklered building exceeds the original cost of a sprinklered building. To keep this from happening, a capped fee for the unsprinklered building was added at the original fee charged for a sprinklered building. The fees for the sprinklered building are then revised to account for the additional charges. This can be provided at the discretion of the water purveyor. If not provided, once all but a few buildings are not protected, the fees for the unsprinklered building become extremely high, in some cases, in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. Therefore, the graph shows a cap on the unsprinklered building to keep the costs manageable. As stated previously, this could be implemented at the water purveyor s discretion. Johnstown, OH Currently, Johnstown, OH charges a tapping fee, Capacity Charge, and a metered charge for the volume of water used. Tapping fees are a part of construction costs and therefore should be paid by the user. The Capacity Charge is a onetime fee and based on the size of the line entering the building. The Capacity Charge is directly related to the volume of water and should be distributed between both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings as such: CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 50

57 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O The monthly fees would also be directly related to a volume of water and would be distributed to both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings based on the number of buildings: A set of graphs based on the number of buildings and fire fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered fees can be found in Appendix F. The volume of water used to develop the graphs was derived from IFC and NFPA 13, 13D, 13R and actual water data taken from the reports discussed. St. Charles, MO St Charles, MO charges a onetime fee for a water connection based on the size of the connection. The fee is based on the volume of water delivered to the site. There are no additional monthly fees for the use of the water. The fees for St Charles can be assessed as follows: C T = C S * B W/S * P * V W/S + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O Since no water is charged after the initial connection for CITM, the flat fee is the total fee per building. A set of graphs based on the number of buildings and fire fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered fees can be found in Appendix G. The volume of water used to develop the graphs was derived from IFC and NFPA 13, 13D, 13R and actual water data taken from the reports discussed. Rochester, NY Rochester, NY has two separate systems that provide fire services. There is a Domestic Fire Service Charge and a Holly High-Pressure System. There is a monthly Service charge as well as a Consumption Rate. New meter fee and Tapping fee are also assessed; however, these fees are not a part of continuous fee for volume of water and are related to construction costs. The fee for CITM can be provided through the consumption rate for each system. The fees for Rochester, NY are assessed for both systems using the same equation below: C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O A set of graphs for both systems based on the number of buildings and fire fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered fees can be found in Appendix H. The volume of water used to develop the graphs was derived from IFC and NFPA 13, 13D, 13R and actual water data taken from the reports discussed. Orlando, FL Orlando, FL has two separate rates that provide fire services. There is an Inside City Rate and an Outside city rate. Both of the rates are assessed monthly. Additionally, there is a monthly CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 51

58 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 Rate based on the kilo-gallons used during the month. There are no additional fees related to construction costs. The fees for Orlando, FL are assessed for both systems using the same equation below where the monthly fee can be assessed a minimum of twice a year for CITM: C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O A set of graphs for both systems based on the number of buildings and fire fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered fees can be found in Appendix I. The volume of water used to develop the graphs was derived from IFC and NFPA 13, 13D, 13R and actual water data taken from the reports discussed. Denver, CO Denver, CO has a fixed monthly fee based on fire service size only. There are no additional fees related to construction costs. The fees for Denver, CO are assessed using the equation below where the projected CITM is factored into the volume of water used per year and then distributed on a monthly basis: C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O A set of graphs for both systems based on the number of buildings and fire fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered fees can be found in Appendix J. The volume of water used to develop the graphs was derived from IFC and NFPA 13, 13D, 13R and actual water data taken from the reports discussed. LA City, CA LA City, CA has a fixed monthly fee based on fire service size. There is also a monthly service charge based on water used at a rate per HFC. The rates vary based on the size the service and the season in which the service is provided. Additionally, if more than a specified amount of water is used during the month, a second tier service amount is assessed. The equation below identifies the assessed fees using the first tier rate. If the maximum gallons of water are used by a fire protection system during CITM, then the fees for the second tier rate should only be applied to the owner of the system and not distributed to unsprinklered buildings. No additional construction fees are assessed. The volume of water for CITM should account for minimum flow each month as a part of the equation: C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O Where C T Includes the monthly fee for the different seasons. A set of graphs for both systems based on the number of buildings and fire fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered fees can be found in Appendix K. The volume of water used to develop the CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 52

59 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 graphs was derived from IFC and NFPA 13, 13D, 13R and actual water data taken from the reports discussed. Conclusion As shown in each of the calculated data sheets and graphs generated in the appendices, the fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings are unique in how each of the jurisdictions currently charges for water use. However, each of the jurisdictions can be adapted to use the same basic equation as fees are re-distributed amongst sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. C T * V T = C S * B W/S * (P * V W/S + V CITM ) + C U * B W/O * P * V W/O In all cases, when a building is provided with a fire protection system, the amount of water used to fight the fire is less than that of buildings without a fire protection system when comparing a single building. The commodity of water is being sold to the end user. By virtue of this study, the only time water is used, is during a fire or during CITM. Therefore, if both are accounted for by volume, and fire service departments will use the water regardless of whether a building is protected by a sprinkler system or not, then the water used should be distributed to both buildings and not borne by the owner that provides a means for reducing the water used. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 53

60 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 XI. American Water Works Association (AWWA) American Water Works Association provides guidance on calculating fire protection fees through their document Chapter IV.8 Rates for Fire Protection Service. [26] The document provides useful information regarding: issues, history, defining public and private fire protection and several means for calculating fire protection costs. Basically there are two methods for calculating fire protection fees: Base - extra capacity method Commodity demand cost allocation It is important to understand that AWWA recognizes that water used for fire protection should be accounted for by the purveyor. However, each of the calculations presented do not provide a means of allocating fees based on the potential water used to fight a fire when a building is provided with a fire protection system. This report is not intended to replace the means and methods of calculating the total water or costs associated with fire protection water. The means for calculating total costs are still valid and can be used to determine total fees. The equations within this report would be used to supplement or further define the cost allocation when a sprinkler system is in place. For instance, the example provided by AWWA, Table IV.8-3 Customer class fire flow demands and unit cost Base extra capacity method (test year) below; represents the public fire service cost allocation for the base-extra capacity method. Table 46 IV.8-3 Customer class fire flow demands and unit cost - Base extra capacity method (test year) Maximum Equivalent Fire Line Duration Number of Customer Class Needed Fire Service Demands No. Minutes Customers Flow gpm 1,000 gallons Inside City: Retail Service 1 Residential 1, ,480 1,857,600 2 Commercial 2, , ,200 3 Industrial 3, ,400 4 Total Inside City Fire protection Units 16,735 2,326,200 5 Total Fire Protection Cost $516,180 6 Total Inside City Fire Protection Units 2,326,200 7 Unit Cost, $/Unit $ CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 54

61 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 The total cost for residential fees can be calculated by taking the Total Fire Protection Cost and multiplying it by the ratio of the number of Residential Equivalent Fire Service Demands by the Total Inside City Equivalent Fire Service Demands: $516, * (1,857,600 / 2,326,200) = $412, The information is then plugged into the equation provided in Section XI as Total Cost. The information plugged into the spreadsheet in Appendix L to calculate the fee per customer is as follows: Total buildings 15,480 Probability 0.35% Line Size 1 Fee Cap N/A Fees Received Currently $412, Appendix L provides two examples of the calculation for a residential occupancy. The first example shows the fees for sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings without a capped fee associated with the unsprinklered building. The graphic illustration indicates that as the number of sprinklered buildings increase, the price of the unsprinklered building increases. This stands to reason since the amount of water used in an actual fire in a sprinklered building is 90% less than an unsprinklered building. Since the total water produced has to be accounted for in the fees identified by AWWA calculations, the fees for the water not used are shifted to the unsprinklered buildings. The second example provides an imaginary cap identified at $5.00 for an unsprinklered property. When the cap is reached, the fees are then redistributed to the sprinklered buildings. The model used in this exercise expands the results of the AWWA example providing an avenue of differentiating between sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings. The same calculations can be performed on private mains and added to both public and private fees. CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 55

62 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 XII. References [1] International Code Council, International Fire Code. Country Club Hills, IL: International Code Council, Inc., [2] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 1, Fire Code. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, [3] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 13, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, [4] Insurance Services Office, Guide for Determination of Needed Fire Flow. Jersey City, NJ: ISO Properties, Inc., [5] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 13D, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in One and Two Family Dwellings and Manufactured Homes. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, [6] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 13R, Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems in Residential Occupancies up to and Including Four Stories in Height. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, [7] Water Research Foundation, "Residential End Uses of Water," Denver, CO, [8] J.F., Barber, N.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K., and Maupin, M.A. Kenny, "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005," U.S. Geological Survey Circular 1344, 52 p., [9] U.S. Census Bureau. ( ) American Community Survey. [Online]. [10] U.S. Census Bureau. (2007) Economic Census. [Online]. [11] The Village of Johnstown Ohio. Utilities Department. [Online]. [12] Missouri City of Saint Charles. Public Works Fees. [Online]. [13] OUC The Reliable One. Rates. [Online]. [14] New York City of Rochester. Rates for Water Consumption and Services. [Online]. [15] Denver Water Water Rates. [Online]. [16] LA Department of Water & Power. Water Rates. [Online]. [17] International Code Council, International Building Code. Country Club Hills, IL: International Code Council, [18] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 101 Life Safety Code. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, [19] National Fire Protection Association, NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems. Quincy, MA: National Fire Protection Association, CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 56

63 Fire Flow Water Consumption February 10, 2012 [20] U.S. Census Bureau. Census of Housing. [Online]. [21] U.S. Census Bureau Nonemployer Statistics. [Online]. [22] National Fire Protection Association, "Structure Fires by Occupancy," [23] Utiskul and Wu, "Residential Fire Sprinklers - Water Usage and Meter Performance Study," The Fire Protection Research Foundation, Quincy, Final Report [24] P.E., CSP, FSFPE Greg Jakubowski, "Communities with Home Fire Sprinklers: The Experience in Bucks County, Pennsylvania," Fire Planning Associates, Inc., Washington Crossing, PA, [25] John R. Hall Jr., "U.S. Experience with Sprinklers," National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, [26] American Water Works Association (AWWA). (2010) [Online]. atistics/tabid/85/default.aspx CODE CONSULTANTS, INC. Page 57

64 Appendix A

65 Johnstown, OH Population: 4,427 GENERAL / CONTACT INFORMATION Utilities: (Jean) Fire Department: Drought Conditions: No WATER SERVICE FEE STRUCTURE GENERAL DATA Website: CENSUS DATA FIRE SERVICE WATER DOMESTIC WATER Residential Profile: Monthly Charge: None Total Housing Units = 1,928 Metered Charge: Fire line metered (same as domestic rates) Economic Profile: Incentive: One fifth of Capacity Charge will be charge if for fire protection only. Capacity Charge is a one time fee. SPRINKLERED FACILITY STATISTICS Unprotected Facility: Hydrant water not metered.

66 St. Charles, MO Population: 63,695 GENERAL / CONTACT INFORMATION Water Department: Fire Department: Drought Conditions: No. WATER SERVICE FEE STRUCTURE GENERAL DATA Website: CENSUS DATA FIRE SERVICE WATER DOMESTIC WATER Residential Profile: Total Housing Units = 27,507 Economic Profile: Monthly Charge: No monthly flat charge for a fire line. Flat Rate: $ per day domestic (in addition to the metered charge) Metered Charge: Fire lines not metered. Incentive: No SPRINKLERED FACILITY STATISTICS Unprotected Facility: Hydrant water not metered.

67 Rochester, NY Population: 208,001 GENERAL / CONTACT INFORMATION Utilities: WATER SERVICE FEE STRUCTURE GENERAL DATA Drought Conditions: No New Water Fees: Fire Department: Website: CENSUS DATA FIRE SERVICE WATER DOMESTIC WATER Residential Profile: Monthly Charge: Total Housing Units = 102,094 Economic Profile: Metered Charge: SPRINKLERED FACILITY STATISTICS Incentive: None. Unprotected Facility: Hydrant water not metered.

68 Orlando, FL Population: 227,961 GENERAL / CONTACT INFORMATION Orlando Utilities Commission: (Leigh) Orlando Fire Department: Drought Conditions: None WATER SERVICE FEE STRUCTURE GENERAL DATA Website: CENSUS DATA FIRE SERVICE WATER DOMESTIC WATER Residential Profile: Monthly Charge: Fixed fee per month based upon service connection size. Total Housing Units = 112,026 Economic Profile: SPRINKLERED FACILITY STATISTICS Metered Charge: In addition to the monthly charge, if any fire service water is used it is charged at $1.54 per kilogallon. Incentive: No Unprotected Facility: No fee on water bill for use of hydrant water.

69 Denver, CO Population: 600,158 GENERAL / CONTACT INFORMATION Denver Water Administration: (Louis) Drought Conditions: Different Winter / Summer rates (Commercial facilities only) WATER SERVICE FEE STRUCTURE GENERAL DATA Denver Fire Department: Website: CENSUS DATA FIRE SERVICE WATER DOMESTIC WATER Residential Profile: Monthly Charge: Fixed fee per month based upon service connection size. Total Housing Units = 274,061 Economic Profile: Metered Charge: Fire lines not metered. SPRINKLERED FACILITY STATISTICS Incentive: No Unprotected Facility: No fee on water bill for use of hydrant water. Water not metered if used for fire protection.

70 Los Angeles County, CA Population: 3,792,621 GENERAL / CONTACT INFORMATION General Questions: WATER SERVICE FEE STRUCTURE GENERAL DATA Drought Conditions: High Season / Low Season rates + 1st Tier /2nd Tier rates within each season. Rate Department: Los Angeles Fire Department: Website: CENSUS DATA FIRE SERVICE WATER DOMESTIC WATER Residential Profile: Monthly Charge: Fixed fee per month based upon service Residential: Commercial: Total Housing Units = 1,337,706 Economic Profile: Metered Charge: In addition to the monthly charge, if any SPRINKLERED FACILITY STATISTICS Incentive: No Unprotected Facility: Hydrant water not metered.

71 Appendix B

72 Building Requirements Discription IBC NFPA ISO One and Two Family Homes Residential, R 3 Residential, 1 and 2 Family Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Type VB Type V (000) Class 1, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Apartment Buildings Residential, R 2 Residential Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Type VB Type V (000) Class 1, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 21,000 sf 21,000 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 7,000 sf 7,000 sf Construction 2 hour exterior bearing walls Type IIIB Type III (200) Class 2, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 48,000 sf 48,000 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 16,000 sf 16,000 sf Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 48,000 sf 48,000 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 16,000 sf 16,000 sf Business Building Business, B Business Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 69,000 sf 69,000 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 23,000 sf 23,000 sf High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible Type IA Type I (332) Class 6, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected Not permitted Not permitted Assembly Buildings Assembly, A 2 Assembly > 1,000 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 28,500 sf 25,500 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 9,500 sf 8,500 sf High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible Type IA Type I (332) Class 6, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected Not permitted Not permitted Institutional Buildings Hospital, I 2 Health Care Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 33,000 sf 33,000 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 11,000 sf 11,000 sf High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible Type IA Type I (332) Class 6, C 2 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected Not permitted Not permitted Mall Building Covered Mall Building Covered Mall Building Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 3 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected Not permitted Not permitted Mercantile Building (HPS & OH II) Mercantile, M Mercantile Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 3 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 37,500 sf 37,500 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 12,500 sf 12,500 sf Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Storage, S 1 Storage, Ordinary Hazard Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 4 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected 52,500 sf 52,500 sf Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected 17,500 sf 17,500 sf Unlimited area storage warehouse Storage, S 1 Storage, Ordinary Hazard Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible Type IIB Type II (000) Class 3, C 4 Maximum allowable area per floor, sprinkler protected Unlimited Unlimited Maximum allowable area per floor, non sprinkler protected Not permitted Not permitted

73 Building Requirements Fire Water Volume Requirements (Gallons) Building Discription Sprinklers Building (sf) IFC NFPA 1 ISO NFPA 13 One and Two Family Homes Construction Classification: Yes 2,000 30,000 30,000 60, Unprotected, Combustible No 2,000 60,000 60, ,000 Construction Classification: Yes 5, ,000 30,000 60, Unprotected, Combustible No 5, ,000 60, ,000 Apartment Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Yes 7, ,000 72, ,000 1,560 No 7, , , ,000 Construction Classification: Yes 16, ,000 82, ,000 1,560 2 hour exterior bearing walls No 16, , , ,000 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Yes 16, ,000 82, ,000 1,560 Noncombustible No 16, , , ,000 Business Building Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 23, , ,340 60,000 5,700 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 23, , , ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes 40,000/Floor 270, ,840 60,000 5,700 Noncombustible (10 floors) No 10 Floors 450,000 Assembly Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 8, ,000 72,000 60,000 7,500 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 8, , , ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes 50,000/Floor 360, ,120 60,000 7,500 Noncombustible (10 Floors) No 10 Floors 450,000 Institutional Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 11, ,000 72,000 60,000 5,835 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 11, , , ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes 60,000/Floor 360, ,000 60,000 5,835 Noncombustible (10 Floors) No 10 Floors 540,000 Mall Building Construction Classification: Yes 500, , ,000 60,000 21,120 Unprotected, Noncombustible No N/A 1,440,000 Mercantile Building 2 (HPS) Construction Classification: Yes 12, , , , ,000 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 12, , , ,000 Mercantile Building 1 (OH II) Construction Classification: Yes 12, , ,000 60,000 33,000 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 12, , , ,000 Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Construction Classification: Yes 17, , , , ,000 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 17, , , ,000 Unlimited area storage warehouse Construction Classification: Yes 1,000, , , , ,225 Unprotected, Noncombustible No N/A 1,680,000 * Highlited areas indicate that there are no flow requirements available

74 IBC Building Requirements IBC Occupancy Classification & Building Discription Construction Type One and Two Family Homes Residential, R 3 Construction Classification: Type V B Unprotected, Combustible Sprinklers Max Allowable Area / Floor (sf) Building (sf) IFC Fire Water Volume Requirements Required 20 psi (gpm) Table B105.1 Duration (Hours) Table B105.1 Total (Gallons) Notes Yes Unlimited 2, ,000 B105.1 No Unlimited 2, ,000 Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 5, ,000 B105.1 (Exception) Type V B Unprotected, Combustible No Unlimited 5, ,000 Apartment Buildings Residential, R 2 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Type V B Yes 21,000 7, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) No 7,000 7, ,000 Construction Classification: Yes 48,000 16, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIIB 2 hour exterior bearing walls No 16,000 16, ,000 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Yes 48,000 16, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Noncombustible No 16,000 16, ,000 Business Building Business, B Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 69,000 23, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No 23,000 23, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes Unlimited 120,000 (3 floors) ,000 B104.3, B105.2 (Exception) Type IA Noncombustible (10 floors) No Not permitted N/A Assembly Buildings Assembly, A 2 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 28,500 9, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No 9,500 9, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes Unlimited 150,000 (3 floors) ,000 B104.3, B105.2 (Exception) Type IA Noncombustible (10 Floors) No Not permitted N/A Institutional Buildings Hospital, I 2 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 33,000 11, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No 11,000 11, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes Unlimited 180,000 (3 floors) ,000 B104.3, B105.2 (Exception) Type IA Noncombustible (10 Floors) No Not permitted N/A Mall Building Covered Mall Building Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 500, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No Not permitted N/A Mercantile Building (HPS & OH II) Mercantile, M Construction Classification: Yes 37,500 12, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No 12,500 12, ,000 Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Storage, S 1 Construction Classification: Yes 52,500 17, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No 17,500 17, ,000 Unlimited area storage warehouse Storage, S 1 Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 1,000, ,000 B105.2 (Exception) Type IIB Unprotected, Noncombustible No Not permitted N/A

75 NFPA 5000 Building Requirements NFPA Occupancy Classification & Construction Type Max Allowable Area / Floor (sf) NFPA 1 Fire Water Volume Requirements Required 20 psi (gpm) Table B105.1 Duration (Hours) Table B105.1 Total (Gallons) Notes Building Discription Sprinklers Building (sf) One and Two Family Homes Residential, 1 and 2 Family Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 2, , , Less than 30 ft Type V (000) Unprotected, Combustible No Unlimited 2, , Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 5, , Greater than 30 ft Type V (000) Unprotected, Combustible No Unlimited 5, , Apartment Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Residential Type V (000) Yes 21,000 7, , No 7,000 7, ,000 Construction Classification: Yes 48,000 16, , Type III (200) 2 hour exterior bearing walls No 16,000 16, ,000 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Yes 48,000 16, , Type II (000) Noncombustible No 16,000 16, ,000 Business Building Business Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 69,000 23, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No 23,000 23, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes Unlimited 120,000 (3 floors) , , Type I (332) Noncombustible (10 floors) No Not permitted N/A Assembly Buildings Assembly > 1,000 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 25,500 8, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No 8,500 8, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes Unlimited 150,000 (3 floors) , , Type I (332) Noncombustible (10 Floors) No Not permitted N/A Institutional Buildings Health Care Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 33,000 11, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No 11,000 11, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes Unlimited 180,000 (3 floors) , , Type I (332) Noncombustible (10 Floors) No Not permitted N/A Mall Building Covered Mall Building Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 500, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No Not permitted N/A Mercantile Building (HPS & OH II) Mercantile Construction Classification: Yes 37,500 12, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No 12,500 12, ,000 Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Storage, Ordinary Hazard Construction Classification: Yes 52,500 17, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No 17,500 17, ,000 Unlimited area storage warehouse Storage, Ordinary Hazard Construction Classification: Yes Unlimited 1,000, , Type II (000) Unprotected, Noncombustible No Not permitted N/A

76 ISO Building Requirements ISO Fire Water Volume Requirements Needed Fire Flow NFF Building Discription Construction Class Sprks Building (sf) Effective Area (A i ) F Construction Factor C i = 18F(A i ) 0.5 Construction Factor C i Adjusted Appendix A Combustibility Class O i Exposure/Communication (X+P) i NFF = (C i )(Oi)[1.0+(X+P) i ] Adjusted NFF Duration (Hours) Flow One and Two Family Homes Residential, R 3 Construction Classification: Yes 2, ,000 Class 1 Unprotected, Combustible No 2, ,207 1,250 C ,063 1, ,000 Construction Classification: Yes 5, ,000 Class 1 Unprotected, Combustible No 5, ,909 2,000 C , ,000 Apartment Buildings Residential, R 2 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Class 1 Yes 7, ,000 No 7, ,259 2,250 C ,913 2, ,000 Construction Classification: Yes 16, ,000 Class 2 2 hour exterior bearing walls No 16, ,277 2,250 C ,913 2, ,000 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Yes 16, ,000 Class 3 Noncombustible No 16, ,821 1,750 C ,488 1, ,000 Business Building Business, B Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 23, ,000 Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 23, ,184 2,250 C ,913 2, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 60, ,000 Class 6 (40,000/Floor) Protected, Noncombustible (10 floors) No 60, ,645 2,750 C ,338 2, ,000 Assembly Buildings Assembly, A 2 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 9, ,000 Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 9, ,404 1,500 C ,275 1, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 75, ,000 Class 6 (50,000/Floor) Protected, Noncombustible (10 Floors) No 75, ,958 3,000 C ,550 2, ,000 Institutional Buildings Hospital, I 2 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 11, ,000 Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 11, ,510 1,500 C ,275 1, ,000 High Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 90, ,000 Class 6 (60,000/Floor) Protected, Noncombustible (10 Floors) No 90, ,240 3,250 C ,763 3, ,000 Mall Building Covered Mall Building Construction Classification: Yes 500, ,000 Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 500, ,182 6,000 C ,000 6, ,440,000 Mercantile Building (HPS & OH II) Mercantile, M Construction Classification: Yes N/A* Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 12, ,610 1,500 C ,500 1, ,000 Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Storage, S 1 Construction Classification: Yes N/A* Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 17, ,905 2,000 C ,300 2, ,000 Unlimited area storage warehouse Storage, S 1 Construction Classification: Yes N/A* Class 3 Unprotected, Noncombustible No 1,000, ,400 6,000 C ,900 7, ,680,000 * Minimum Flow Requirements are Derived from NFPA 13

77 Nation Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Building Design Nation Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Fire Water Volume Requirements Building Discription NFPA Pamphlet Building Hazard Building (sf) Sprinkler Number of Systems Ceiling Height (ft) Density (gpm/sf) Calc Area (ft 2 ) Sprk Flow (gpm) Hose Stream (gpm) Total Flow (gpm) Duration (Hours) Total Gallons Notes One and Two Family Homes Residential 1 and 2 Family Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible NFPA 13D Residential 13D 2,000 Residential 1 9' N/A 2 Sprks 26 N/A 26 7 min min applied based on Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible NFPA 13D Residential 13D 5,000 Residential 1 9' N/A 2 Sprks 26 N/A min min applied based on Apartment Buildings Residential, R 2 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible NFPA 13R Residential 13R 7,000 Residential 1 9' N/A 4 Sprks 52 N/A ,560 Construction Classification: 2 hour exterior bearing walls NFPA 13R Residential 13R 16,000 Residential 1 9' N/A 4 Sprks 52 N/A ,560 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13R Residential 13R 16,000 Residential 1 9' N/A 4 Sprks 52 N/A ,560 Business Building Business, B Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) Light Hazard 23,000 Quick Response 1 9' , High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible (10 floors) NFPA 13 (2010) Light Hazard 40,000/Floor Quick Response 10 9' , Assembly Buildings Assembly, A 2 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) Light Hazard 8,500 Quick Response 1 20' , , High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible (10 Floors) NFPA 13 (2010) Light Hazard 50,000/Floor Quick Response 10 20' , , Institutional Buildings Hospital, I 2 Low Rise, Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) Light Hazard 11,000 Quick Response 1 12' , High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Noncombustible (10 Floors) NFPA 13 (2010) Light Hazard 60,000/Floor Quick Response 20 12' , Mall Building Covered Mall Building Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) Ordinary Hazard 500,000 Quick Response 10 14' , Mercantile Building (HPS) Mercantile 2, M (HPS) Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) High Piled Storage (HPS) 12,500 Standard Response 1 24' ,000 1, , ,000 Group A Plastics Shelf Storage to 15' 0" Table (a) High Temp Mercantile Building (OH II) Mercantile 1, M (OH II) Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) Ordinary Hazard Group II (OH II) 12,500 Quick Response 1 20' , ,000 Standard Mercantile Occupancy Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Storage, S 1 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) Extra Hazard Group II 17,500 Standard Response 1 20' , , ,000 Class I IV on racks to 12' 0" Table High Temp Unlimited area storage warehouse Storage, S 1 Construction Classification: Unprotected, Noncombustible NFPA 13 (2010) ESFR 1,000,000 ESFR K ' 52 psi 12 sprks 1, , ,225 Group A Cartoned unexpanded Plastics 35' Storage Height Table

78 Appendix C

79 Commisioning, Inspection, Testing & Maintenance (CITM) Building Requirements Building Discription Sprinklers Building (sf) Average Volume Per Year Over a 100 Year Period One and Two Family Homes Construction Classification: Yes 2, Unprotected, Combustible Construction Classification: Yes 5, Unprotected, Combustible Apartment Buildings Construction Classification: Unprotected, Combustible Yes 7, Construction Classification: Yes 16, hour exterior bearing walls Construction Classification: Unprotected, Yes 16, Noncombustible Business Building Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 23, Unprotected, Noncombustible High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes 40,000/Floor 6,673 Noncombustible (10 floors) Assembly Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 9, Unprotected, Noncombustible High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes 50,000/Floor 8,275 Noncombustible (10 Floors) Institutional Buildings Low Rise, Construction Classification: Yes 11, Unprotected, Noncombustible High Rise, Construction Classification: Protected, Yes 60,000/Floor 9,948 Noncombustible (10 Floors) Mall Building Construction Classification: Yes 500,000 94,618 Unprotected, Noncombustible Mercantile Building (HPS) Construction Classification: Yes 12,500 3,404 Unprotected, Noncombustible Mercantile Building (OH II) Construction Classification: Yes 12, Unprotected, Noncombustible Storage warehouse (not unlimited area building) Construction Classification: Yes 17,500 1,505 Unprotected, Noncombustible Unlimited area storage warehouse Construction Classification: Yes 1,000,000 74,377 Unprotected, Noncombustible

80 One & Two Family Homes 2,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Sq Ft Gallons/Sq Ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 2,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Fill & Drain Commissioning Flushing not required, can be combined with the domestic. Inspectors Test Total 86 Inspection Testing (Not required by NFPA 13D) Recommended a minimum once a year Years 2 4 Outlet size 4.9 Inspectors Test Gallons/min required 13 Time (min) 1 Year 5 Total (gallons) 13 Inspectors Test Backflow Testing (Not required by NFPA 13D) Years 6 9 Obstruction Investigation (Not required by NFPA 13) Inspectors Test Year 10 Inspectors Test Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,170 Total Volume Average Volume Per Year For 100 Years 1,373 14

81 One & Two Family Homes 5,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Sq Ft Gallons/Sq Ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 2,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Fill & Drain Commissioning Flushing not required, can be combined with the domestic. Inspectors Test Total 176 Inspection Testing (Not required by NFPA 13D) Recommended a minimum once a year Year 2 4 Outlet size 4.9 Inspectors Test Gallons/min required 13 Time (min) 1 Year 5 Total (gallons) 13 Inspectors Test Backflow Testing (Not required by NFPA 13D) Year 6 9 Obstruction Investigation (Not required by NFPA 13) Inspectors Test Year 10 Inspectors Test Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,170 Total Volume Average Volume Per Year For 100 Years 1,463 15

82 Apartment Building 7,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Sq Ft Gallons/Sq Ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 2,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Flushing Underground Flushing 2" underground Fill & Drain Commissioning Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 114 Inspectors Test Time (min) 2 Backflow Test Total water (gallons) 228 Total 733 Year 2 4 Inspection Testing Inspectors Test Outlet size 5.6 Backflow Test Pressure (psi) 40 Total 778 Time (min) 1 Year 5 Total (gallons) 35 Inspectors Test Backflow Test Backflow test Obstruction investigation Outlet size 1 k factor Total 329 Pressure (psi) Year 6 9 Time (min) 1 Inspectors Test Total (gallons) 189 Backflow Test Total 1,038 Year 10 Inspectors Test Backflow Test Obstruction investigation Total 329 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,375 Backflow Test ,980 Obstruction investigation ,260 Total 24,615 Total Volume 27,823

83 Apartment Building 16,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Sq Ft Gallons/Sq Ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 2,000 sq ft 16, Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Flushing Underground Flushing 2" underground Fill & Drain Commissioning Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 114 Inspectors Test Time (min) 2 Backflow Test Total 1,003 Total water (gallons) 228 Year 2 4 Inspectors Test Inspection Testing Backflow Test Outlet size 5.6 Total 778 Pressure (psi) 40 Year 5 Time (min) 1 Inspectors Test Total (gallons) 35 Backflow Test Obstruction investigation Backflow test Total 419 Outlet size 1 k factor Year 6 9 Pressure (psi) Inspectors Test Time (min) 1 Backflow Test Total (gallons) 189 Total 1,038 Year 10 Inspectors Test Backflow Test Obstruction investigation Total 419 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,375 Backflow Test ,980 Obstruction investigation ,880

84 Office Building 23,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 23,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 225 sq ft Flushing Underground Building Dimentions 125' x 184' Fill & Drain Commissioning /4" branchlines Inspectors Test " near main Backflow Test /2" far main Total 2,444 4" Riser Year 2 4 Total 268 Inspectors Test Backflow Test ,265 Flushing 4" underground Total 2,475 Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 390 Year 5 Time (min) 2 Inspectors Test Total water (gallons) 780 Backflow Test Obstruction investigation Inspection Testing Total 1,093 Outlet size 5.6 Year 6 9 Pressure (psi) 40 Inspectors Test Time (min) 1 Backflow Test ,020 Total (gallons) 35 Total 3,300 Year 10 Backflow test Inspectors Test Outlet size 2 k factor Backflow Test Pressure (psi) Obstruction investigation Time (min) 1 Total 1,093 Total (gallons) 755 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,300 Backflow Test ,950 Obstruction investigation ,824

85 Office Building High Rise /10 floors 40,000 sq ft / floor 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 40,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 225 sq ft Flushing Underground 1, ,760 Building Dimentions 200' x 200' Fill & Drain Commissioning 4, , /4" branchlines Inspectors Test ,058 4" near main Standpipe Fill & Drain Comm , /2" far main Standpipe Inspectors Test " Riser Standpipe Test 1, ,500 Total 442 Pump Test ,500 Total 28,166 Gallons Floors Gallons 10 Floors Year 2 4 Inspectors Test ,115 Flushing 6" underground Standpipe Inspection Testing Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 880 Pump Test 3, ,250 Time (min) 2 Total 15,777 total water (gallons) 1760 Year 5 Inspectors Test ,372 Inspection Testing Standpipe Inspection Testing Outlet size 5.6 Standpipe Flow Test 1, ,500 Pressure (psi) 150 Obstruction investigation 4, ,423 Time (min) 1 Pump Test 3, ,750 Total (gallons) 69 Total 11,182 Year 6 9 Gallons Floors Gallons Inspectors Test , Floors Standpipe Inspection Testing Pump Test 3, ,000 Standpipe (Combined) Number Length (ft) Gallons/ft Gallons Total 21,036 Building Height 120' 0" 6" Standpipe riser Year 10 6" feed mains Inspectors Test ,372 6" Riser Standpipe Inspection Testing Total 625 Standpipe Flow Test 1, ,500 Obstruction investigation 4, ,423 Standpipe Flow Test Flow (gpm) Time (min) Gallons Pump Test 3, ,750 Most remote standpipe Total 11,182 2nd standpipe Years 11 through 100 Total 1500 Inspectors Test ,454 Standpipe Inspection Testing ,345 Pump number Flow (gpm) time (min) Gallons Standpipe Flow Test 1, , gpm pump rated for 100 psi (100%) Pump Test 3, , gpm pump rated for 100 psi (150%) Obstruction investigation 4, ,614 Total 579,914 Total 3750

86 Assembly Building 8,500 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Tree System Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 8,500 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 225 sq ft Flushing Underground Building Dimentions 85' x 100' Fill & Drain Commissioning /4" branchlines Inspectors Test /2" Backflow Test " Riser Total 1,898 Total 86 Year 2 4 Inspectors Test Flushing 4" underground Backflow Test ,264 flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 390 Total 2,476 time (min) 2 Year 5 total water (gallons) 780 Inspectors Test Backflow Test Inspection Testing Obstruction investigation Outlet size 5.6 Total 911 Pressure (psi) 40 Year 6 9 Time (min) 1 Inspectors Test Total (gallons) 35 Backflow Test ,019 Total 3,302 Backflow test Year 10 Outlet size 2 k factor Inspectors Test Pressure (psi) Backflow Test Time (min) 1 Obstruction investigation Total (gallons) 755 Total 911 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,375 Backflow Test ,918 Obstruction investigation ,540 75,833

87 Assembly Buildings High Rise /10 floors 50,000 sq ft / floor 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 50,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 225 sq ft Flushing Underground 3, ,120 Building Dimentions 250' x 200' Fill & Drain Commissioning 5, , /4" branchlines Inspectors Test ,058 4" near main Standpipe Fill & Drain Comm. 1, , /2" far main Standpipe Inspectors Test " riser Standpipe Test 2, ,000 Total 525 Pump Test ,000 Total 36,150 Gallons Floors Gallons 10 Floors Year 2 4 Inspectors Test ,115 Flushing 8" underground Standpipe Inspection Testing Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 1560 Pump Test 5, ,000 Time (min) 2 Total 19,527 total water (gallons) 3120 Year 5 Inspectors Test ,372 Inspection Testing Standpipe Inspection Testing Outlet size 5.6 Standpipe Flow Test 2, ,000 Pressure (psi) 150 Obstruction investigation 6, ,256 Time (min) 1 Pump Test 5, ,000 Total (gallons) 69 Total 14,764 Year 6 9 Gallons Floors Gallons Inspectors Test , Floors Standpipe Inspection Testing Pump Test 5, ,000 Standpipe (Combined) Number Length (ft) Gallons/ft Gallons Total 26,036 Building Height 120' 0" 6" Standpipe riser Year 10 6" feed mains Inspectors Test ,372 6" Riser Standpipe Inspection Testing Total 1009 Standpipe Flow Test 2, ,000 Obstruction investigation 6, ,256 Standpipe Flow Test Flow (gpm) Time (min) Gallons Pump Test 5, ,000 Most remote standpipe Total 14,764 2nd standpipe Years 11 through 100 3rd standpipe Inspectors Test ,454 Total 2000 Standpipe Inspection Testing ,345 Standpipe Flow Test 2, ,000 Pump number Flow (gpm) time (min) Gallons Pump Test 5, , gpm pump rated for 100 psi (100%) Obstruction investigation 5, , gpm pump rated for 100 psi (150%) Total 716,237 Total 5000

88 Institutional Building 11,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Tree System Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 11,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 225 sq ft Flushing Underground Building Dimentions 110' x 100' Fill & Drain Commissioning /4" branchlines Inspectors Test /2" Backflow Test " Riser Total 1,954 Total 104 Year 2 4 Inspectors Test Flushing 4" underground Backflow Test ,264 flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 390 Total 2,476 time (min) 2 Year 5 total water (gallons) 780 Inspectors Test Backflow Test Inspection Testing Obstruction investigation Outlet size 5.6 Total 930 Pressure (psi) 40 Year 6 9 Time (min) 1 Inspectors Test Total (gallons) 35 Backflow Test ,019 Total 3,302 Backflow test Year 10 Outlet size 2 k factor Inspectors Test Pressure (psi) Backflow Test Time (min) 1 Obstruction investigation Total (gallons) 755 Total 930 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,375 Backflow Test ,918 Obstruction investigation ,878 Total 76,172

89 Institutional Buildings High Rise /10 floors 60,000 sq ft / floor 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 60,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 225 sq ft Flushing Underground 3, ,120 Building Dimentions 300' x 200' Fill & Drain Commissioning 6, , /4" branchlines Inspectors Test 1, ,115 4" near main Standpipe Fill & Drain Comm , /2" far main Standpipe Inspectors Test " riser Standpipe Test 2, ,000 Total 656 Pump Test ,000 Total 41,740 Gallons Floors Gallons 10 Floors Year 2 4 Inspectors Test 1, ,230 Flushing 8" underground Standpipe Inspection Testing Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 1560 Pump Test 5, ,000 Time (min) 2 Total 23,642 total water (gallons) 3120 Year 5 Inspectors Test 1, ,743 Inspection Testing Standpipe Inspection Testing Outlet size 5.6 Standpipe Flow Test 2, ,000 Pressure (psi) 150 Obstruction investigation 7, ,433 Time (min) 1 Pump Test 5, ,000 Total (gallons) 69 Total 17,314 Year 6 9 Systems/Fl Gallons Floors Gallons Inspectors Test 1, , Floors Standpipe Inspection Testing Pump Test 5, ,000 Standpipe (Combined) Number Length (ft) Gallons/ft Gallons Total 31,522 Building Height 120' 0" 6" Standpipe riser Year 10 6" feed mains Inspectors Test 1, ,743 6" Riser Standpipe Inspection Testing Total 874 Standpipe Flow Test 2, ,000 Obstruction investigation 7, ,433 Standpipe Flow Test Flow (gpm) Time (min) Gallons Pump Test 5, ,000 Most remote standpipe Total 17,314 2nd standpipe Years 11 through 100 3rd standpipe Inspectors Test 1, ,909 Total 2000 Standpipe Inspection Testing ,345 Standpipe Flow Test 2, ,000 Pump number Flow (gpm) time (min) Gallons Pump Test 5, , gpm pump rated for 100 psi (100%) Obstruction investigation 6, , gpm pump rated for 100 psi (150%) Total 863,316 Total 5000

90 Mercantile Building HPS 12,500 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 12,500 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 100 sq ft Flushing Underground 3, ,120 Building Dimentions 125' x 100' Fill & Drain Commissioning , /2" branchlines Inspectors Test " near main Backflow Test 3, ,019 4" far main Total 8,297 8" Riser Year 2 4 Total 613 Inspectors Test Backflow Test 3, ,056 Flushing 8" underground Total 9,693 Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 1560 Year 5 Time (min) 2 Inspectors Test Total water (gallons) 3120 Backflow Test 3, ,019 Obstruction investigation Inspection Testing Total 3,844 Outlet size 16.8 Year 6 9 Pressure (psi) 40 Inspectors Test Time (min) 1 Backflow Test 3, ,074 Total (gallons) 106 Total 12,924 Year 10 Backflow test Inspectors Test Outlet size 4 k factor Backflow Test 3, ,019 Pressure (psi) Obstruction investigation Time (min) 1 Total 3,844 Total (gallons) 3,019 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,125 Backflow Test 3, ,673 Obstruction investigation ,039

91 Mercantile Building OH II 12,500 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 12,500 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 100 sq ft Flushing Underground 3, ,120 Building Dimentions 125' x 100' Fill & Drain Commissioning /2" branchlines Inspectors Test " near main Backflow Test /2" far main Total 4,588 4" Riser Year 2 4 Total 203 Inspectors Test Backflow Test ,264 Flushing 6" underground Total 2,476 Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 1560 Year 5 Time (min) 2 Inspectors Test Total water (gallons) 3120 Backflow Test Obstruction investigation Inspection Testing Total 1,028 Outlet size 5.6 Year 6 9 Pressure (psi) 40 Inspectors Test Time (min) 1 Backflow Test ,019 Total (gallons) 35 Total 3,302 Year 10 Backflow test Inspectors Test Outlet size 2 k factor Backflow Test Pressure (psi) Obstruction investigation Time (min) 1 Total 1,028 Total (gallons) 755 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,375 Backflow Test ,918 Obstruction investigation ,645

92 Storage Warehouse Building 17,500 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Year 1 Building Size 17,500 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 100 sq ft Flushing Underground 3, ,120 Building Dimentions 175' x 100' Fill & Drain Commissioning ,980 2" branchlines Inspectors Test " near main Backflow Test 1, ,179 4" far main Total 6,492 8" Riser Year 2 4 Total 660 Inspectors Test Backflow Test 1, ,537 Flushing 8" underground Total 3,962 Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 1560 Year 5 Time (min) 2 Inspectors Test Total water (gallons) 3120 Backflow Test 1, ,179 Obstruction investigation Inspection Testing Total 1,981 Outlet size 11.2 Year 6 9 Pressure (psi) 40 Inspectors Test Time (min) 1 Backflow Test 1, ,717 Total (gallons) 71 Total 5,283 Year 10 Backflow test Inspectors Test Outlet size 2.5 k factor Backflow Test 1, ,179 Pressure (psi) Obstruction investigation Time (min) 1 Total 1,981 Total (gallons) 1,179 Years 11 through 100 Inspectors Test ,750 Backflow Test 1, ,122 Obstruction investigation ,882

93 Storage Warehouse Building 1,000,000 sq ft 100 Years sprinkler system water usage Fill & Drain Grid System Year 1 Building Size 1,000,000 sq ft Operation Water Usage/operation Number of Operations Total Gallons Used Sprinkler spacing 100 sq ft Flushing Underground 29, ,280 Building Dimentions 400' x 2500' Fill & Drain Commissioning 36, ,366 System Size 40,000 sq ft Inspectors Test 5, ,432 System Dimensions 200' x 200' Electric Pump Test 10, ,000 Number of Sprinkler Systems 25 Desiel Pump Test 10, ,000 Hydrant Testing 35, ,237 Underground Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Total 228,314 10" Mains ,412 Year 2 4 Hydrants every 300' 0" Inspectors Test 5, ,864 Total 26,610 Electric Pump Test 10, ,000 Desiel Pump Test 10, ,000 Sprinkler Systems Number Length Gallons/ft Gallons Hydrant Testing 35, , /2" branchlines ,659 Total 196, /2" Hose Stations ,193 Year 5 8" near main Inspectors Test 5, ,288 6" far main Obstruction investigation 36, ,122 8" Riser Electric Pump Test 10, ,000 Total 36,122 Desiel Pump Test 10, ,000 Hydrant Testing 35, ,237 Flushing 10" underground Total 101,647 Flow required for 10ft/sec (gpm) 2440 Year 6 9 Time (min) 12 Inspectors Test 5, ,151 Total water (gallons) 29,280 Electric Pump Test 10, ,000 Desiel Pump Test 10, ,000 Inspection Testing Hydrant Testing 35, ,947 Outlet size 16.8 Total 262,098 Pressure (psi) 150 Year 10 Time (min) 1 Inspectors Test 5, ,288 Systems 25 Obstruction investigation 36, ,122 Total (gallons) 5,144 Electric Pump Test ,000 Desiel Pump Test ,000 Hydrant Testing Hydrant Testing 35, ,237 Outlet Size 2.5 Total 101,647 Pressure (psi) 100 Years 11 through 100 Time (min) 1 Inspectors Test 5, ,907 Flow per Hydrant (gpm) 1,678 Obstruction investigation 36, ,196 Number of Hydrants 21 Electric Pump Test ,000 Total (gallons) 35,237 Desiel Pump Test ,000 Hydrant Testing 35, ,171,302 Electric Pump Number Flow (gpm) time (min) Gallons Total 6,547, gpm pump rated for 100 psi (100%) gpm pump rated for 100 psi (150%) Total Volume 7,437,684 Total Average Volume Per Year For 100 Years 74,377 Desiel Pump Number Flow (gpm) time (min) Gallons 2000 gpm pump rated for 100 psi (100%) gpm pump rated for 100 psi (150%) Total 10000

94 Appendix D

95 2000 Residential and 2009 Commercial US Census Data: Number of Buildings 1&2 Fam Dwlg - R3 Apartment - R2 Business* Assembly* Institutional* Mercantile* Storage* 76,313,410 30,549,390 13,649,410 1,980,406 1,863,430 2,183,678 1,300,715 Residential R3 One and two family homes Residential R2 Apartment homes Business Information Real estate and rental and leasing Professional, scientific, and technical services Administrative, support, waste management and remediation service Forestry, fishing, hunting, and agriculture support Construction Finance and insurance Other services Assembly Accommodation and food services Arts, entertainment, and recreation Educational services Institutional Health care and social assistance Mercantile Wholesale trade Retail trade Storage Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing NFPA Fire Statistic Data: Average number of fires per year, Average # of Fires per year ( ) 1&2 Fam Dwlg R3 Apartment R2 Business Assembly Institutional Mercantile Storage 264, ,360 6,705 21,870 7,300 12,895 31,510 Residential R3 One and two family homes

96 Residential R2 Apartment homes Storage Storage Manufacturing, Processing Energy production plant, other Steam or heat generating plant Electric generating plant Utility or distribution system, other Electrical distribution Gas distribution, pipeline, gas distribution Flammable liquid distribution, pipeline, flammable Water utility Sanitation Utility Crops or orchard Livestock production Forest, timberland, woodland Mine or quarry Utility, defense, agriculture, mining, other Assembly Public Assembly Educational Institutional Health Care, Detention & Correction Business Laboratory or science laboratory Defense, Military installation Computer center Communications center Laundry, dry cleaning Bank Office: veterinary or research Post office or mailing firms Business office Mercantile, business, other (half) Mercantile Convenience store Food and beverage sales, grocery store Textile, wearing apparel sales Household good, sales, repairs Specialty shop Personal service, including barber & beauty shops Recreational, hobby, home repair sales, pet store Professional supplies, services Service station, gas station Motor vehicle or boat sales, services, repair General retail, other Department or discount store Mercantile, business, other (half)

97 City Survey Data: Number of buildings 1&2 Fam Dwlg R3 Apartment R2 Business Assembly Institutional Mercantile Storage Johnstown, OH 1, St. Charles, MO 17,644 1, Rochester, NY 49,525 52,354 1, Orlando, FL 47,048 64,417 4,082 1, , Denver, CO 152, ,532 8,666 2,324 1,981 2, Los Angeles, CA 633, ,201 33,340 12,992 9,562 20,346 7,185 For residential buildings: Residential R3 One and two family homes Residential R2 Apartment homes Business Information Real estate and rental and leasing Professional, scientific, and technical services Administrative, support, waste management and remediation service Forestry, fishing, hunting, and agriculture support Construction Finance and insurance Other services Assembly Accommodation and food services Arts, entertainment, and recreation Educational services Institutional Health care and social assistance Mercantile Wholesale trade Retail trade Storage Manufacturing Transportation and warehousing

98 Appendix E

99 Compiled Data - Probability and Flows One Two Family Dwellings 1 One & TWo Famny Dwellings 1 Total Bulldlngs Average Number of Fires Per Year Gollons I Building 0.35% Johnstown, OH 1, St. Charles, MO 17, Rochester, NY 49,52S Orlondo, FL 47, Denver City, co 1S2,280 S27.86 Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Buildings (IFQ 60, ,887 3,669,631 10,300,298 9,78S,127 31,671, ,748,148 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Year OTM for All Buildin&s Buildini' (IFC) Buildings Sprinldered All Sprinkle red Buildini' I Unsprinklered Build inn 30, ,443 19, ,889 57% 1,834, ,016 2,081, % S,150, ,350 5,843,499 57'4 4,892, ,672 5,551,236 57% ,734 2,131,920 17,967,654 57% 65,874,074 8,868,440 74,742,514 57% one & Two Family Dwellings 1 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.3S% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO 17, Rochester, NY Orlando, FL 47, Denver City, CO 152, los Angeles City~ CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprinlde.red Buildln& (NFPA 1) 60, ,887 3,669,631 10,300,298 9,785,127 31,671, ,748,148 Gallons R~ulred Averagf! Gallons Per Toto I Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year atm for AJI Buildings (NFPA1) BuRdings Sprinklered All Sprlnklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 30, ,443 19, ,889 57% 1,834, ,016 2,081,831 57% 5,150, ,350 5,843,499 57% 4,892, ,672 5,551,236 57% 15,835,734 2,131,920 17,967,654 57% 65,874,074 8,868,440 74,742,514 57% One & Two Family Dwellings 1 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.35% Johnstown, OH 1, St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 49, Orlando, FL Denver City, CO 152, Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (ISO) 120, ,773 7,339, ,600,597 19,570,255 63,342, ,496,296 Gallons Required Average Gallons Pet Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year OTM for All Buildings (NFPA13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprinklered BuildinLPs , % 11, , ,147 4% 31, , ,594 4% 29, , ,354 4% 96,070 2,131,920 2,227,990 4% 399,636 8,868,440 9,268,076 4% One & Two Family Dwellings 1 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons/Building 0.35% Johnstown, OH 1, St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 49,S Orlando, Fl 47, Denver City, co 152, Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) 60, ,887 3,669,631 10,300,298 9,785,127 31,671, ,748,148 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprfnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered AIISpnnklered Buildinas I Unsprinklered Buildinos ,446 20,322 7% 11, , ,147 7% 31, , ,594 7% 29, , ,354 7% 96,070 2,131,920 2,227,990 7% 399,636 8,868,440 9,268,076 7% One & Two Family Dwellingsl Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons /Building 035% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO 17, Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 47, Denver City. CO Los Anaeles City, CA 633,4 60 2, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 60, ,887 3,669,631 10,300,298 9,785,127 31,671, ,748,148 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Buildinrs ,446 20,322 7% 11, , ,147 7% 31, , ,594 7% 29, , ,354 7% 96,070 2,131, ,990 7% 399,636 8,868,440 9,268,076 7% Average Number of one & Two Family Dwellings 1 Total Buildings Fires Per Year Based on% Buildings Flows I Building 035% Johnstown, OH 1, St. Chorles MO Rochester, NY 49, Orlando, FL 47, Denver Oty, CO 152, LDs Angeles Oty, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required "Residential Fire Sprinklers Water 4 us.. e 3,524 16, , , ,713 1,860,171 7,738,008 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All 5prlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA13) Buildings Sprinldered All Sprlnklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildlnu ,446 20, % 11, , ,147 Wl% 31, , , % 29, , , % 96,070 2,131,920 2,227, % 399,636 8,868,440 9,268, % Average Number of One & Two Family Dwellings 1 Total Buildings Fires Per Year Based on " Buildings Flows I Building 0.35% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 49, Orlando FL 47, Denver City, CO 152, Los Angeles City, CA , Gallons Required "Residential Fire Sprfnklers Water Usage 3,524 16, , , ,713 1,860,171 7,738,008 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All - sucks County Year OTM for All Buildings Report" Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildinp I Unsprinklered Build inn ,637 19,446 21, % 20, , , % 58, , , % , , % 179,472 2,131,920 2,311, % 746,573 8,868,440 9,615, %

100 Compiled Data - Probability and Flows One Two Family Dwellings 2 One & Two Family Dwellings 2 Total 8uUdings Aver.~ee Number of Fires Per Yur Gallons I BuUdlna 035" ohnstown 011 1, St.Chorles, MO 17, Rochester, NY 49, Ot-~do, fl 47,ll D9 Denver City, CO Los Anceles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklerod Builcllngs (IFC) 240,000 1, ,678,523 41,201,194 39,140, ,685, , G1llons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprfnldered Year OTM for AJI Buildines a uildincs (IFC) Buildines Sprinlde<ed All Sprinkle<ed Buildines/ Unsprinlde<ed auildin s 120, n,n3 19, ,219 52% 7,339, ,016 7,586,278 52% 20,600, ,350 21,293,947 52% 19,570, ,672 20, % 63, ,131,920 65,474,856 52% 263,496,296 8,868, ,736 52% One & TWo Family Dwellings 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons Building 0.35% Johnstown OH 1, St. Cha rles MD 17, Roch ester NY 49, Orlando FL 47, ()<3 Denver City, CO 152, Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Bull din& (NFPA 1) , , ,298 9,785, , ,748,148 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Bulldln1 Year OTM for All Bulldfn1s (NFPA1) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildfnos 30, ,443 19, ,889 57% 1,834, , ,831 57% 5,150, ,350 5,843,499 57% 4, ,672 5,551,236 57% 15,835,734 2,131,920 17,967,654 57% 65,874,074 8,868,440 74, % One & TWo Fomlly Dwellin&s 2 TotoiBulldfngs Average Number of fires Per Ye~r Gallons eundinc 035" Johnstown OH 1, St. Charles MO 17, Rochester NY 49, Or1ando Fl 47, Denver City, CO 152, Los An&eles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsp<inklered Build in& (ISO) 180, ,660 ll.008,892 30,900,895 29,355, , ,244,444 Gollons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All 5prfnklered Bulldinc Year OTM for All Bulldin&s (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprfnldored Buildincs/ Unsprlnklered Build ina ,252 19, % 15, , % 44, , % , ,074 2% 137,243 2,131, ,163 2% 570,909 8,868,440 9,439,349 2% One & TWo Family Dwellln&s 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year GaUons Building 0.35% Johnstown OH 1, St. Charles MD 17, Ro<hester, NY 49, Orlando FL 47, Denver Cftv. CO 152, Los An&eles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Requ ired Unsprln klered Building (I FC) 240,000 1,155,547 14,678,523 41,201,194 39,140, ,685, ,992,592 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Tot~l Gallons All 5prlnkfered Bu il ding Year CITM for All Buildings (N FPA 13) Buildings Sprfnklered All 5prfnklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Bulldlnu ,252 19, % 15, , " 44, , ,985 2% 42, , % 137,243 2,131,920 2,269,163 2% 570,909 8,868,440 9,439,349 2% One & TWo Family OWefllnp 2 Tot11l Buildinrs Average Number of Fires Per Yur Gollons I Bulldfnc 035" Johnstown OH 1, St. Chorles MO 17, Rochester NY 49, Orlando FL 47, '3 Denve r City, CO 152, Los Angeles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Bufldin& (NFPA 1) 60, ,887 3,669,631 10,300,298 9,785,127 31,671, ,748,148 Gallons Required Avenge Gallons Per Toto! Go lions All Sprinklered Buildin& Year OTM for AU Buildlnp (NFPA 13) Bw1dings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Bufldfnp/ Unsprinklered Build inn ,252 19, % 15, , % 44, , ,985 7% , % 137,243 2,131, ,163 7% 570,90'3 8,868,440 9,439,349 7% Average Number of One & Two Family Dwellings 2 Total Buildings Fires Per Year eased on % Buildings Flows Bu ll din& 0.35% Johnstown OH 1, St. Charles MD 17, Rochester, NY 49, Or~do,FL 47, Denver City, CO 152, Los An&eles Oty, CA 633, Gallons Require d "Residential Fire Sprinklers- Water Us aoe' 3,524 16, , , ,713 1,860,171 7,738,008 Gallo ns Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildin gs Sprfnklered All Sprlnklered BulldfniS I Unsprlnklered Build I nos ,252 19, % 15, , , % 44, , , % 42, , , % 137, ,920 2,269, % 570,909 8,868,440 9,439, % Avenge Number of One & Two Family Dwellfnas 2 Total Buildings Fires Per Year Based on" Bulldln&s Flows Build inc 0.35% Johnstown, OH 1, St. Charles, MD 17, Rochester, NY 4 9, Orlando, FL 47, '3 Denver Cftv. CO 152, Los Anaeles City, CA 633,460 2, Gallons Required *Residentf l Flre Sprinklers - Water u... 3,524 16, ,713 1,860,171 7,738,008 Go lions Required Average Gallons Per Toto I Gallons All "Bucb County YeM OTM for All Bulldinp Report" Buildings Sprinklered All Sprfntlered Bull dines/ Unsprinklered BuOd fnos ,637 19,446 21, % 20, , , " 58, , % 55, , , % 179,472 2,13 1, , % 746,573 8,868,440 9,615, %

101 Compiled Data - Probability and Flows Apartment Buildings Apartment Buildings 2 Total Buildings Averace Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.36% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO 8, Rochester, NY 52, Orlando, Fl 64, Denver Oty, CO 120, Los Angeles City, CA 741,201 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Buildings (IFC) 330, ,416 9,555,749 61,847,161 76,097, ,387, ,600,287 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Year CITM for All Buildings Buildings (IFC) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 180, , , ,569 80% 5,212,227 2,418,611 7,630,838 80% 33,734,815 15,653,846 49,388,661 80% 41,507,728 19,260,683 60,768,411 80% 77,665,980 36,039, ,705,048 80% 477,600, ,619, ,219,255 80% Apartment Buildings 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.36% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO 8, Rochester, NY 52, Orlando, Fl 64, Denver City, CO 120, Los Angeiots City, CA 741,201 2, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 330, ,416 9,555,749 61,847,161 76,097, ,3B7, ,600,2B7 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 1) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 82, , , ,951 50% 2,390,675 2,418,611 4,809,286 SO% 15,473,035 15,653,846 31,126,881 50% 19,038,211 19,260,683 38,298,894 50% 35,622,796 36,039,068 71,661,864 SO% 219,059, ,619, ,678,371 SO% Apartment Buildings 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Buildin& 0.36% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MD 8,089 2B.96 Rocheste r, NY 52, Orlando, Fl 64, Denver City, CO 120, los Angeles City, CA 741,201 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Bulldlnc (ISO) 240, ,757 6,949,636 44,979,753 55,343, ,554, ,800,209 Gallons Required Avotrage Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Bulldincs (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered Ail Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 1, , , ,75B 35% 45,173 2,418,611 2,463,784 35% 292,368 15,653,846 15,946,214 35% 359,734 19,260,683 19,620,417 35% 673,105 36,039, ,173 35% 4,139, ,619, ,758,300 35% Apartment Bull dines 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Bulldin& 0.36% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO 8, Rochester, NY B7.42 Orlando, Fl 64, Denver City, CO 120, Los Angeles City, CA 741,201 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (IFC) 330, ,416 9,555,749 61,847,161 76,097, ,387, ,600,287 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprlnklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 1, , , ,758 26% 45,173 2,418,611 2,463,784 26% 292,368 15,653,846 15,946,214 26% 359,734 19,260,683 19, % 673,105 36,039,068 36,712,173 26% 4,139, ,619, ,758,300 26% Apartment Buildings 2 Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.36% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO 8,0B Rochester, NY 52, Orlando, Fl 64, Denver City, CO 120, Los Angeles City, CA 741,201 2, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (NFPA 1) 330, ,416 9,555,749 61,847,161 76,097, ,387, ,600,287 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 1, , , ,758 26% 45,173 2,418, ,784 26% 292,368 15,653,846 15,946,214 26% 359,734 19,260,683 19,620,417 26% 673,105 36,039,06B 36,712,173 26% 4,139, ,619, ,758,300 26%

102 Compiled Data - Probability and Flows Business Buildings Business Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.05% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 1, Orlando, FL 4, Denver City, CO 8, los Angeles City, CA 33, Gallons Required Unsprlnkiered Buildings (IFC) 585,000 33, , ,322 1,173,043 2,490,345 9,580,901 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinkiered Year CITM for All Buildings Buildings (IFC) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 270,000 B95 15, , , % 89, , , % 231,841 1,564,460 1,796, % 541,404 3,653,390 4,194, % 1,149,390 7,756,070 8,905, % 4,421,954 29,839,300 34,261, % Business Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons /Building 0.05% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MD Rochester, NY 1, Orlando, FL 4, Denver City, CO 8, Los Angeles City, CA 33, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (NFPA 1) 585,000 33, , ,322 1,173,043 2,490,345 9,580,901 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CfTM for All Buildings (NFPA 1) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 146, , , , % 48, , , % 125,658 1,564,460 1,690, % 293,441 3,653,390 3,946, % 622,969 7,756,070 8,379, % 2,396,699 29,839,300 32,235, % Business Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.05% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 1, Orlando, FL 4, Denver City, CO 8, los Angeles City, CA 33, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (ISO) 240,000 13,912 79, , ,248 1,021,680 3,930,626 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 5, , , % 1, , , % 4,894 1,564,460 1,569, % 11,430 3,653,390 3,664, % 24,265 7,756,070 7,780, % 93,352 29,839,300 29,932, % Business Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.05% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 1, Orlando, Fl 4, Denver City, CO 8, los Angeles City, CA 33, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (IFC) 585,000 33, , ,322 1,173,043 2,490,345 9,580,901 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 5, , , % 1, , , % 4,894 1,564,460 1,569, % 11,430 3,653,390 3,664, % 24,265 7,756,070 7,780, % 93,352 29,839,300 29,932, % Business Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.05% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY 1, Orlando, FL 4, Denver City, CO 8, los Angeles City, CA 33, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 585,000 33, , ,322 1,173,043 2,490,345 9,580,901 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CfTM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Buildings 5, , , % 1, , , % 4,894 1,564,460 1,569, % 11,430 3,653,390 3,664, % 24,265 7,756,070 7,780, % 93,352 29,839,300 29,932, %

103 Compiled Data - Probability and Flows Assembly Buildings Assembly Buildings Total Buildings Averace Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 1.10% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, FL 1, Denver City, CO 2, Los Angeles City, CA 12, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Buildings (IFC) 240,000 S5, ,885 1,794,298 2,904,801 6,159,450 34,433,550 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Yea r CITM for All Buildings Buildings (IFC) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprlnklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 180, ,743 17,913 S9, % 461, , , % 1,345, ,481 1,923, % 2,178, ,888 3,113, % 4,619,587 1,982,372 6,601, % 25,825,163 11,082,176 36,907, % Assembly Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 1.10% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 12, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 240,000 55, ,885 1,794,298 2,904,801 6,159,450 34,433,550 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA1) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprlnklered Buildings I Unsprin klered Buildings 72, ,697 17,913 34,610 62% 184, , ,361 62% 538, ,481 1,115,770 62% 871, ,888 1,806,328 62% 1,847,835 1,982,372 3,830,207 62% 10,330,065 11,082,176 21,412,241 62% Assembly Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 1.10% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, FL 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 12, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (ISO) 180,000 41, ,164 1,345,723 2,178,601 4,619,587 25,825,163 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 7, ,739 17,913 19,652 47% 19, , ,111 47% 56, , ,553 47% 90, ,888 1,025,663 47% 192,483 1,982,372 2,174,855 47% 1,076,048 11,082,176 12,158,224 47% Assembly Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 1.10% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 12, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (IFC) 240,000 55, ,885 1,794,298 2,904,801 6,159,450 34,433,550 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinkle red Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprlnklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 7, ,739 17,913 19,652 35% 19, , ,111 35% 56, , ,553 35% 90, ,888 1,025,663 35% 192,483 1,982,372 2,174,855 35% 1,076,048 11,082,176 12,158,224 35% Assembly Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Flres Pe.r Year Gallons I Building 1.10% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 12, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 240,000 55, ,885 1,794,298 2,904,801 6,159, ,550 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered AIISprinklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Buildings 7, ,739 17,913 19,652 35% 19, , ,111 35% 56, , ,553 35% 90, ,888 1,025,663 35% 192,483 1,982,372 2,174,855 35% 1,076,048 11,082,176 12,158,224 35%

104 Compiled Data- Probability and Flows Institutional Buildings Institutional Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Flres Per Year Gallons /Building 0.39% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl Denver City, CO 1, los Angeles Oty, CA 9, Gallons Required Unsprln klered Buildings (IFC) 270,000 11, , , ,435 2,095,357 10,113,984 Gallons Required Avenge Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Year CITM for All Buildings Buildings (ifc) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 180, ,757 9,438 17, % 134, , , % 358, , , % 628, ,478 1,392, % 1,396,905 1,699,698 3,096, % 6,742,656 8,2D4,196 14,946, % Institutional Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons /Building 0.39% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl Denver City, CO 1, los Angeles City, CA 9, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (NFPA 1) 270,000 11, , , ,435 2,095,357 10,113,984 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 1) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 72, ,103 9,438 12, % 53, , , % 143, , , % 251, ,478 1,015, % 558,762 1,699,698 2,258, % 2,697,063 8,204,196 10,901, % Institutional Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.39% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl Denver Oty, CO 1, los Angeles City, CA 9, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (ISO) 180,000 7, , , ,290 1,396,905 6,742,656 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinkiered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 5, ,438 9, % 4, , , % 11, , , % 20, , , % 45,283 1,699,698 1,744, % 218,574 8,204,196 8,422,770 12S% Institutional Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons /Building 0.39% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY S Orlando, Fl Denver City, CO 1, los Angeles City, CA 9, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) 270,000 11, , , ,435 2,095,357 10,113,984 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 5, ,438 9,689 83% 4, , ,244 83% 11, , ,476 83% 20, , ,845 83% 45,283 1,699,698 1,744,981 83% 218,574 8,204,196 8,422,770 83% Institutional Buildings Total Buildings Average Number of Ares Per Year Gallons I Building 0.39% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl Denver City, CO 1, Los Angeles Oty, CA 9, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 270,000 11, , , ,435 2,095,357 10,113,984 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 5, ,438 9,689 83% 4, , ,244 83% 11, , ,476 83% 20, , ,845 83% 45,283 1,699,698 1,744,981 83% 218,574 8,204,196 8,422,770 83%

105 Compiled Data - Probability and Flows Mercantile Buildings (High Piled Storage) Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Roch ester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, Los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Buildings (IFC) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Year CITM for All Buildings Buildings (IFC) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprlnklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Buildings 1BO,OOO ,454 84, , % 313, , , % 738,737 1,497,030 2,235, % 1,649,670 3,343,008 4,992, % 2,413,917 4,891,734 7,305, % 21,626,403 43,825,284 65,451, % Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Tota l Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons f Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, Los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (NFPA 1) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Re quired Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA1) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Buildings 120, ,636 84, , % 209, , , % 492,492 1,497,030 1,989, % 1,099,780 3,343,008 4,442, % 1,609,278 4,891,734 6,501, % 14,417,602 43,825,284 58,242, % Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, Los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (ISO) 180,000 41, , ,737 1,649,670 2,413,917 21,626,403 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnkle re d Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprlnklered Buildings / Unsprinklered Buildings 112, ,923 84, , % 196, , , % 461,957 1,497,030 1,958, % 1,031,593 3,343,008 4,374, % 1,509,503 4,891,734 6,401, % 13,523,711 43,825,284 57,348, % Mercantile Buildings (HPS) Total Buildings Average Numbe r of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.59% Johnstow n, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, FL 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Re quired Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnkle red Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprlnklered Buildings / Unsprlnklered Buildings 204, , , , % 355,373 1,004,180 1,3S9,S53 289% 837,236 2,365,780 3,203,016 2B9% 1,869,626 5,283,008 7,152, % 2,735,773 7,730,484 10,466, % 24,509,923 69,257,784 93,767, % Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Total Buildings Ave rage Number of Fires Per Year Gallons I Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denve r City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (NFPA 1) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Tota l Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprlnklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 112, ,923 84, , % 196, , , % 461,957 1,497,030 1,958, % 1,031,593 3,343,008 4,374, % 1,509,503 4,891,734 6,401, % 13,523,711 43,825,284 57,348, %

106 Compiled Data- Probability and Flows Mercantile Buildings (Ordinary Hazard II) Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Flres Per Year Gallons I Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, FL 1, Denver City, CO 2, Los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Buildings (ifc) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Year CITM for All Buildings Buildings (ifc) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprinklered Buildings 180, ,454 84, , % 313,565 63S, , % 738,737 1,497, , % 1,649,670 3,343,008 4,992, % 2,413,917 4,891,734 7,305, % 21,626,403 43,825,284 65,451, % Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Flres Per Year Gallons I Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, FL 1, Denver City, CO 2, Los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (NFPA 1) 270,000 62, ,347 1,350,000 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA1) Buildings Sprinklered All Sprlnklered Buildings I Unsprinklered Buildings 120, ,636 84, , % 209,043 63S, , % 600,000 1,497,030 2,097, % 1,099,780 3,343,008 4,442, % 1,609,278 4,891,734 6,501, % 14,417,602 43,825,284 58,242, % Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HPS) & (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons/ Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (ISO) 180,000 41, , ,737 1,649,670 2,413,917 21,626,403 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 112, ,923 84, , % 196, , , % 461,957 1,497,030 1,958, % 1,031,593 3,343,008 4,374, % 1,509,503 4,891,734 6,401, % 13,523,711 43,825,284 57,348, % Mercantile Buildings (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Fires Per Year Gallons/ Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochest er, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprinklered Building (IFC) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprinklered Building Year CITM for All Buildings (NFPA 13) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings/ Unsprlnklered Buildings 33, ,600 35,256 42,856 69% 57, , ,167 69% 135, , ,715 69% 302,439 1,403,008 1,705,447 69% 442,552 2,052,984 2,495,536 69% 3,964,841 18,392,784 22,357,625 69% Mercantile Buildings Average Between (HP5) & (OH II) Total Buildings Average Number of Ares Per Year Gallons /Building 0.59% Johnstown, OH St. Charles, MO Rochester, NY Orlando, Fl 1, Denver City, CO 2, los Angeles City, CA 20, Gallons Required Unsprlnklered Building (NFPA 1) 270,000 62, ,347 1,108,106 2,474,504 3,620,876 32,439,605 Gallons Required Average Gallons Per Total Gallons All Sprlnklered Building Year OTM for All Buildings (NFPAB) Buildings Sprlnklered All Sprinklered Buildings I Unsprlnklered Buildings 112, ,923 84, , % 196, , , % 461,957 1,497,030 1,958, % 1,031,593 3,343,008 4,374, % 1,509,503 4,891,734 6,401, % 13,523,711 43,825,284 57,348, %

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